Josefa de Óbidos
Josefa de Ayala Figueira
|Died||22 July 1684 54) (aged|
Josefa de Óbidos (Portuguese: [ʒuˈzɛfɐ ð(j) ˈɔβiðuʃ] ; c. 1630 – 22 July 1684 ) was a Spanish-born Portuguese painter. Her birth name was Josefa de Ayala Figueira, but she signed her work as "Josefa em Óbidos" or "Josefa de Ayalla". All of her work was executed in Portugal, her father's native country, where she lived from the age of four. Approximately 150 works of art have been attributed to Josefa de Óbidos, making her one of the most prolific Baroque artists in Portugal.
Josefa de Óbidos was baptized in Seville, Spain, on 20 February, 1630;her godfather was the notable Sevillian painter Francisco de Herrera the Elder. Her father, Baltazar Gomes Figueira , was a Portuguese painter from the village of Óbidos. He went to Seville in the 1620s to improve his painting technique and, while there, married Catarina de Ayala y Cabrera, a native Andalusian, who would become the mother of Josefa. By 3 May, 1634, the family is recorded living in Figueira's native Óbidos on the occasion of the baptism of their first son, Francisco.
In 1644, Josefa is documented as a boarder at the Augustinian Convent of Santa Ana in Coimbra, while her father was in nearby Santa Cruz, working on an altarpiece for the church of Nossa Senhora da Graça. [ citation needed ]While in residence at this convent in 1646, Josefa made engravings of St. Catherine and St. Peter, her earliest signed extant works. Josefa's first signed painting dates to 1647, a small Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine on copper (Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon), completed for the Augustinian Monastery of Santa Cruz in Coimbra. In the same year, she completed other small paintings on copper, including a Nativity Scene with St. Francis and Saint Clare Adoring the Newborn Christ (private collection).
Sometime before 1653, she and her family left Coimbra and settled in Óbidos, where she contributed an allegory of Wisdom to the Novos estatutos da Universidade de Coimbra, the book of rules for the University of Coimbra, whose frontispiece was being decorated by her father.[ citation needed ]
During the decades that followed, Josefa executed several religious altarpieces for churches and convents in central Portugal, as well as paintings of portraits and still-life for private customers.[ citation needed ]
Josefa's will is dated 13 June, 1684. In this document, the artist is described as having been "emancipated with the consent of her parents" and a "virgin who never married." [ citation needed ]She died on 22 July, 1684 at the age of fifty-four, survived by her mother and two nieces (her father had died on 27 December, 1674). She was buried in the Church of Saint Peter of Óbidos.
In the course of her career, Josefa de Óbidos received many important public commissions for altarpieces and other paintings to be displayed in churches and monasteries throughout central Portugal. Examples include the six canvases for the Saint Catherine altarpiece for the church of Santa Maria de Óbidos in 1661, six paintings representing Saint Theresa of Ávila (1672–1673) for the Carmelite Convent of Cascais, an Adoration of the Shepherds for the convent of Santa Madalena in Alcobaça (1669), and four paintings for the Casa de Misericórdia of Peniche (1679).[ citation needed ]
Many of her still-life paintings, considered her specialty, are now preserved in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon. Among her most famous still lifes are a series of paintings of the months of the year, painted in collaboration with her father and now dispersed among various private collections; each of these paintings consists of a landscape background with a still life in the foreground, composed of the animals, fruits, and vegetables consumed in that month. While these paintings appear to be secular still-life paintings on the surface, they also have religious meaning and may be connected to Franciscan religiosity. An example of one of her religious paintings would be The Pascal Lamb which conveys ideas of piety and sacrifice.Taken as a whole, these paintings represent the passage of time, the inevitability of death, and the possibility of rebirth.
Her best known portrait is that of Faustino das Neves, dated c. 1670, which is in the Municipal Museum of Óbidos.[ citation needed ]
Josefa de Óbidos was included in several treatises and collections of biographies of artists written in the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries. Vitor Serrão has noted that in many of these writings, "Josefa de Ayala took on mythic proportions by authors awed by the fact that the artist was a woman."In his 1696 treatise on painting, Félix da Costa Meesen counted Josefa among the most important Portuguese artists, writing that she was "acclaimed far and wide, especially in the neighboring countries..." In 1736, Damião de Froes Perym praised her "talent, beauty, and honesty," as well as her "attractiveness." In the nineteenth-century unpublished text Memorias historicas e diferentes apontamentos acerca das antiguidades de Óbidos, by an anonymous author, Josefa is described as being "well known in and outside the kingdom for her paintings, in which she was unique during the time she flourished, as someone who practiced the perfections of art to notable applause and honest praise, living all her life in chaste celibacy." This text also describes how Josefa had a close relationship with the queen of Portugal, D. Maria Francisca of Savoy.
In many of these sources, the authors attributed various paintings, which are now known to be by different authors, to Josefa. Beginning in 1949, art historians began to more critically evaluate her body of work; in an exhibition held in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (Lisbon), curators assembled a list of fifty-three works that could definitively be declared autograph.In 1957, Luis Reis-Santo produced the first monograph on Josefa's work, expanding on her known oeuvre.
Domingos António de Sequeira was a famous Portuguese painter at the Royal Court of King John VI of Portugal.
Francisco Vieira, who choose the artistic name of Vieira Portuense, was a Portuguese painter, one of the introducers of Neoclassicism in Portuguese painting. He was, in the neoclassical style, one of the two great Portuguese painters of his generation, with Domingos Sequeira.
The Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, also known in English as the National Museum of Ancient Art, is a Portuguese national art museum located in Lisbon. With over 40,000 items spanning a vast collection of painting, sculpture, goldware, furniture, textiles, ceramics, and prints, MNAA is one of the most visited museums in Portugal.
The Mond Crucifixion or Gavari Altarpiece is an oil on poplar panel dated to 1502-1503, making it one of the earliest works by Italian Renaissance artist Raphael, perhaps the second after the c.1499-1500 Baronci Altarpiece. It originally comprised four elements, of which three survive, now all separated: a main panel of the Crucified Christ with the Virgin Mary, Saints and Angels which was bequeathed to the National Gallery, London, by Ludwig Mond, and a three-panel predella from which one panel is lost; the two surviving panels are Eusebius of Cremona raising Three Men from the Dead with Saint Jerome's Cloak in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, in Lisbon, and Saint Jerome saving Silvanus and punishing the Heretic Sabinianus in the North Carolina Museum of Art.
Vasco Fernandes, better known as Grão Vasco, was one of the main Portuguese Renaissance painters.
Cristóvão de Figueiredo was a Portuguese Renaissance painter.
Garcia Fernandes was a Portuguese Renaissance painter. Like many of painters of the time, Garcia Fernandes was a pupil in the Lisbon workshop of Jorge Afonso, who was the court painter of King Manuel I.
Cristóvão Lopes (c.1516–1594) was a Portuguese painter.
João Maria Correia Ayres de Campos, 1st Count of Ameal, GCC, CvNSC, OOPA was a Portuguese politician and antiquarian, best known as a great art collector, maecenas and bibliophile. He is renowned chiefly for having assembled one of Portugal's largest and most important private art collections, as well as what was at the time the largest private library in the country; his collections are also famous for having been auctioned en masse after his death in 1920, leading to the largest auction recorded in the Iberian peninsula on that decade. Several pieces belonging to him have since been incorporated in the collections of the Louvre, the Prado, the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga in Lisbon and the Soares dos Reis National Museum in Porto.
The Igreja de São Roque is a Roman Catholic church in Lisbon, Portugal. It was the earliest Jesuit church in the Portuguese world, and one of the first Jesuit churches anywhere. The edifice served as the Society's home church in Portugal for over 200 years, before the Jesuits were expelled from that country. After the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the church and its ancillary residence were given to the Lisbon Holy House of Mercy to replace their church and headquarters which had been destroyed. It remains a part of the Holy House of Mercy today, one of its many heritage buildings.
Gilded woodcarving in Portugal is, along with tile, one of the country's most original and rich artistic expressions. It is usually used in the interior decoration of churches and cathedrals and of noble halls in palaces and large public buildings. An impressive collection of altarpieces are found in Portuguese churches. Originating in the Gothic era, Portuguese gilded woodcarving assumed a nationalist character during the 17th century and reached its height in the reign of King D. João V. In the 19th century it lost its originality and began to disappear with the end of the revival era.
Francisco de Holanda was a Portuguese court painter and sculptor for King John III of Portugal, and later for Sebastian of Portugal. He wrote what is regarded as the first treatise on portrait painting in Europe, Do tirar polo natural (1549). He is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, also being an essayist, architect and historian. He represented the intelligible reality of the Holy Trinity through a "hypothetical" syntax of geometrical figures. He insisted on the contrast between the ideal plane, the incorporeal form and the "imperfect copy in the terrestrial zone". His visual language demonstrated a mixture of Neoplatonism, Christian Kabbalah and finally Lullism. In education, Francisco de Holanda emphasized mathematics and geometry, subsequently anticipating Clavius's reforms of the late 16th century. Sylvie Deswarte said that "Francisco de Holanda gives a privileged place to cosmography and astrology in the education of the painter. On par with geometry, mathematics and perspective, he recommended them [...] in order to reach the heavens in the hope of one day arriving to the Empyrean and realizing celestial works."
Francisco de Matos Vieira, better known as Vieira Lusitano was a Portuguese court painter, illustrator and engraver.
Tereza de Arriaga, was a Portuguese painter. Having a very discrete and unusual career, she started with plastic arts motivated by the Neorealism in the 1940s, developing to more abstract works of geometric character. However it was only at the end of the 1960s that her work became more consistent. Maintaining her social sensibility as an aspect of her plastic expression, she developed into a deep exploration of colour and lines. Her works are simply signed "Tereza Arriaga" or "Tarriaga".
Álvaro Perdigão was a Portuguese painter.
André Gonçalves, was a Portuguese painter. He was one of the first artists in his country to adopt French and Italian styles of painting, as opposed to the prevailing Spanish styles. Some sources give his years of birth and death as 1692 and 1762, respectively.
A Church of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia, sometime referred to as the Church of Our Lady of Mercy, is a 17th-century church in the civil parish of Penafiel, in the municipality of the same name, in the Portuguese district of Porto.
Diogo de Contreiras was a Portuguese Mannerist painter, active between 1521 and 1562. He has been identified as the painter referred to as the Master of Saint Quentin. The identification of de Contreiras as the Master of Saint Quentin was determined by Martin Soria (1957) and later reinforced by Vítor Serrão.
João Couto was an art historian, specialising in Portuguese painting, who was director of the National Museum of Ancient Art (MNAA) in Lisbon, Portugal.
Eduarda Lapa was a painter and painting teacher who specialized in naturalist painting, especially still life, becoming known as the "flower painter" and the "ambassador of colours". An active feminist, she was the first woman to join the board of the Portuguese National Society of Fine Arts.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Josefa de Óbidos .|