Joseph Banks

Last updated

The standard author abbreviation Banks is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. [54]

Dispersal of Banks papers

Following Banks's death in 1820 a "treasure-trove of letters and papers" [55] was passed to Sir Edward Knatchbull, his wife's nephew. In 1828 the latter passed bound volumes of foreign correspondence to the British Library but retained the rest of the papers in the expectation that an official biography would be written. [56] After the death of Knatchbull and his wife, the letters and papers were passed on to their son Edward Knatchbull Hugesson, 1st Baron Brabourne, who offered to sell them to the British Museum. [56] However, in 1884 it declined to purchase them. [55] Following that "notorious" [55] decision the Agent General of New South Wales, Sir Saul Samuel, issued instructions for the purchase of a large portion of the papers, which now form part of the State Library of New South Wales's Brabourne Collection. [57] The "large quantities of papers" which remained were then auctioned off at Sotheby's in London in March and April 1886. [55] One of the successful bidders was E. A. Petherick. Many of those are now in the Petherick Collection at the National Library of Australia. [58] During the twentieth century the National Library continued to purchase Banks's letters and papers when they came on the market.

Online archive

In his Endeavour journal, Banks recorded 30 years of his life. Letters, invoices, maps, regalia, and watercolour drawings have now been digitised on the State Library of NSW website. This rich research and educational tool provides access to 8800 high-quality digital images. [59]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">James Cook</span> British explorer, cartographer and naval officer (1728–1779)

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, cartographer and naval officer famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the Pacific Ocean and to New Zealand and Australia in particular. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)</span> Scottish botanist (1773–1858)

Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist and paleobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology. He also made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, notably erecting a number of plant families that are still accepted today; and numerous Australian plant genera and species, the fruit of his exploration of that continent with Matthew Flinders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Daniel Solander</span> Swedish botanist (1733-1782)

Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university-educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Lindley</span> English botanist, gardener and orchidologist (1799–1865)

John Lindley FRS was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sydney Parkinson</span> Scottish botanical illustrator and natural history artist

Sydney Parkinson was a Scottish botanical illustrator and natural history artist. He was the first European artist to visit Australia, New Zealand and Tahiti. Parkinson was the first Quaker to visit New Zealand. The standard author abbreviation Parkinson is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adrian Hardy Haworth</span> English entomologist, botanist and carcinologist (1767–1833)

Adrian Hardy Haworth was an English entomologist, botanist and carcinologist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Revesby Heights</span> Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Revesby Heights, a suburb of local government area City of Canterbury-Bankstown, is 24 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is a part of the South-western Sydney region.

<i>Banks Florilegium</i> Copperplate engravings of plants

Banks' Florilegium is a collection of copperplate engravings of plants collected by Sir Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander while they accompanied Captain James Cook on his first voyage around the world between 1768 and 1771. They collected plants in Madeira, Brazil, Tierra del Fuego, the Society Islands, New Zealand, Australia and Java. During this voyage, Banks and Solander collected nearly 30,000 dried specimens, eventually leading to the description of 110 new genera and 1300 new species, which increased the known flora of the world by 25 per cent.

Herman Diedrich Spöring Jr. (1733–1771) was a Finnish explorer, draughtsman, botanist and a naturalist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First voyage of James Cook</span> Combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific

The first voyage of James Cook was a combined Royal Navy and Royal Society expedition to the south Pacific Ocean aboard HMS Endeavour, from 1768 to 1771. It was the first of three Pacific voyages of which James Cook was the commander. The aims of this first expedition were to observe the 1769 transit of Venus across the Sun, and to seek evidence of the postulated Terra Australis Incognita or "undiscovered southern land".

