The Journal des débats (French for: Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times. Created shortly after the first meeting of the Estates-General of 1789, it was, after the outbreak of the French Revolution, the exact record of the debates of the National Assembly, under the title Journal des Débats et des Décrets ("Journal of Debates and Decrees").
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.
Published weekly rather than daily, it was headed for nearly forty years by Bertin l'Aîné and was owned for a long time by the Bertin family. During the First Empire it was opposed to Napoleon and had a new title imposed on it, the Journal de l'Empire.
Louis-François Bertin, also known as Bertin l'Aîné, was a French journalist. He had a younger brother – Louis-François Bertin de Vaux (1771–1842), two sons – Edouard François (1797–1871) and Louis-Marie François (1801–1854), and a daughter – Louise Bertin.
Bertin, also known as SaintBertin the Great, was the Frankish abbot of a monastery in Saint-Omer later named the Abbey of Saint Bertin after him. He is honored as a saint by Catholic Church.
The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.
During the first Bourbon Restoration (1813–14), the Journal took the title Journal des Débats Politiques et Littéraires, and, under the second Restoration, it took a conservative rather than reactionary position.[ citation needed ] Under Charles X and his entourage, the Journal changed to a position supporting the liberal opposition represented by the Doctrinaires (Guizot, Royer-Collard, etc.) (1827–1829).
The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the first fall of Napoleon in 1814, and his final defeat in the Hundred Days in 1815, until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of the executed Louis XVI came to power, and reigned in highly conservative fashion; exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up nearly all the territorial gains made since 1789.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy, authority, and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, and property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity. The more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".
In political science, a reactionary is a person who holds political views that favour a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society. As an adjective, the word reactionary describes points of view and policies meant to restore the status quo ante.
The Journal des Débats was the most read newspaper of the Restoration and the July Monarchy, before being surpassed by Émile de Girardin's La Presse and later by Le Petit Journal . The many contributions established the Journal's reputation as a major influence on French culture, and especially French literature for the first half of the 19th century.
The July Monarchy was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848. It marks the end of the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830). It began with the overthrow of the conservative government of Charles X, the last king of the House of Bourbon.
Émile de Girardin was a French journalist, publisher and politician. He was the most successful and flamboyant French journalist of the era, presenting himself as a promoter of mass education through mass journalism. His magazines reached over a hundred thousand subscribers, and his inexpensive daily newspaper La Presse undersold the competition by half, thanks to its cheaper production and heavier advertising. Like most prominent journalists, Girardin was deeply involved in politics, and served in parliament. To his bitter disappointment, he never held high office. He was a brilliant polemicist, a master of controversy, with pungent short sentences that immediately caught the reader's attention.
Le Petit Journal was a conservative daily Parisian newspaper founded by Moïse Polydore Millaud; published from 1863 to 1944. Together with Le Petit Parisien, Le Matin, and Le Journal, it was one of the four major French dailies. In 1890, during the Boulangiste crisis, its circulation first reached one million copies. Five years later, it had a circulation of two million copies, making it the world's largest newspaper.
During the German occupation, the Journal continued to be published, which caused it to be suppressed after the Liberation of Paris in 1944.
Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as the French colonial empire.
The Liberation of Paris was a military battle that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944. Paris had been ruled by Nazi Germany since the signing of the Second Compiègne Armistice on 22 June 1940, after which the Wehrmacht occupied northern and western France.
Henry Aron was a French journalist and political essayist. He wrote for several prominent Parisian journals and was director of the Journal officiel de la République française from 1876 until 1881. He also served in the government of Léon Gambetta, France's 45th Prime Minister. Aron was born in Besançon and died in Paris at the age of 43. He was awarded the Legion of Honor in 1878.
Gustave Babin was a French journalist and art critic. Much of his work was published in L'Illustration and Journal des débats.
Louis-Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer. His output includes orchestral works such as the Symphonie fantastique and Harold in Italy, choral pieces including the Requiem and L'enfance du Christ, his three operas Benvenuto Cellini, Les Troyens and Béatrice et Bénédict, and works of hybrid genres such as the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette and the "dramatic legend" La damnation de Faust.
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot was a French historian, orator, and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848. A moderate liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power, he worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830.
Antoine de Rivarol was a Royalist French writer and translator who lived during the Revolutionary era. He was briefly married to the translator Louisa Henrietta de Rivarol.
Auguste Émile Faguet was a French author and literary critic.
Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera, simply called Aide-toi, was a French society that aimed to stir up the electorate against the government during the Bourbon Restoration (1814–1830).
Charles-François Lebrun, 1st duc de Plaisance, was a French statesman who served as Third Consul of the French Republic and was later created Arch-Treasurer and Prince of the Empire by Napoleon I.
Jean Hippolyte Marchand was a French cubist painter, printmaker and illustrator with an association with figures of the Bloomsbury Group.
Joseph Fiévée was a French journalist, novelist, essayist, playwright, civil servant and secret agent. He also lived in an openly gay relationship with the writer Théodore Leclercq (1777-1851), with whom he was buried after his death.
Count Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel was a French politician. He was Minister of the Interior in the Cabinet of François-Pierre Guizot, losing office in the February Revolution.
Louis-Marie de Carné, comte de Carné was a French politician, journalist and historian.
Antoine Jay was a French writer, journalist, historian and politician.
Alfred-Auguste Cuvillier-Fleury was a French historian and literary critic.
Auguste-Louis Bertin d'Antilly (1763–1804) was a French dramatist and journalist whose patriotic songs and topical libretti were prominent during the French Revolution, but who emigrated from France under Napoleon.
Auguste-François Michaut, was born in 1786 Paris and died in 1879 Versailles. He was a coin engraver of France and Holland, a medallist and sculptor.
Jean Henry Blondel was a prolific French architect.
Joseph-François-Nicolas Dusaulchoy de Bergemont was a French playwright, writer and journalist.
Charles-Hippolyte Pouthas was a 20th-century French historian specialist of political and religious history of contemporary France.
Augustin Charles Renouard was a French lawyer and politician. During a long career he worked as an advocate, was a member of the chamber of deputies, was vice-president of Société d'économie politique, sat on the Court of Cassation and was a Senator. He published many books and articles, and was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of the Institut de France. He made important contributions to the law on copyright, which he saw as a temporary monopoly granted to the author rather than a right of ownership.
Paul Luc Olivier Bluysen was a French journalist and politician. He was deputy and then senator for French India from 1910 to 1928.