Joseph Tydings

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Joseph Tydings
Joseph d tydings.jpg
United States Senator
from Maryland
In office
January 3, 1965 January 3, 1971
Preceded by James Glenn Beall
Succeeded by John Glenn Beall Jr.
United States Attorney for the District of Maryland
In office
1961 – November 21, 1963
Preceded byLeon H. A. Pierson
Succeeded byRobert H. Kernon
Member of the Maryland House of Delegates
In office
1955–1961
Personal details
Born
Joseph Davies Cheesborough [1]

(1928-05-04)May 4, 1928
Asheville, North Carolina, U.S.
DiedOctober 8, 2018(2018-10-08) (aged 90)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)
Virginia Reynolds Campbell
(m. 1955;div. 1974)

Terry Huntingdon
ChildrenMary Tydings Smith, Millard E. Tydings II, Emlen Tydings, Eleanor Tydings Gollob, Alexandra Tydings
Alma mater University of Maryland, College Park
University of Maryland School of Law
Military service
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1946-1948
Rank Corporal
Unit 6th Constabulary Regiment
Battles/wars Occupation of Germany

Joseph Davies Tydings (May 4, 1928 – October 8, 2018) was an American lawyer and politician. He was most notable for his service as a Democratic member of the United States Senate representing Maryland from 1965 to 1971.

Democratic Party (United States) political party in the United States

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C.

Maryland State of the United States of America

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east. The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. It is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary.

Contents

Born in North Carolina, Tydings moved to Maryland as a youth after he was adopted by his mother's husband, Millard Tydings, who also served as a U.S. Senator from Maryland. After serving in the military, he obtained his law degree and entered into practice. He served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1955 to 1961, and as United States Attorney for Maryland from 1961 until his resignation in 1963 to run for Senate.

North Carolina State of the United States of America

North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U.S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties. The capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, which is the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City.

Millard Tydings politician and United States Army officer

Millard Evelyn Tydings was an American attorney, author, soldier, state legislator, and served as a Democratic Representative and Senator in the United States Congress from Maryland, serving in the House from 1923 to 1927 and in the Senate from 1927 to 1951.

Maryland House of Delegates lower house of the Maryland General Assembly

The Maryland House of Delegates is the lower house of the legislature of the State of Maryland. It consists of 141 delegates elected from 47 districts. The House of Delegates Chamber is in the Maryland State House on State Circle in Annapolis, the state capital. The State House also houses the Maryland State Senate Chamber and the offices of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the State of Maryland. Each delegate has offices in Annapolis, in the nearby Casper R. Taylor Jr. House Office Building.

Tydings won election to the Senate in 1964. However, his controversial stances on gun control and crime in the District of Columbia cost him re-election in 1970. He made another attempt at his old seat in 1976, but was defeated in the Democratic primary election by Paul Sarbanes. He later served as a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland, College Park and the University System of Maryland, and continued to practice law. [2]

Gun control laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms

Gun control is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

A primary election is the process by which voters, either the general public or members of a political party, can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.

Paul Sarbanes American politician

Paul Spyros Sarbanes is an American former politician and attorney. A member of the Democratic Party from Maryland, he served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1971 to 1977 and as a United States Senator from 1977 to 2007. Sarbanes was the longest-serving senator in Maryland history until he was surpassed by Barbara Mikulski by a single day when her term ended on January 3, 2017.

Tydings also argued Eisenstadt v. Baird , in which the Supreme Court of the United States legalized birth control for single persons in 1972, something that had been prohibited in many states. The Eisenstadt decision has been described as among the most influential Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century. [3]

Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972), is a United States Supreme Court case that established the right of unmarried people to possess contraception on the same basis as married couples.

Supreme Court of the United States Highest court in the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U.S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors. It also has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.