<i>Hakea teretifolia</i> Species of plant

Hakea teretifolia, commonly known as the dagger hakea, is a species of woody shrub of the family Proteaceae and is common on heathlands in coastal eastern Australia from northern New South Wales through to Victoria and Tasmania. A very prickly shrub, it is rarely cultivated but easy to grow.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Herbarium of Victoria</span> Australian herbaria and scientific institution in Victoria

The National Herbarium of Victoria is one of Australia's earliest herbaria and the oldest scientific institution in Victoria. Its 1.5 million specimens of preserved plants, fungi and algae—collectively known as the State Botanical Collection of Victoria—comprise the largest herbarium collection in Australia and Oceania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Buchan (artist)</span> Scottish landscape artist

Alexander Buchan was a Scottish landscape artist. He is known for his participation in the 1768–1771 first voyage of James Cook aboard HMS Endeavour, where he was one of the artists in the entourage of botanist Joseph Banks. Buchan had epilepsy. On the journey, he had two documented seizures, the first during an expedition in Tierra del Fuego. Buchan died after the second seizure, shortly after Endeavour's arrival at Tahiti, and was buried at sea. Buchan produced landscapes, coastal views, ethnographic drawings and natural history drawings. He is best known for illustrations of the people of Tierra del Fuego, some of which were engraved for publication in accounts of the voyage. All of his drawings from the voyage were taken by his employer Joseph Banks and are now in the British Library and the Natural History Museum, London.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cooktown, Queensland</span> Town in Queensland, Australia

Cooktown is a coastal town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Queensland, Australia. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland where James Cook beached his ship, the Endeavour, for repairs in 1770. Both the town and Mount Cook which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">National Herbarium of New South Wales</span> Centre for plant research in Sydney, Australia

The National Herbarium of New South Wales was established in 1853. The Herbarium has a collection of more than 1.4 million plant specimens, making it the second largest collection of pressed, dried plant specimens in Australia, including scientific and historically significant collections and samples of Australian flora gathered by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander during the voyage of HMS Endeavour in 1770.

<i>Flora Antarctica</i> Scientific work by Joseph Dalton Hooker

The Flora Antarctica, or formally and correctly The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843, under the Command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, is a description of the many plants discovered on the Ross expedition, which visited islands off the coast of the Antarctic continent, with a summary of the expedition itself, written by the British botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker and published in parts between 1844 and 1859 by Reeve Brothers in London. Hooker sailed on HMS Erebus as assistant surgeon.

<i>Decaisnina brittenii</i> Species of epiphyte

Decaisnina brittenii is a species of flowering plant, an epiphytic hemiparasitic plant of the family Loranthaceae native to the Northern Territory, Queensland and northern Western Australia.

<i>A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas</i> 1773 book about the first voyage of James Cook

A Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas, in His Majesty's ship, the Endeavour is a 1773 book based on the papers of Sydney Parkinson, who accompanied Joseph Banks as botanical illustrator on the first voyage of James Cook. Parkinson died at sea in 1771 on the return voyage, and the Journal was compiled by William Kenrick for Parkinson's brother Stanfield, who quarrelled with Banks about his brother's papers and belongings and attacked Banks and others in the book's preface. A legal injunction prevented the publication of the Journal until after the official account of Cook's voyage, edited by John Hawkesworth, had appeared. A second edition appeared in 1784 with explanatory remarks by John Fothergill.

<i>An Account of the Voyages</i> 1773 book by John Hawkesworth

An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of his Present Majesty for Making Discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour: drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, Esq. is a 1773 book by John Hawkesworth about several Royal Navy voyages to the Pacific: the 1764–1766 and 1766–1768 voyages of HMS Dolphin under John Byron and Samuel Wallis, the voyage of HMS Swallow under Philip Carteret (1766–1769), as well as the 1768–1771 first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour. Hawkesworth received an advance of £6,000 for editing the three volumes.

