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Sir Joseph George Ward, 1st Bt
|17th Prime Minister of New Zealand|
6 August 1906 –28 March 1912
|Monarch|| Edward VII |
|Governor|| William Plunket |
|Preceded by||William Hall-Jones|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Mackenzie|
10 December 1928 –28 May 1930
|Governor-General|| Charles Fergusson |
|Preceded by||Gordon Coates|
|Succeeded by||George Forbes|
|17th Minister of Finance|
1 May 1893 –16 June 1896
|Prime Minister||Richard Seddon|
|Preceded by||John Ballance|
|Succeeded by||Richard Seddon|
6 August 1906 –28 March 1912
|Preceded by||William Hall-Jones|
|Succeeded by||Arthur Myers|
12 August 1915 –21 August 1919
|Prime Minister||William Massey|
|Preceded by||James Allen|
|Succeeded by||James Allen|
10 December 1928 –28 May 1930
|Preceded by||William Downie Stewart, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||George Forbes|
|6th Leader of the Opposition|
11 September 1913 –27 November 1919
|Prime Minister||William Massey|
|Preceded by||William Massey|
|Succeeded by||William MacDonald|
4 December 1928 –10 December 1928
|Prime Minister||Gordon Coates|
|Preceded by||Harry Holland|
|Succeeded by||Gordon Coates|
|Born||26 April 1856|
Melbourne, Victoria Colony
|Died||8 July 1930 74) (aged|
Wellington, New Zealand
|Political party|| Liberal (1890–1928)|
Theresa Dorothea de Smidt
(m. 1883;died 1927)
|Children||5, including Vincent|
|Relatives||Joseph Ward (grandson)|
Sir Joseph George Ward of Wellington, 1st Baronet, GCMG , PC (26 April 1856 – 8 July 1930) was a New Zealand politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1906 to 1912 and from 1928 to 1930. He was a dominant figure in the Liberal and United ministries of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The New Zealand Liberal Party was the first organised political party in New Zealand. It governed from 1891 until 1912. The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals, by buying large tracts of Māori land and selling it to small farmers on credit. The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.
The United Party of New Zealand, a party formed out of the remnants of the Liberal Party, formed a government between 1928 and 1935, and in 1936 merged with the Reform Party to establish the National Party.
Ward was born into an Irish Catholic family in Melbourne, Victoria. In 1863, financial hardship forced his family to move to New Zealand, where he completed his education. Ward established a successful grain trade in Invercargill in 1877 and soon became prominent in local politics. He became a Member of Parliament in 1887. Following the election of the Liberal Government in 1891, Ward was appointed as Postmaster-General under John Ballance; he was promoted to Minister of Finance in the succeeding ministry of Richard Seddon.
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 4.9 million, and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Melbourne, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south, New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, and South Australia to the west.
Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, and one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region. The city lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plains on the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, which is the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland that is bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Park covering the south-west corner of the South Island and the Catlins coastal region.
Ward became Prime Minister on 6 August 1906, following Seddon's death two months earlier. In his first period of government, Ward advocated greater unity within the British Empire, led New Zealand to Dominion status, and increased New Zealand's contribution to the Royal Navy. His government faced strong opposition from the Reform Party and the newly-formed socialist parties. He led the Liberal Party to two election victories, in 1908 and 1911, albeit with a one-seat majority in the latter. He resigned as head of government on 28 March 1912.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.
The Dominion of New Zealand was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand. It was a constitutional monarchy with a high level of self-government within the British Empire.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
During the First World War, Ward led his party in a coalition with the Reform Party. As co-leader of the government, Ward had a strained working relationship with Prime Minister William Massey. The coalition was dissolved in 1919 and Ward resigned as Liberal leader.
William Ferguson Massey, commonly known as Bill Massey, was an Irish-born politician in New Zealand who served as the 19th Prime Minister of New Zealand from May 1912 to May 1925. He was the founding leader of the Reform Party, New Zealand's second organised political party, from 1909 until his death.
