Joseph Jenkins Roberts

Last updated
Joseph Jenkins Roberts
Joseph Jenkins Roberts.jpg
1st President of Liberia
In office
January 3, 1848 January 7, 1856
Vice President Nathaniel Brander
Anthony D. Williams
Stephen Allen Benson
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded by Stephen Allen Benson
7th President of Liberia
In office
January 1, 1872 January 3, 1876
Vice President Anthony W. Gardiner
Preceded by James Skivring Smith
Succeeded by James Spriggs Payne
2nd Governor of Liberia
In office
September 3, 1841 January 3, 1848
Preceded by Thomas Buchanan
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Personal details
Born(1809-03-15)March 15, 1809
Norfolk, Virginia, United States
DiedFebruary 24, 1876(1876-02-24) (aged 66)
Monrovia, Liberia
Political party Republican Party
Spouse(s)Sarah Roberts
Jane Rose Waring

Joseph Jenkins Roberts (March 15, 1809 – February 24, 1876) was the first (1848–1856) and seventh (1872–1876) President of Liberia. Born free in Norfolk, Virginia, US, Roberts emigrated to Liberia in 1829 as a young man. He opened a trading store in Monrovia, and later engaged in politics. When Liberia became independent on July 26, 1847, Roberts was elected the first black American president for the Republic of Liberia, serving until 1856. In 1872 he was elected again to serve as Liberia's seventh president.

President of Liberia Wikimedia list article

The President of the Republic of Liberia is the head of state and government of Liberia. The president serves as the leader of the executive branch and as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia.

Norfolk, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803; in 2017, the population was estimated to be 244,703 making it the second-most populous city in Virginia after neighboring Virginia Beach.

Monrovia City in Montserrado, Liberia

Monrovia is the capital city of the West African country of Liberia. Located on the Atlantic Coast at Cape Mesurado, Monrovia had a population of 1,010,970 as of the 2008 census. With 29% of the total population of Liberia, Monrovia is the country's most populous city.

Contents

Early life

Roberts was born free in Norfolk, Virginia, the second-oldest of seven children. His father was said to be a planter of Welsh origin. Joseph's mother Amelia, described as a mulatto who was quite fair, was the planter's slave mistress or concubine. He freed Amelia and her children when she was still young. [1] Amelia gave all of her children but one the middle name of Jenkins, which suggests that may have been the name of their biological father.

Welsh people nation and ethnic group native to Wales

The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens.

Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent, or from two mulatto parents. Although historically considered a factual, fair term of racial classification, in modern day, it is generally considered to be derogatory or offensive.

Once free, Amelia married James Roberts, a free black. Roberts gave her children his surname and raised them as his own. Roberts owned a boating business on the James River. By the time of his death, he had acquired substantial wealth for an African-American of those times. [2]

Free Negro non-slave black in pre-emancipation USA

In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.

Joseph Roberts and his siblings by the planter, were estimated to be seven-eighths European ancestry. The Liberian historian Abayomi Karnga opined in 1926, "He was not really black; he was an octoroon and could have easily passed for a white man." However, his native Virginia classed him as black. [3] As a boy, Joseph began to work in his stepfather's business, handling goods on a flatboat that transported materials from Petersburg to Norfolk on the James River. [4] The family moved to Petersburg, which was an industrial city. Shortly after relocating, his stepfather James Roberts died. Joseph continued to work in his family's business, but also served as an apprentice in a barber shop. The owner of the barber shop, William Colson, was also a minister and one of Virginia's best-educated black residents. He gave Roberts access to his private library, which provided much of the youth's early education. [2]

Quadroon a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry

Historically in the context of slave societies of the Americas, a quadroon or quarteron was a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry.

Flatboat rectangular flat-bottomed boat with square ends

A flatboat was a rectangular flat-bottomed boat with square ends used to transport freight and passengers on inland waterways in the United States. The flatboat could be any size, but essentially it was a large, sturdy tub with a hull.

Petersburg, Virginia Independent city in Commonwealth of Virginia, United States

Petersburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,420. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines Petersburg with Dinwiddie County for statistical purposes. It is located on the Appomattox River. The city is just 21 miles (34 km) south of the historic commonwealth (state) capital city of Richmond. The city's unique industrial past and its location as a transportation hub combined to create wealth for Virginia and the Middle Atlantic and Upper South regions of the nation.