Early life, education, and military service

Tydings was born in Asheville, North Carolina, [2] the son of Eleanor Davies and Thomas Patton Cheesborough, who divorced in 1935. [4] He was raised in Aberdeen, Maryland and was adopted by his stepfather, Millard Tydings. [2] [5] His maternal grandfather was Joseph E. Davies, who served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Soviet Union and whose second wife was the cereal heiress Marjorie Merriweather Post. [6] <rf>https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/magazine/1978/05/28/heiress/49b8bbc5-3ea6-4273-b465-f354fbddd72c/?noredirect=on</ref> Tydings went on to graduate from the McDonogh School in 1946. He served in the 6th Constabulary Regiment from 1946 to 1948 during the U.S. Army's post-World War II occupation of Germany and attained the rank of corporal. [7]

Asheville, North Carolina City in North Carolina, United States

Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. It is the largest city in Western North Carolina, and the 12th-most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. The city's population was 89,121 according to 2016 estimates. It is the principal city in the four-county Asheville metropolitan area, with a population of 424,858 in 2010.

Aberdeen, Maryland City in Maryland

Aberdeen is a city located in Harford County, Maryland, 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Baltimore. The population was 14,959 at the 2010 United States Census. Aberdeen is the largest municipality in Harford County.

Joseph E. Davies American diplomat

Joseph Edward Davies was an American lawyer and diplomat. He was appointed by President Wilson to be Commissioner of Corporations in 1912, and First Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission in 1915. He was the second Ambassador to represent the United States in the Soviet Union and U.S. Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg. From 1939 to 1941 Davies was Special assistant to Secretary of State Hull, in charge of War Emergency Problems and Policies. From 1942 through 1946 he was Chairman of President Roosevelt's War Relief Control Board. Ambassador Davies was Special Advisor of President Harry Truman and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes with rank of Ambassador at the Potsdam Conference in 1945.

Following his military service, Tydings attended the University of Maryland, College Park, from which he graduated in 1951. [7] While attending college, Tydings became a brother of Alpha Phi Omega, and he graduated from the University of Maryland School of Law in 1953. [2] He was president of the Maryland Young Democrats in the 1950s. [8]

University of Maryland, College Park public research university in the city of College Park in Prince Georges County, Maryland

The University of Maryland, College Park is a public research university in College Park, Maryland. Founded in 1856, UMD is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland, and is the largest university in both the state and the Washington metropolitan area, with more than 41,000 students representing all fifty states and 123 countries, and a global alumni network of over 360,000. Its twelve schools and colleges together offer over 200 degree-granting programs, including 92 undergraduate majors, 107 master's programs, and 83 doctoral programs. UMD is a member of the Association of American Universities and competes in intercollegiate athletics as a member of the Big Ten Conference.

Alpha Phi Omega National Service Fraternity

Alpha Phi Omega (ΑΦΩ) (commonly known as APO, but also A-Phi-O is the largest collegiate fraternity in the United States, with chapters at over 350 campuses, an active membership of over 25,000 students, and over 400,000 alumni members. There are also 250 chapters in the Philippines, one in Australia and one in Canada.

The University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law is the law school of the University of Maryland, Baltimore and is located in Baltimore City, Maryland, U.S. Founded in 1816 as the Maryland Law Institute with regular instruction beginning in 1824, it is the second-oldest law school in the United States, only behind William & Mary Law School and ahead of Harvard Law School. Its location places Maryland Law in the Baltimore-Washington legal and business community.

Tydings had been admitted to the bar in 1952, before he completed his law degree, and he began to practice soon afterwards. In 1954 he was a successful Democratic candidate for the Maryland House of Delegates from Harford County, Maryland. [2] He served as a Delegate from 1955 to 1961, when he was appointed United States Attorney for Maryland by President John F. Kennedy, a close friend. [9] As U.S. Attorney, Tydings brought many political corruption cases, including against Congressman Thomas Francis Johnson and state House of Delegates speaker A. Gordon Boone, both of whom were imprisoned. [8] He also oversaw the prosecution of several people in the savings and loan business. In 1963, Tydings served as the United States representative at the Interpol Conference in Helsinki, Finland, and at the International Penal Conference in Bellagio, Italy. [2]