References

  1. Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2015.
  2. 1 2 Gascoigne, John (2004). "Banks, Sir Joseph, baronet (1743–1820), naturalist and patron of science" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1300. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 8 February 2021.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. Gooley, Tristan (2012). The Natural Explorer. London: Sceptre. p. 2. ISBN   978-1-444-72031-0.
  4. 1 2 O'Brian, Patrick (1993) Joseph Banks: A Life. London: David R. Godine, pp. 23–24, ISBN   0-87923-930-1.
  5. George Suttor, ed., Joseph Banks, Memoirs Historical and Scientific of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks (Parramatta: E. Mason, 1855), p. 19
  6. Hill, J.W.F. (1952) The Letters and Papers of the Banks Family of Revesby Abbey, Lincoln Record Society, vol. 45, noted in Patrick O'Brian, Joseph Banks, A Life, 1987 p. 16
  7. Gascoigne, John (2004) "Banks, Sir Joseph, baronet (1743–1820)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/1300.
  8. He was, however, awarded an honorary degree by Oxford on his return from his voyage to the South Seas, see "Banks, Sir Joseph", in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Scribner, 1970.
  9. Jackson, John (October 2007). "Specialist Lodges". MQ Magazine (27): ns.
  10. Tuck, Leslie. Montevecchi, William. Nuttall Ornithological Club (1987). Newfoundland Birds, Exploitation, Study, Conservation, Harvard University.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gilbert, L. A. (1966). "Banks, Sir Joseph (1743–1820)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Vol. 1. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. pp. 52–55. ISSN   1833-7538 . Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  12. Lysaght, Averil M. (1971) Joseph Banks in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1766 Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 168, ISBN   0-520-01780-3.
  13. Digital Collection, National Library of Australia
  14. Catalogue, National Library of Australia, accessed February 2010
  15. "Muster for HMB Endeavour during the first Pacific Voyage, 1768-1771" (PDF). Captain Cook Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  16. Holmes, Richard (2009). The Age of Wonder. HarperPress. p. 10. ISBN   978-1400031870.. Holmes incorrectly states that Green's first name was William, not Charles.
  17. 1 2 Holmes, Richard (2008). "Joseph Banks in Paradise". The age of wonder : how the romantic generation discovered the beauty and terror of science. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 1–54. ISBN   978-1-4000-3187-0. OCLC   264044731.
  18. Agnarsdóttir, Anna (2020). "The young Joseph Banks: naturalist explorer and scientist, 1766–1772". Journal for Maritime Research. 21 (1–2): 23–44. doi:10.1080/21533369.2020.1746090. ISSN   2153-3369. S2CID   219033761.
  19. Boswell, James; Tankard, Paul (10 June 2014). Facts and inventions : selections from the journalism of James Boswell. New Haven. ISBN   9780300141269. OCLC   861676836.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  20. Colley, Linda (2009), "Men at arms", The Guardian, 7 November 2009.
  21. Desmond, Ray (1995). The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. pp. 104–6.
  22. Susan Reynolds (editor) Heston and Isleworth, A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 3: Victoria County History, 1962
  23. Thorne, James (1876). Lambourne-Yiewsley. John Murray.
  24. "West Thames College PART TIME, FULL TIME AND EVENING COURSES FOR ADULTS" (PDF). West Thames College. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 23 October 2021.
  25. "No. 12172". The London Gazette . 20 March 1781. p. 5.
  26. Journals of the House of Commons, 19 Geo. III, 1779, Vol. 37, p. 311.
  27. Ronalds, B.F. (2017). "Ronalds Nurserymen in Brentford and Beyond". Garden History. 45 (1): 82–100. JSTOR   44987945.
