Joseph Cimpaye

Last updated
Cimpaye, Joseph (2013). L'homme de ma colline. Brussels: Archives & Musée de la Littérature. ISBN   978-2-871680-68-0.

Related Research Articles

National Defence Force (Burundi)

The BurundiNational Defence Force is the state military organisation responsible for the defence of Burundi.

History of Burundi Aspect of history

Burundi originated in the 16th century as a small kingdom in the African Great Lakes region. After European contact, it was united with the Kingdom of Rwanda, becoming the colony of Ruanda-Urundi - first colonised by Germany and then by Belgium. The colony gained independence in 1962, and split once again into Rwanda and Burundi. It is one of the few countries in Africa to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state.

Louis Rwagasore Burundian politician (1932–1961)

Louis Rwagasore was a Burundian prince and politician who served as Prime Minister of Burundi from 28 September 1961 until his assassination two weeks later.

Michel Micombero First President of Burundi

Michel Micombero was a Burundian politician and army officer who ruled the country as its first president and dictator for the decade between 1966 and 1976.

Jean-Baptiste Bagaza President of Burundi (1946-2016)

Jean-Baptiste Bagaza was a Burundian army officer and politician who ruled Burundi as president and de facto military dictator from November 1976 to September 1987.

Union for National Progress Political party in Burundi

The Union for National Progress is a nationalist political party in Burundi. It initially emerged as a nationalist united front in opposition to Belgian colonial rule but subsequently became an integral part of the one-party state established by Michel Micombero after 1966. Dominated by members of the Tutsi ethnic group and increasingly intolerant to their Hutu counterparts, UPRONA remained the dominant force in Burundian politics until the latter stages of the Burundian Civil War in 2003. It is currently a minor opposition party.

Ruanda-Urundi 1922–1962 League of Nations/United Nations mandate in East Africa

Ruanda-Urundi was a colonial territory, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium from 1916 to 1962.

Pierre Ngendandumwe was a Burundian politician. He was a member of the Union for National Progress and was an ethnic Hutu. On 18 June 1963, about a year after Burundi gained independence and amidst efforts to bring about political cooperation between Hutus and the dominant minority Tutsis, Ngendandumwe became Burundi's first Hutu prime minister. He served as prime minister until 6 April 1964 and then became prime minister again on 7 January 1965, serving until his death. Eight days after beginning his second term, he was assassinated by a Rwandan Tutsi refugee.

Joseph Bamina was a Burundian politician and member of the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) party. Bamina was Prime Minister from 26 January to 30 September 1965, and President of the Senate of Burundi in 1965. He and other leaders of the government were assassinated on 15 December 1965, by Tutsi soldiers during a reprisal effort to stop a coup by Hutu officers.

André Muhirwa was a Burundian politician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the third Prime Minister of Burundi from 19 October 1961 to 7 June 1963. His term coincided with Burundi's independence.

Pié Masumbuko is a Burundian retired politician and physician as a member of the Union for National Progress and the acting Prime Minister of Burundi from January 15 to January 26 of 1965.

On 18–19 October 1965, a group of ethnic Hutu officers from the Burundian military and gendarmerie attempted to overthrow Burundi's government in a coup d'état. The rebels were frustrated with Burundi's monarch, Mwami Mwambutsa IV, who had repeatedly attempted to cement his control over the government and bypassed parliamentary norms despite Hutu electoral gains. Although the prime minister was shot and wounded, the coup failed due to the intervention of a contingent of troops led by Captain Michel Micombero. The attempted putsch provoked a backlash against Hutus in which thousands of people, including the participants in the coup, were killed. The coup also facilitated a militant Tutsi backlash against the monarchy resulting in two further coups which culminated in the abolition of the monarchy in November 1966 and the proclamation of a republic with Micombero as President of Burundi.

Ikiza 1972 mass killings of Hutus in Burundi

The Ikiza or the Ubwicanyi (Killings) was a series of mass killings—often characterised as a genocide—which were committed in Burundi in 1972 by the Tutsi-dominated army and government, primarily against educated and elite Hutus who lived in the country. Conservative estimates place the death toll of the event between 100,000 and 150,000 killed, while some estimates of the death toll go as high as 300,000.

Gilles Bimazubute was a Burundian politician.

Artémon Simbananiye is a Burundian retired politician.

François Rukeba was a Rwandan politician and rebel leader.

Paul Mirerekano Burundian politician

Paul Mirerekano was a Burundian politician. Ethnically Hutu, he worked as an agronomist for the Belgian colonial administration in Ruanda-Urundi before starting a successful market garden in Bugarama. Politically, he was a nationalist, monarchist, and advocate for Hutu civil rights. He was a leading member of Louis Rwagasore's political party, the Union for National Progress (UPRONA), and in 1961 served as the organisation's interim president. Rwagasore's assassination in 1961 fueled a rivalry between Mirerekano and Prime Minister André Muhirwa, as both men claimed to be the heirs to Rwagasore's legacy and sought to take control of UPRONA. The controversy led to the coalescing of two factions in the party, with Mirerekano leading what became known as the Hutu-dominated "Monrovia group". His criticism of Muhirwa and his successor led him to be arrested on several occasions, but in 1965 he was elected to a seat in the National Assembly representing the Bujumbura constituency. The body subsequently elected Mirerekano its First Vice-President on 20 July. In October Hutu soldiers launched a coup attempt which failed, but led to the outbreak of ethnic violence. The government believed Mirerekano helped plan the coup attempt and executed him. His reputation remains a controversial subject in Burundi.

Joseph Biroli-Baranyanka was a Burundian politician. He was the first Burundian to receive a university education.

Jean-Baptiste Ntidendereza was a Burundian politician.

Charles Baranyanka was a Burundian diplomat and historian.

References

  1. 1 2 Ndoba 2008, p. 315.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weinstein 1976, p. 110.
  3. 1 2 Weinstein 1976, p. 202.
  4. 1 2 Tshibola 1997, p. 472.
  5. Weinstein 1976, pp. 10, 110.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Ngendahayo, Jean-Marie (24 February 2014). "Littérature : un roman exceptionnel d'un auteur exceptionnel". IWACU-Voix du Burundi. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  7. Weinstein 1976, p. 274.
  8. Weinstein 1976, p. 242.
  9. Weinstein 1976, p. 10.
  10. Weinstein 1976, p. 105.
  11. Lemarchand 1970, p. 463.
  12. Weinstein 1976, p. 111.

Works cited

  • Lemarchand, René (1970). Rwanda and Burundi. New York: Praeger Publishers. OCLC   254366212.
  • Ndoba, Gasana (2008). "L'Homme de ma colline par Joseph Cimpaye. Un exercise posthume de transmission littéraire". In Quaghebeur, Marc (ed.). Analyse et enseignement des littératures francophones: Tentatives, réticences, responsabilités. Actes du colloque de Paris, 31 mai-2 juin 2006. Bruxelles: PIE Peter Lang. pp. 315–20. ISBN   978-90-5201-478-4.
  • Tshibola Kalengayi, Bibiane, ed. (1997). Ecrire en français en Belgique et au Congo. Congo-Meuse (in French). Mbuji-Mayi: Centre d'études des littératures belge et congolaise de langue française. OCLC   428028595.
  • Weinstein, Warren (1976). Historical Dictionary of Burundi. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press. ISBN   9780810809628.

Further reading

  • Ngorwanubusa, Juvénal (2013). La littérature de langue française au Burundi. Brussels: Musée et Archives de la littérature. ISBN   978-2871680703.
Joseph Cimpaye
1st Prime Minister of Burundi
In office
26 January 1961 28 September 1961