Election to the Senate

In the 1964 elections, Tydings was frequently mentioned as a potential candidate for the United States Senate seat of Republican James Glenn Beall. [10] While initially hesitant, Tydings resigned as U.S. Attorney on November 21, 1963 to test his political support across the state. On January 14, 1964, Tydings officially declared his candidacy, stating he was challenging the "old guard" of the Maryland Democratic Party political machine. He also said he would work to bring a "new era of leadership into Maryland". [9]

During the primary election in May 1964, Tydings faced Maryland Comptroller Louis L. Goldstein, who had won the endorsement of both J. Millard Tawes, Governor of Maryland, and Daniel Brewster, the other U.S. Senator from Maryland. [9] Despite Goldstein's support from party leaders, Tydings trounced him by a nearly a two-to-one margin. [11]

Tydings faced Beall in the general election and the results gave Tydings nearly 63% of 1,081,042 votes cast. [12] His large margin of victory was due at least in part to the landslide win by fellow Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson for President in the same election, which likely increased voter turnout. [13]

United States Senator

Upon his election, Tydings began to lay out his legislative agenda for his upcoming term, which included water conservation, pollution and air purity, and mass transportation. [14] He also expressed interest in serving on the Senate Committee on the District of Columbia. Tydings won a place on the DC committee, and was appointed chairman in 1969. [2]

Leading up to the elections of 1970, Tydings faced criticism from both parties for his actions as senator. In July 1970, syndicated columnist Marquis Childs noted that Tydings' problems on the left stemmed from his support of a crime bill for the District of Columbia, which was perceived as repressive against African Americans. There was also criticism directed at the bill for writing into law the practices of preventive detention and no knock warrants. [15]

Tydings opposed President Richard Nixon's nominations of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, earning him the enmity of Nixon. [8]

Known for his love of horses, Tydings was the Senate sponsor of the Horse Protection Act of 1970, which prohibited certain inhumane practices against horses. [8]

Tydings' difficulties with the right stemmed from his sponsorship of the Firearms Registration and Licensing Act, which would have required the registration of firearms. [16] An avid hunter himself, his efforts agitated the gun lobby and the NRA. One Maryland activist group, Citizens Against Tydings, was formed solely because of Tydings' gun registration platform. [17] Further complicating his relations with the right were the efforts by the American Security Council Foundation, which graded him as a "zero" on national security issues and spent over $150,000 to campaign against his bid for re-election. [18]

1970 election

In the Democratic primary, Tydings was challenged by perennial candidate and Dixiecrat George P. Mahoney and two others. [19] After a divisive campaign, Tydings beat Mahoney by 53% to 37%. [20]

For the general election, Tydings' opponent was freshman Congressman John Glenn Beall Jr. from Western Maryland, the son of James Glenn Beall, whom Tydings had defeated in 1964. Beall's campaign strategy "leaned heavily on his affable, noncontroversial personality" and avoided turning the campaign negative. [21] As a result of Tydings' unpopularity and Beall's campaign strategy, Tydings was defeated 51% to 48%. [21]

In a review of the election, The Washington Post noted one of Tydings' major problems was identifying with his constituents. Despite the 3–1 advantage of registered Democrats versus Republicans in the state, Tydings had been labeled as an "ultraliberal" by many Marylanders, and Vice President Spiro Agnew, formerly the Governor of Maryland, had called Tydings "radical" while campaigning for Beall. Tydings was also wealthy, and was seen as having an "aloof" disposition. [21]

Return to politics

Tydings resumed his legal career after he lost his Senate seat, entering into practice with a Washington law firm that included Giant Food President Joseph Danzansky. [22] After several years out of politics, he began traveling the state in 1975 to gauge his chances for winning a rematch versus Beall, who was coming up for re-election in 1976. On January 10, 1976, Tydings announced his candidacy for his former seante seat, which he argued was taken unfairly in 1970 due to an undisclosed $180,000 gift to the Beall campaign. [22]