  28. "Sir Joseph Banks Collection". www.sl.nsw.gov.au. 29 June 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  29. Wulf, p. 19.
  30. Wulf, p. 44.
  31. Wulf, p. 76.
  32. Wulf, p. 136.
  33. "Joseph Banks". American Philosophical Society Member History. American Philosophical Society . Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  34. "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
  35. Anderson, R. G. W. (2008). "Joseph Banks and the British Museum, The World of Collecting, 1770–1830". Journal of the History of Collections. 20: 151. doi:10.1093/jhc/fhm040.
  36. Banks, Joseph. Papers of Sir Joseph Banks; Section 12: Lord Macartney's embassy to China; Series 62: Papers concerning publication of the account of Lord Macartney's Embassy to China, ca 1797. Archived 3 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine [State Library of New South Wales.]
  37. "No. 13792". The London Gazette . 30 June 1795. p. 688.
  38. "No. 16972". The London Gazette . 4 January 1815. pp. 17–20.
  39. James Boyce Imperial Mud: The Fight for the Fens, Icon Books, 2020, p100.
  40. "Lady Banks Rose Growing: How To Plant A Lady Banks Rose". Gardening KnowHow. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  41. "Sir Joseph Banks (1743–1820)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  42. "Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen". 28 August 2010.
  43. Flinders, Matthew (1966) [1814]. A Voyage to Terra Australis : undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802, and 1803 in His Majesty's ship the Investigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel Porpoise and Cumberland Schooner; with an account of the shipwreck of the Porpoise, arrival of the Cumberland at Mauritius, and imprisonment of the commander during six years and a half in that island (Facsimile ed.). Adelaide; Reprint of: London : G. and W. Nicol, 1814 ed. In two volumes, with an Atlas (3 volumes): Libraries Board of South Australia. p. 234. Retrieved 24 December 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  44. Margerison, Charles (19 April 2011). Amazing Scientists: Inspirational Stories. Amazing People Club. ISBN   978-1-921752-40-7.
  45. "A Message From The Principal". Joseph Banks Secondary College. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  46. "Other Banknotes". Reserve Bank of Australia . Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  47. Australian 90c postal stamp. JPG image.
  48. Correia, Alice (1 September 2020). "'Respectable Exotics': Exhibiting South Asian Modernists in Britain, 1958 and 2017". Visual Culture in Britain. 21 (3): 310–329. doi:10.1080/14714787.2020.1852887. ISSN   1471-4787. S2CID   231821993.
  49. Gadd, Denise (25 May 2011). "In full bloom at Chelsea". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  50. "BANKS, SIR JOSEPH (1743–1820), BROWN, ROBERT (1773–1858), DON, DAVID (1800–1841)". English Heritage. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  51. "The Lost World of Joseph Banks". Pilot Guides. 2016.
  52. Hustwitt, J. R. (2014). Interreligious hermeneutics and the pursuit of truth. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. ISBN   978-0-7391-8739-5.
  53. Ball, Philip (2015). Invisible: the dangerous allure of the unseen. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN   978-0-226-23889-0.
  54. International Plant Names Index.  Banks.
  55. 1 2 3 4 Matthew Fishburn, The book that Joseph Banks burned, sl.nsw.gov.au; first published in SL Magazine, Summer 2017–18. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  56. 1 2 Papers of Sir Joseph Banks, nla.gov.au. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  57. Papers (Brabourne Collection), (c. 1769-1820) (microform), nla.gov.au. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  58. Petherick Collection, nla.gov.au. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  59. Hunt, Susan (Autumn 2018). "Sir Joseph Banks Online Archive". SL Magazine. 11: 1: 44–45.

