Joshua Hill (politician)

Last updated
Joshua Hill
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
February 1, 1871 March 3, 1873
Preceded by Alfred Iverson, Sr.
Succeeded by John B. Gordon
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Georgia's 7th district
In office
March 4, 1857 January 23, 1861
Preceded by Nathaniel G. Foster
Succeeded byDistrict inactive
Personal details
Born(1812-01-10)January 10, 1812
Abbeville, South Carolina
DiedMarch 6, 1891(1891-03-06) (aged 79)
Madison, Georgia
Political party American Party, Republican

Joshua Hill (January 10, 1812 March 6, 1891) was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from the state of Georgia.

Americans Citizens, or natives, of the United States of America

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Georgia (U.S. state) U.S. state in the United States

Georgia is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Georgia is the 24th largest in area and 8th-most populous of the 50 United States. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. The state's nicknames include the Peach State and the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, a "beta(+)" global city, is both the state's capital and largest city. The Atlanta metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 5,949,951 in 2018, is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and contains about 60% of the entire state population.


Joshua Hill was born in 1812, in the Abbeville District, South Carolina to Joshua Hill, Sr. and Nancy Ann Wyatt Collier. [1] He attended the common schools, and upon graduation took up the study of law. In 1833 Hill moved to Monticello, Georgia where he establish a law practice. [2] Hill married Emily Reid of Monticello in 1836, she was 16 years old. They had four daughters and one son. [1] Fifteen years later, in 1848 Hill moved to Madison, where he would maintain a residence for the rest of his life. [2] [3]

South Carolina U.S. state in the United States

South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River.

Monticello, Georgia City in Georgia, United States

Monticello is the largest city and the county seat of Jasper County, Georgia, United States. The city includes historic buildings such as the Jasper County Courthouse, Monticello High School and the Monticello Historic District. The population was 2,657 at the 2010 census. It is 56 miles (90 km) southeast of Atlanta.

Madison, Georgia City in Georgia, United States

Madison is a city in Morgan County, Georgia, United States. It is part of the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke-Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The population was 3,636 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Morgan County and the site of the Morgan County Courthouse.

Political career

U.S. House of Representatives

Hill is said to have had "strong Whig and Unionist principles" which aligned him with Whig Party until that organization dissolved in Georgia. [3] Hill then became a member of the American Party (also called the Know-Nothing Party). The Know Nothing Party in his congressional district nominated Hill (without his solicitation) to run for the United States House of Representatives from Georgia in 1857, and it was under that banner that he was elected. [2] [3] He was re-elected to a second term in 1859, but resigned on January 23, 1861, shortly after the state convention passed an ordinance of secession in Georgia.

The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Alongside the Democratic Party, it was one of the two major parties in the United States during the late 1830s, the 1840s, and the early 1850s, part of the period some scholars describe as the Second Party System. Four presidents aligned with the party for at least part of their respective terms. Other influential party leaders include Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, William Seward, John J. Crittenden, and Truman Smith.

Know Nothing American political movement and party in the 19th century with anti-catholic tendency

The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was primarily anti-Catholic, xenophobic, and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society. The movement briefly emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common name.

United States House of Representatives Lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national legislature of the United States.

Mayor of Madison, Georgia

In 1864, Hill was elected mayor of Madison, Georgia. [1] During the later stages of the Civil War, Hill lost his only son during the Atlanta Campaign in fighting near Lithonia, Georgia. When Hill went to retrieve his son's body, he stopped to speak with General William Tecumseh Sherman, with a request that Union troops under Sherman's command not burn the town of Madison which was on the path of Sherman's March to the Sea. [1] While Sherman agreed, the portion of his troops passing through Madison were under the command of subordinate General Henry Warner Slocum. When General Slocum approached Madison, Joshua Hill went out to meet him. General Slocum honored the agreement previously struck with General Sherman, and only burned the cotton gin, the railroad station, and anything that contributed to the war effort, but not houses. [1]

Lithonia, Georgia City in Georgia, United States

Lithonia is a city in eastern DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. The city's population was 1,924 at the 2010 census. Lithonia is in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

William Tecumseh Sherman US Army general, businessman, educator, and author

William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the scorched earth policies he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States.

Shermans March to the Sea Military campaign during the American Civil War

Sherman's March to the Sea was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. The campaign began with Sherman's troops leaving the captured city of Atlanta on November 15 and ended with the capture of the port of Savannah on December 21. His forces followed a "scorched earth" policy, destroying military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property and disrupting the Confederacy's economy and transportation networks. The operation broke the back of the Confederacy and helped lead to its eventual surrender. Sherman's bold move of operating deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major achievements of the war and is also considered to be an early example of modern total war.

United States Senate

Following the end of the Civil War, Hill was elected to the United States Senate from Georgia as a Republican in 1867. However, he did not serve in the Senate until 1871 when Georgia was readmitted to the United States. He served in the Senate until the end of his term in 1873 and did not run for reelection. He resumed the practice of law and died in Madison, Georgia.

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights in order to uphold slavery.

Hill became the first Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Georgia. Soon afterwards, Reconstruction ended, and Georgia would not elect another Republican to the Senate until Mack Mattingly in 1980. [4]

Republican Party (United States) Major political party in the United States

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Mack Mattingly American politician

Mack Francis Mattingly is an American diplomat and politician who served one term as a United States senator from Georgia, the first Republican to have served in the U.S. Senate from that state since Reconstruction.

Death and legacy

Hill died in Madison on March 6, 1891, with interment in Madison Cemetery. [5] He is remembered for his congressional work, obtaining the transfer of deed of the old U.S. Mint Offices in Dahlonega, Georgia to the fledgling North Georgia Agricultural College which later evolved into the University of North Georgia.

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  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Joshua Hill - The Man Who Saved Madison from Sherman". Madison-Morgan Convention & Visitors Bureau. December 17, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 Lucien E. Roberts (March 1937). "The Political Career of Joshua Hill, Georgia Unionist". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 21 (1): 50–72. JSTOR   40576478.
  3. 1 2 3 "Joshua Hill Home (Historic Marker)". Georgia Historical Society. June 16, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  4. Charles Campbell (November 9, 1980). "Georgia's GOP Senate legacy isn't too long, but is colorful". The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  5. "HILL, Joshua, (1812 - 1891)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Nathaniel G. Foster
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 7th congressional district

March 4, 1857 January 23, 1861
Succeeded by
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Georgia
February 1, 1871 March 3, 1873
Served alongside: Homer V. M. Miller, Thomas M. Norwood
Succeeded by
John B. Gordon
Notes and references
1. Because of Georgia's secession from the Union in 1861, seat was vacant from 1861 to 1868, before Pierce M. B. Young was elected to the seat.
2. Because of Georgia's secession from the Union in 1861, seat was vacant from 1861 to 1871, after Alfred Iverson, Sr. withdrew from the Senate.