In the primary, Tydings faced a strong challenge from Congressman Paul Sarbanes, who had entered the race several months earlier. [22] This head start gave Sarbanes a considerable organizational and monetary advantage, and he had already secured influential endorsements. [23] To fend off Sarbanes, Tydings hoped his name recognition and charisma on television would compensate for Sarbanes' other advantages. He also worked to relabel himself as more fiscally conservative than Sarbanes, since both candidates were seen as liberal. [23]

For the primary election, Tydings needed a large margin of victory from precincts in the Washington, D.C. suburbs of Prince George's and Montgomery Counties, where he was most popular. [24] Despite Tydings winning both counties, Sarbanes performed well in the rest of the state and defeated him by over 100,000 votes, 61% to 39%. Sarbanes had outspent Tydings two-to-one during the campaign. [24] After defeating Tydings, Sarbanes won the general election and served as senator until 2007. [25]

Post-Senate career

Following his electoral defeat, Tydings returned to his law career at Danzansky's firm. [26] In 1971, he gave oral argument on behalf of Bill Baird in the Supreme Court case Eisenstadt v. Baird in November 1971; in its decision the next year, the Court held that a Massachusetts state law barring the use of birth control for single persons was unconstitutional. [27] The Eisenstadt decision has been described as among the most influential Supreme Court decisions of the 20th century. [3]

Tydings also worked as a partner in the law firm of Finley, Kumble, Wagner, Underberg, Manley, Myerson & Casey, which collapsed in 1987. [28] Later, Tydings worked at Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky from 1988 until his departure with Jerold Oshinsky in 1996 to join Dickstein Shapiro in Washington, D.C. [26]

In academics, Tydings was a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland from 1974 to 1984, serving as chairman from 1982 to 1984; it became University of Maryland, College Park in 1988. In 1977, Tydings called for the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland to divest its endowment from companies doing business with the apartheid regime in South Africa. [29] He later served as a member of Board of Regents of the University System of Maryland from 2000 to 2005. [2] In September 2008, he was appointed by Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley to the board of the University of Maryland Medical System. [26] As of 2016, he resided in Harford County, Maryland. [2]

In the last two decades of his life, Tydings was an attorney at the firm Blank Rome. [8] Tydings was a member of the ReFormers Caucus of Issue One. [30]

Joseph Tydings died in Washington, D.C., from cancer, on October 8, 2018 at the age of 90. [8]

Personal life

Tydings married Virginia Reynolds Campbell of Lewes, Delaware, in 1955; they had four children. The couple divorced in 1974. In 1975, Tydings married Terry Lynn Huntingdon of Mount Shasta, California, with whom he had one child, actress Alexandra Tydings, born prior to their marriage, in 1972. Tydings and Huntingdon subsequently divorced. [8]

Marjorie Merriweather Post was the second wife of Tydings' maternal grandfather Joseph E. Davies and it came to pass that Davies' crest was displayed at Post's Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach. The heraldry had one word placed above it, "Integritas" (Latin for integrity). When the estate came into the hands of Donald Trump and was converted into a private club, the future President modified the logo and replaced "Integritas" with "Trump". [31] Tydings who as a boy had spent a good deal of time at the seaside home remarked about the irony...“My grandfather would be rolling over in his grave if he knew Trump was using his crest,” ... “I am sorry to say that banishing the concept of ‘integrity’ is a sad metaphor for the Trump presidency"... [32] [33]