After a six-year absence from national politics, Ward returned to parliament in 1925. He became Prime Minister on 10 December 1928, as leader of the United Party, which had formed from the remnants of the former Liberal Party. Ward attempted to rejuvenate liberal support in New Zealand but his party lost ground to the New Zealand Labour Party. Failing health forced his retirement from leadership on 28 May 1930.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support limited government, individual rights, capitalism, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
Ward was born in Melbourne on 26 April 1856 to a Roman Catholic family of Irish descent. His father, William, died in 1860, aged 31 – Ward was raised by his mother, Hannah. In 1863, the family moved to Bluff (then officially known as Campbelltown), in New Zealand's Southland region, seeking better financial security – Hannah Ward established a shop and a boarding house.
Bluff, previously known as Campbelltown and often referred to as "The Bluff", is a town and seaport in the Southland region, on the southern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It is the southernmost town in mainland New Zealand and, despite Slope Point and Stewart Island being further south, Bluff is colloquially used to refer to the southern extremity of the country. According to the 2006 census, the resident population was 1,850, a decrease of 85 since 2001.
Southland is New Zealand's southernmost region. It consists mainly of the southwestern portion of the South Island and Stewart Island / Rakiura. It includes Southland District, Gore District and the city of Invercargill. The region covers over 3.1 million hectares and spans over 3,400 km of coast.
Ward received his formal education at primary schools in Melbourne and Bluff. He did not go to secondary school. He did, however, read extensively, and also picked up a good understanding of business from his mother. In 1869, Ward found a job at the Post Office, and later as a clerk. Later, with the help of a loan from his mother, Ward began to work as a freelance trader, selling supplies to the newly established Southland farming community.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1928||Changed allegiance to:||United|
Ward became involved in local politics very quickly. He was elected to the Campbelltown (Bluff) Borough Council in 1878, despite being only 21 years old – at age 25 he became Mayor, the youngest in New Zealand. He also served on the Bluff Harbour Board, eventually becoming its chairman. In 1887, Ward stood for Parliament, winning the seat of Awarua. Politically, Ward was a supporter of politicians such as Julius Vogel and Robert Stout, leaders of the liberal wing of Parliament – Ward's support was unusual in the far south.[ citation needed ]
Ward became known as a strong debater on economic matters. In 1891, when the newly founded Liberal Party came to power, the new Prime Minister, John Ballance, appointed Ward as Postmaster General. Later, when Richard Seddon became Prime Minister after Ballance's death, Ward became Treasurer (Minister of Finance). Ward's basic political outlook was that the state existed to support and promote private enterprise, and his conduct as Treasurer reflects this.
Ward's increasing occupation with government affairs led to neglect of his own business interests, however, and his personal finances began to deteriorate. In 1896, a judge declared Ward "hopelessly insolvent". This placed Ward, as Treasurer, in a politically difficult situation, and he was forced to resign his portfolios on 16 June. In 1897, he was forced to file for bankruptcy, which legally obligated him to resign his seat in Parliament. A loophole meant that there was nothing to stop him contesting it again, however. In the resulting by-election he was elected with an increased majority. Ward gained considerable popularity as a result of his financial troubles – he was widely seen as a great benefactor of the Southland region, and public perceptions were that he was being persecuted by his enemies over an honest mistake.[ citation needed ]
Gradually, Ward rebuilt his businesses, and paid off his creditors. Seddon, still Prime Minister, quickly reappointed him to Cabinet where he served as Minister of Railways and Postmaster-General. On 19 June 1901, on the occasion of the visit of TRH the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York (later King George V and Queen Mary) to New Zealand, he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) for overseeing the introduction of the Penny Post throughout New Zealand.
Ward gradually emerged as the most prominent of Seddon's supporters, and was seen as a possible successor. As Seddon's long tenure as Prime Minister continued, some suggested that Ward should challenge Seddon for the leadership, but Ward was unwilling. In 1906, Seddon unexpectedly died. Ward was in London at the time. It was generally agreed in the party that Ward would succeed him, although the return journey would take two months – William Hall-Jones became Prime Minister until Ward arrived. Ward was sworn in on 6 August 1906.
Ward was not seen by most as being of the same calibre as Seddon. The diverse interests of the Liberal Party, many believed, had been held together only by Seddon's strength of personality and his powers of persuasion – Ward was not seen as having the same qualities. Frequent internal disputes led to indecision and frequent policy changes, with the result being paralysis of government.