Marriage and family

In 1828 Roberts married an 18-year-old woman named Sarah. They had an infant child whom they took with them when they emigrated to Liberia, under the auspices of the American Colonization Society. Both Sarah and the child died in the first year of living in the colony. [5]

American Colonization Society

The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa. The society in 1821–1822 helped to found a colony on the Pepper Coast of West Africa, as a place for free-born or manumitted American blacks. The ACS met with immediate and continuing objections from such African-Americans as James Forten and David Walker, who wished to remain in the land of their birth, saw colonization as a racist strategy for protecting slavery and purging the U.S. of its black citizens, and preferred to fight for equal rights at home. Colonizers were also met with resistance and attacks from those already living in and around the areas being colonized. There was some religious support and missionary efforts were part of the colonization. Disease was a major problem, with Liberian immigrants suffering the highest mortality rates in accurately recorded human history. Of the 4,571 emigrants who arrived in Liberia from 1820 to 1843, only 1,819 survived until 1843.

Some time after his wife's death, Roberts married again, to Jane Rose Waring, in 1836 in Monrovia, Liberia. [6] She was a daughter of Colston Waring and Harriet Graves, Virginians who had also migrated to the colony. [7]

Immigrating to Liberia

Daguerreotype taken in the 1850s. Joseph Jenkins Roberts 2.jpg
Daguerreotype taken in the 1850s.

Roberts family of Norfolk and later Petersburg, Virginia was one the first most associated with Republic of Liberia.

After hearing of the plans of the American Colonization Society to colonize the African coast at Cape Mesurado near modern-day Monrovia, Roberts decided to join an expedition. The restrictions in Virginia on free Negroes played an important part in his decision. The Roberts family was strongly religious and they felt called to evangelize the indigenous people of Africa. [2] On February 9, 1829, they sailed for Africa on the Harriet. [8] along with his mother and five of his six siblings. Travelling onboard the same ship was James Spriggs Payne, who would later become Liberia's fourth president. [1]

Upon arrival in Monrovia, Roberts and two of his brothers established a business with the help of their friend William Colson from Petersburg. The company exported palm products, camwood, and ivory to the United States, and traded imported American goods at the company store in Monrovia. In 1835, Colson emigrated to Liberia, but died shortly after his arrival. Expanding into coastal trade, the Roberts family became successful members of the local establishment. [2] During this time, Joseph's brother John Wright Roberts entered the ministry of the Liberia Methodist Church, founded by Americans. Later he became a bishop. After starting as a trader, the youngest son, Henry Roberts, studied medicine at the Berkshire Medical College in Massachusetts. Joseph Roberts was successful enough to pay for his brother's tuition. Henry returned to Liberia to work as a physician. [9]

In 1833, Joseph Roberts became high sheriff of the colony. One of his responsibilities was to organize militias to travel to the interior to collect taxes from the indigenous peoples and put down their raids against the area of civilized settlement. In 1839, the American Colonization Society appointed Roberts vice governor. Two years later, after the death of governor Thomas Buchanan, Roberts was appointed as the first black governor of Liberia. In 1846, Roberts asked the legislature to declare the independence of Liberia, but also to maintain cooperation with the American Colonization Society. The legislature called for a referendum, in which voters chose independence. On July 26, 1847, Roberts declared Liberia independent. He won the first presidential election on October 5, 1847, and was sworn into office on January 3, 1848, with Nathaniel Brander as vice president.

First presidency (1847–1856)

Roberts was re-elected three more times to serve a total of eight years, until he lost the election in 1855 to Vice President Benson. [1]

Attempts to found a state based upon some 3,000 settlers proved difficult. Some coastal tribes converted to Christianity and learned English, but most of the indigenous Africans retained their traditional religion and continued to capture and sell slaves. The slave trade continued illegally from parts Liberia, but the British Royal Navy helped to finally close it down in the 1850s.

Foreign relations

Roberts spent the first year of his presidency attempting to attain recognition from European countries and the United States. In 1848 he travelled to Europe to meet Queen Victoria and other heads of state. The UK was the first country to recognise Liberia as an independent country, [10] followed by France in 1848 or 1852 (accounts differ). In 1849, the German cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck recognized the new nation, as did Portugal, Brazil, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire. Norway and Sweden did so in either 1849 or 1863, Haiti in either 1849 or 1864, Denmark in either 1849 or 1869 (accounts differ).

The United States withheld recognition until February 5, 1862, during the presidency of Abraham Lincoln. Reportedly, the government feared that the Southern congressmen would not accept a black ambassador in Washington, D.C.