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References

  1. "Joseph Davies Cheesborough - North Carolina Birth Index". FamilySearch . Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Tydings, Joseph Davies". United States Congress. Retrieved July 7, 2008.
  3. 1 2 Lucas, Roy (Fall 2003). "New Historical Insight on the Curious Case of Baird v. Eisenstadt". Roger Williams University Law Review. IX (1): 23–37. doi:10.2307/1600542. JSTOR   1600542.
  4. Schudel, Matt (June 11, 2006). "Eleanor Tydings Ditzen; D.C. Society Fixture". Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  5. "Papers of Millard E. Tydings". University of Maryland, College Park . Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  6. "Miss Tydings Has Wedding". The New York Times . October 27, 1985.
  7. 1 2 "Joseph D. Tydings papers > ArchivesUM". digital.lib.umd.edu. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Christina Tkacik, Frederick N. Rasmussen & Jacques Kelly (October 9, 2018). "Joseph D. Tydings, former progressive U.S. senator from Maryland, is dead at 90". Baltimore Sun.
  9. 1 2 3 Maffre, John (January 15, 1964). "Tydings Enters Race With Rap At 'Old Guard'". The Washington Post. p. B1.
  10. Maffre, John (November 22, 1964). "Tydings Quits U.S. Post To Test Political Support". The Washington Post . p. A1.
  11. Chapman, William (May 21, 1964). "Tydings Victory Sets Up Change For Democrats". The Washington Post. p. B1.
  12. "Senate General Elections, All States, 1964 Summary". Congressional Quarterly . Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  13. Dessoff, Alan L; Willard Clopton (November 4, 1964). "Tydings Defeats Beall in Senate Race, Sickles, Mathias Keep House Seats". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  14. Eagle, George (November 8, 1964). "Tydings Ready to Serve On D.C. Unit if Asked". The Washington Post . p. B10.
  15. Childs, Marquis (July 20, 1970). "Tydings' Legislative Proposals Stir Up Both Right and Left". The Washington Post. United Feature Syndicate]]. p. A19.
  16. Cohen, Richard (June 21, 1970). "Tydings Is Target of U.S. Gun Lobby". The Washington Post . p. 53.
  17. Jeremy Barr, "45 Years Later, Tydings' Gun Control Bill Remains a Cautionary Tale", Southern Maryland Online, April 11, 2013.
  18. Nossiter, Bernard D (October 26, 1970). "Group Earmarks $150,000 to Defeat Liberals". The Washington Post . p. A3.
  19. Eisler, Kim Isaac (1990). Shark Tank: Greed, Politics, and the Collapse of Finley Kumble, One of America's Largest Law Firms. Beard Books. p. 98. ISBN   9781587982385.
  20. Kalb, Deborah (2015). Guide to U.S. Elections. CQ Press. p. 28. ISBN   9781483380384.
  21. 1 2 3 Meyer, Lawrence (November 5, 1970). "History Full Circle In Tydings' Defeat". The Washington Post . p. A1.
  22. 1 2 3 Walsh, Edward (January 11, 1976). "Tydings Sets Race to Regain Old Senate Seat". The Washington Post . p. 21.
  23. 1 2 Peterson, Bill; Harold J. Logan (May 16, 1976). "Voter Turnout Termed Key". The Washington Post . p. 1.
  24. 1 2 McAllister, Bill; Harold J. Logan (May 19, 1976). "Sarbanes Easy Victor". The Washington Post . p. A1.
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  27. David J. Garrow, Liberty and Sexuality: The Right to Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade (Open Road Media, 2015).
  28. Goldstein, Tom (March 25, 1990). "Finley Kumble Sat On A Wall". The New York Times . p. A1.
  29. Polk, Ryan. "Career Notes and Time Line: Senator Joseph Tydings". Archives of Maryland Online. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  30. "ReFormers Caucus". Issue One. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  31. "Joseph Tydings, the anti-Trump". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  32. "The Coat of Arms Said 'Integrity.' Now It Says 'Trump.' - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  33. "Joseph Tydings, Ex-Democratic Senator and Nixon Target, Dies at 90 - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
James Glenn Beall
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Maryland
1965–1971
Served alongside: Daniel Brewster, Charles Mathias
Succeeded by
John Glenn Beall Jr.
Party political offices
Preceded by
Thomas D'Alesandro Jr.
Democratic nominee for United States Senator from Maryland
(Class 1)

1964, 1970
Succeeded by
Paul Sarbanes