The Liberal Party's two main support bases, left-leaning urban workers and conservative small farmers, were increasingly at odds, and Ward lacked any coherent strategy to solve the problem – any attempt to please one group simply alienated the other. Ward increasingly focused on foreign affairs, which was seen by his opponents as a sign that he could not cope with the country's problems.
In 1901, Ward established the world's first Ministry of Health and Tourism, and became the British Empire's first Minister of Public Health.On 26 September 1907, Ward proclaimed New Zealand's new status as a Dominion.
In the 1908 election the Liberals won a majority, but in the 1911 election Parliament appeared to be deadlocked. The Liberals survived for a time on the casting vote of the Speaker, but Ward, discouraged by the result, resigned from the premiership in March the following year. The party replaced him with Thomas Mackenzie, his Minister of Agriculture, whose government survived only a few more months.
Ward, who most believed had finished his political career, returned to the back benches and refused several requests to resume the leadership of the disorganised Liberals. He occupied himself with relatively minor matters, and took his family on a visit to England, where he was created a baronet by King George V on 20 June 1911.
On 11 September 1913, however, Ward finally accepted the leadership of the Liberal Party once again.Ward extracted a number of important concessions from the party, insisting on a very high level of personal control – he felt that the party's previous lack of direction was the primary cause for its failure. He also worked to build alliances with the growing labour movement, which was now standing candidates in many seats.
On 12 August 1915, Ward and accepted a proposal by William Massey and the governing Reform Party to form a joint administration for World War I. Ward became deputy leader of the administration, also holding the Finance portfolio. Relations between Ward and Massey were not good – besides their political differences, Ward was an Irish Catholic, and Massey was an Irish Protestant. The administration ended on 21 August 1919 following a decision made by caucus to do so two months earlier.
In the 1919 election Ward lost the seat of Awarua, and left Parliament. In 1923, he contested a by-election in Tauranga, but was defeated by a Reform Party candidate, Charles MacMillan.Ward was largely considered a spent force. In the 1925 election, however, he narrowly returned to Parliament as MP for Invercargill. Ward contested the seat under the "Liberal" label, despite the fact that the remnants of the Liberal Party were now calling themselves by different names – his opponents characterised him as living in the past, and of attempting to fight the same battles over again. Ward's health was also failing.
In 1928 the remnants of the Liberal Party reasserted themselves as the new United Party, focused around George Forbes (leader of one faction of the Liberals), Bill Veitch (leader of another faction), and Albert Davy (a former organiser for the Reform Party). Forbes and Veitch both sought the leadership, and neither gained a clear advantage. Davy invited Ward to step in as a compromise candidate, perhaps hoping that Ward's status as a former Prime Minister would create a sense of unity.
Ward accepted an offer from Albert Davy and became leader of the new United Party, fighting off three other contenders.His health, however, was still poor, and he found the task difficult. In the 1928 election campaign, Ward startled both his supporters and his audience by promising to borrow £70 million in the course of a year to revive the economy – this is believed to have been a mistake caused by Ward's failing eyesight. Despite the strong objections his party had to this "promise", it was sufficient to prompt a massive surge in support for United – in the election United gained the same number of seats as Reform.
With the backing of the Labour Party, Ward became Prime Minister again, 22 years after his original appointment. He also briefly served as Minister of External Affairs in 1929.Ward was also attempting to rejuvenate liberal support in New Zealand. His cabinet was rather youthful, with only two MP's (Thomas Wilford and Āpirana Ngata), other than himself, having held ministerial portfolios before.
Ward's health continued to decline. He suffered a number of heart attacks, and soon it was Forbes who was effectively running the government. Ward was determined not to resign, and remained Prime Minister well after he had lost the ability to perform that role. On 28 May 1930, Ward succumbed to strong pressure from his colleagues and his family, and passed the premiership to Forbes.
Ward died shortly afterwards, on 8 July. He was given a state funeral with a Requiem Mass celebrated on 9 July at the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Hill St, Wellington. Ward had been an active worshipper there (and at its destroyed predecessor, St Mary's Cathedral) for all of his thirty-seven years as an MP.
The Mass was celebrated by Bishop O'Shea (the Coadjutor Archbishop of Wellington), and Archbishop Redwood, 1st Archbishop of Wellington, delivered the panagyric.
Ward was buried with considerable ceremony in Bluff. His son Vincent was elected to replace him as MP for Invercargill.