Relations with indigenous groups; expansion

In 1854 Maryland Colony declared its independence from the Maryland State Colonization Society but did not become part of the Republic of Liberia. It held the land along the coast between the Grand Cess and San Pedro Rivers. In 1856, the independent state of Maryland (Africa) requested military aid from Liberia in a war with the Grebo and Kru peoples. They were resisting the Maryland colonists' efforts to control their trade in slaves and other goods. Roberts assisted the Marylanders, and a joint military campaign by the two groups of African-American colonists resulted in victory. In 1857, the Republic of Maryland joined Liberia as Maryland County.

During his presidency, Roberts expanded the borders of Liberia along the coast and made attempts to integrate the indigenous people of Monrovia into the republic. By 1860, through treaties and purchases with local African leaders, Liberia extended its boundaries to include a 600-mile (1000 km) coastline.

Economy, nation building

The settlers built schools and Liberia College (which later became the University of Liberia). During these early years, agriculture, shipbuilding, and trade flourished.

Assessment

Roberts has been described as a talented leader with diplomatic skills. His leadership was instrumental in giving Liberia independence and sovereignty. Later in his career, his diplomatic skills helped him to deal effectively with the indigenous people and to manoeuver in the complex field of international law and relations. [2]

Between presidencies

Lithograph of the former home of Joseph Roberts in Monrovia Home joseph roberts.jpg
Lithograph of the former home of Joseph Roberts in Monrovia

After his first presidency, Roberts served for fifteen years as a major general in the Liberian Army, as well as a diplomatic representative in France and Great Britain. In 1862, he co-founded Liberia College in Monrovia, where he served as its first president until 1876. [11] Roberts frequently travelled to the United States to raise funds for the college. Until his death, he held a professorship in jurisprudence and international law. [4]

Second presidency (1872–1876)

In 1871, President Edward James Roye was deposed by elements loyal to the Republican Party on the grounds that he was planning to cancel the upcoming elections. Roberts, one of the Republican Party's leaders, won the ensuing presidential election and thus returned to office in 1872. He served for two terms until 1876. While he was incapacitated by illness from 1875 until early-1876, Vice-President Anthony W. Gardiner was acting president.

In the decades after 1868, escalating economic difficulties weakened the state's dominance over the coastal indigenous population. Conditions worsened—the cost of imports was far greater than the income generated by exports of coffee, rice, palm oil, sugar cane, and timber. Liberia tried desperately to modernise its largely agrarian economy.

Inheritance and legacy

Roberts died on February 24, 1876, less than two months after his second term had ended. In his testament, he left $10,000 and his estate to the educational system of Liberia. [1] Liberia's main airport, Roberts International Airport, the town of Robertsport and Roberts Street in Monrovia are named in his honour.

His face is depicted on the Liberian ten dollar bill introduced in 2000, and the old five dollar bill in circulation between 1989 and 1999. [12]

His birthday, March 15, is a national holiday in Liberia. [4]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Pham, John-Peter (April 2004). Liberia — Portrait of a failed state. Reed Press. ISBN   1-59429-012-1.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Matthews, Pat (Autumn 1973). "The father of Liberia". Virginia Cavalcade. pp. 5–11.
  3. Karnga, Abayomi Wilfrid (1926). History of Liberia. D. H. Tyte.
  4. 1 2 3 Evans Brown, Judith (March 17, 1968). "Virginia's other presidents". The Virginian-Pilot ..
  5. Mary Tyler-McGraw, "The Roberts Family", 2008, Virginia Emigrants to Liberia, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia, accessed 4 Jun 2010
  6. Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt; Aptheker, Herbert (1982). Writings by W. E. B. Du Bois in Non-Periodical Literature Edited by Others. Kraus-Thomson. ISBN   9780527253448.
  7. Mary Tyler-McGraw, "The Roberts Family" and "Harriet Graves: Reluctant Founding Mother", 2008, Virginia Emigrants to Liberia, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia, accessed 4 Jun 2010
  8. "Search Emigrants", Virginia Emigrants to Liberia, Virginia Center for Digital History, University of Virginia, accessed 4 Jun 2010
  9. Davis, Stanley A. (1953). This is Liberia. William-Frederick Press.
  10. The Times, London. Jul 10, 1962; pg. 11; Issue 55439
  11. Livingston, Thomas W. “The Exportation of American Higher Education to West Africa: Liberia College, 1850-1900”. The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 45, No. 3 (Summer, 1976), pp. 246-262.
  12. "LIBERIA". banknote.ws. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
Government offices
Preceded by
Thomas Buchanan
Governor of Liberia
September 3, 1841 – January 3, 1848
Succeeded by
None
Political offices
Preceded by
None
President of Liberia
1848 – 1856
Succeeded by
Stephen Allen Benson
Preceded by
James Skivring Smith
President of Liberia
1872 – 1876
Succeeded by
James Spriggs Payne