Cited sources

Further reading

Primary resources

Secondary resources

  • Cameron, H. C. (1952) Sir Joseph Banks, K.B., P.R.S.; the Autocrat of the Philosophers, Batchworth Press.
  • Carter, H. B. (1964) His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinos of George III of England[ sic ], University of Sydney.
  • Carter, Harold Burnell (1988) Sir Joseph Banks, 1743–1820 London: British Museum of Natural History ISBN   0-565-00993-1;
  • Chambers, Neil (2007). Joseph Banks and the British Museum: the world of collecting, 1770-1830. London: Pickering & Chatto. ISBN   978-1851968589. OCLC   1028009661.
  • Dawson, W. R. (ed) (1958) The Banks Letters, University of London.
  • Durt, Tania (2007) "Joseph Banks", pp. 173–181 in The Great Naturalists, edited by Robert Huxley. London: Thames & Hudson with the Natural History Museum.
  • Duyker, Edward (1998) Nature's Argonaut: Daniel Solander 1733-1782: Naturalist and Voyager with Cook and Banks. Melbourne University Press. ISBN   0-522-84753-6
  • Marshall, John Braybrooke. "Daniel Carl Solander, Friend, Librarian and Assistant to Sir Joseph Banks." Archives of Natural History 11.3 (1984): 451–456.
  • Duyker, Edward & Tingbrand, Per (ed. & trans) (1995) Daniel Solander: Collected Correspondence 1753–1782, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 466, ISBN   0-522-84636-X Scandinavian University Press, Oslo, 1995, pp. 466, ISBN   82-00-22454-6
  • Fara, Patricia (2004) Sex, Botany & Empire: The Story Of Carl Linnaeus And Joseph Banks. New York: Columbia University Press ISBN   0-231-13426-6
  • Gascoigne, John (1994) Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment: Useful Knowledge and Polite Culture Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN   0-521-54211-1
  • Gascoigne, John (1998) Science in the Service of Empire: Joseph Banks, The British State and the Uses of Science in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN   0-521-55069-6
  • Hawkesworth, John; Byron, John; Wallis, Samuel; Carteret, Philip; Cook, James; Banks, Joseph (1773). An account of the voyages undertaken by the order of His present Majesty for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere, and successively performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret, and Captain Cook, in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour drawn up from the journals which were kept by the several commanders, and from the papers of Joseph Banks, esq. London Printed for W. Strahan and T. Cadell., Volume I, Volume II-III
  • Kryza, Frank T. (207) The Race to Timbuktu: In Search of Africa's City of Gold. New York: HarperCollins ISBN   0-06-056065-7
  • Lysaght, A. M. (1971). Joseph Banks in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1766; his diary, manuscripts, and collections. Faber and Faber, London. ISBN   0-571-09351-5;
  • Mackaness, G. (1936) Sir Joseph Banks. His Relations with Australia, University of Sydney
  • Maiden, J. H. (1909) Sir Joseph Banks: The “Father of Australia”.  Kegan Paul.
  • Musgrave, Toby (2020). The Multifarious Mr. Banks: From Botany Bay to Kew, the Natural Historian Who Shaped the World. Yale University Press. ISBN   978-0-300-22383-5.
  • O'Brian, Patrick 1993 Joseph Banks: A Life. London: David R. Godine, 1993. ISBN   0-87923-930-1, reprinted by University of Chicago Press, 1997 ISBN   0-226-61628-2
  • ——— 1987 Sir Joseph Banks London: Harvill Press. ISBN   0-00-272340-9
  • Smith, Edward (1911) Life of Sir Joseph Banks: With Some Notices of his Friends and Contemporaries.  John Lane.

Select unpublished monographs

  • Duncan, A. (1821) A Short Account of the Life of the Right Honourable Sir Joseph Banks, University of Edinburgh.
  • Gilbert, L. (1962) Botanical Investigation of Eastern Seaboard Australia, 1788–1810, B.A. thesis, University of New England, Australia.

Fiction

Novels based on a mix of historical fact and conjecture about Banks' early life include:

Sir Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks 1773 Reynolds.jpg
Sir Joseph Banks, as painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1773
Born(1743-02-24)24 February 1743 (13 February O.S.)
30 Argyll Street, London, England
Died19 June 1820(1820-06-19) (aged 77)
Spring Grove House, Isleworth, London, England
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford
Known forVoyage of HMS Endeavour, exploration of Botany Bay
Spouse Dorothea Banks
Scientific career
FieldsBotany
Institutions Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Author abbrev. (botany) Banks
21st President of the Royal Society
In office
1778–1820
Baronetage of Great Britain
New creation Baronet
(of Revesby Abbey)
1781–1820
Extinct
Professional and academic associations
Preceded by21st President of the Royal Society
1778–1820
Succeeded by