George William Forbes was a New Zealand politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of New Zealand from 28 May 1930 to 6 December 1935.
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition has an absolute majority of legislators in a parliament or other legislature. This situation is also known, albeit less commonly, as a balanced parliament, or as a legislature under no overall control, and can result in a minority government. The term is not relevant in multi-party systems where it is rare for a single party to hold a majority.
In New Zealand, the Leader of the Opposition is the politician who commands the support of the Official Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not supporting the government: this is usually the parliamentary leader of the second largest caucus in the House of Representatives. In the debating chamber the Leader of the Opposition sits directly opposite the Prime Minister.
Joseph Gordon Coates served as the 21st Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1925 to 1928. He was the third successive Reform prime minister since 1912.
Sir William Hall-Jones was the 16th Prime Minister of New Zealand from June 1906 until August 1906.
The New Zealand general election of 1911 was held on Thursday, 7 and 14 December in the general electorates, and on Tuesday, 19 December in the Māori electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 18th session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 590,042 (83.5%) voters turned out to vote. In two seats there was only one candidate.
The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held 4 November to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 22nd session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 678,877 (90.02%) voters turned out to vote. In one seat there was only one candidate.
The Tauranga by-election of 1923 was a by-election during the 21st New Zealand Parliament in the Tauranga electorate. The seat became vacant due to the death of the sitting Member, William Herries. The election was held on 28 March 1923 and won by Charles MacMillan, who defeated the former prime minister Joseph Ward.
Michael Edward Rainton Bassett is a former Labour Party member of the New Zealand House of Representatives and cabinet minister in the reformist fourth Labour government. He is also a noted New Zealand historian, and has published a number of books on New Zealand politics, including biographies of Prime Ministers Peter Fraser, Gordon Coates and Joseph Ward.
The Reform Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1912 to 1928. It is perhaps best remembered for its anti-trade union stance in the Waihi miners' strike of 1912 and a dockworkers' strike the following year. It also governed during World War I, during which a temporary coalition was formed with the Liberal Party.
The 1930 Invercargill by-election was a by-election during the 23rd New Zealand Parliament in the Southland electorate of Invercargill. The by-election occurred following the death of Sir Joseph Ward on 8 July 1930. The by-election, which was held on 13 August, was won by the late Prime Minister's second son, Vincent Ward against James Hargest.
The 1917 Bay of Islands by-election was a by-election held on 19 March 1917 during the 19th New Zealand Parliament in the Northland electorate of Bay of Islands. The by-election came about because Vernon Reed's win in the 1914 general election had been declared void by an electoral court, and Reed barred from standing for a year. The seat was won by William Stewart, Reed's Reform Party colleague, in the resulting 1915 by-election. When Reed became eligible again, Stewart resigned and Reed won the 1917 by-election unopposed.
The Wellington North by-election of 1918 was a by-election held in the Wellington North electorate during the 19th New Zealand Parliament, on 12 February 1918. It was caused by the resignation of incumbent MP Alexander Herdman of the Reform Party, who was appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court, and was won by John Luke with a majority of 420.
The New Zealand Liberal Party leadership election 1913 was held on 11 September to choose the next leader of the New Zealand Liberal Party. The election was won by Awarua MP and former party leader Joseph Ward.
The New Zealand Liberal Party leadership election 1912 was held on 22 March to choose the next leader of the New Zealand Liberal Party. The election was won by Thomas Mackenzie, who succeeded Joseph Ward.
The New Zealand Liberal Party leadership election 1906 was held to choose the next leader of the New Zealand Liberal Party. The election was won by Awarua MP and incumbent deputy leader Joseph Ward.
Conservatism in New Zealand is related to its counterparts in other Western nations, but developed uniquely over time. Advocates followed a political ideology that emphasised the preservation of traditional beliefs, institutions and practices.
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| Prime Minister of New Zealand |
| Mayor of Bluff |
| Postmaster-General |
| Electric Telegraph Commissioner |
|New title|| Minister of Telegraphs |
|New title|| Minister of Health |
| Minister of Railways |
|New Zealand Parliament|
James Parker Joyce
| Member of Parliament for Awarua |
John Ronald Hamilton
| Member of Parliament for Invercargill |
|Baronetage of the United Kingdom|
| Baronet |