|Juan Esteban Montero|
|20th President of Chile|
December 4, 1931 –June 4, 1932
|Succeeded by||Arturo Puga|
|Acting President of Chile|
November 15, 1931 –December 15, 1931
|Preceded by||Manuel Trucco|
July 27, 1931 –August 20, 1931
|Preceded by||Pedro Opaso|
|Succeeded by||Manuel Trucco|
|Born||February 12, 1879|
|Died||February 25, 1948 69) (aged|
|Spouse(s)||Graciela Fehrman Martínez|
|Alma mater||University of Chile|
Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez (February 12, 1879 – February 25, 1948) was a Chilean political figure. He served twice as president of Chile between 1931 and 1932.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
The President of Chile, officially known as the President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of Chile. The President is responsible for both the Chilean government and state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.
He was born in Santiago, the son of Benjamín Montero and of Eugenia Rodríguez. Juan Esteban Montero studied at the colegio de San Ignacio and at the Universidad de Chile. He graduated as a lawyer on September 16, 1901, and soon after became professor of civil and Roman law at his alma mater. He also worked as a government lawyer and in private practice. He married Graciela Fehrman Martínez, with whom he had four children: Juan Esteban, Pedro, Benjamín and Carmen.
Montero's first incursion in politics was in 1931, when President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo named him Minister of the Interior and Social Welfare. After the resignation of president Ibáñez on July 26, 1931 he reluctantly agreed to serve in similar position to Ibáñez's successor, Pedro Opazo; just to find himself promoted to president the very next day, after Opazo's resignation. Montero, as a way out of the political impasse, immediately called for presidential elections. In the meanwhile he assumed as Vice President.
General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. He served as President twice, first between 1927 and 1931, and then from 1952 to 1958, serving for 11 years in office.
Very soon after, Montero accepted the presidential nomination of the Radical Party, and in order to qualify, he resigned his vicepresidency on August 20, 1931. The position was assumed by Manuel Trucco. The Trucco administration was only supposed to be a caretaker one, keeping order in the country until the presidential elections. Nonetheless it was faced with very difficult moments such as the Sailors' mutiny in the navy, caused by the reduction of the salaries of the enlisted men (September 1–5, 1931), which was controlled only after an aerial bombing of the fleet and presaged difficult times ahead.
Manuel Trucco Franzani was a Chilean politician and provisional vice president of Chile in 1931.
The Chilean Navy is the naval force of Chile.
Supported by the Liberals and Conservatives as well as the Radicals, Juan Esteban Montero was the clear winner of the presidential elections, obtaining almost 64% of the popular vote, defeating leftist José Santos Salas, a protégé of former President Carlos Ibáñez. He took over on November 15, in the midst of a political and economic chaos that resulted from the market crash of 1929. His program called for the implementation of an austerity program that involved the reduction of public expenditures and public salaries, a downsizing of the public administration and an increase of the foreign debt. Notwithstanding these harsh measures, the depreciation of the currency continued, and inflation soared while the Central Bank reserves were at an all time low. This economic program only managed to cause widespread discontent, while in no way improving the economy, and in turn led to his downfall.
The Conservative Party of Chile was one of the principal Chilean political parties since its foundation in 1836 until 1948, when it broke apart. In 1953 it reformed as the United Conservative Party and in 1966 joined with the Liberal Party to form the National Party. The Conservative Party was a right-wing party, originally created to be the clericalist, pro-Catholic Church group.
José Santos Salas Morales was a Chilean physician and politician. He was candidate for the presidential election of 1925, where he was defeated by Emiliano Figueroa.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Stock Market Crash of 1929 or the Great Crash, is a major stock market crash that occurred in late October 1929. It started on October 24 and continued until October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.
On June 4, 1932, colonel Marmaduke Grove staged a coup d'état by taking over the Air Force base of El Bosque, in Santiago, and demanding the resignation of President Montero. Montero refused to call on the army to put down the coup, and instead chose to resign. That same night, the victorious revolutionaries organized a Government Junta composed of retired General Arturo Puga, Eugenio Matte and Carlos Davila, with colonel Grove as their minister of Defense. After this episode, Montero retired completely from politics, and went back to private practice and business. He died in Santiago, on February 25, 1948, at the age of 69.
Marmaduke Grove Vallejo, his name erroneously spelled Marmaduque Grobeh, was a Chilean Air Force officer, political figure and member of the Government Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932.
The Chilean Air Force is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.
Government Junta of Chile, was a political structure established during the anarchy that followed the resignation of President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. The Socialist Republic of Chile ended with the election of Arturo Alessandri as new president of Chile.
| Minister of the Interior and Social Welfare |
| Minister of the Interior |
| President of Chile |
| President of Chile |
Juan Antonio Ríos Morales was a Chilean political figure, and President of Chile from 1942 to 1946, during the height of World War II. He died in office.
Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma, GCTE was a Chilean political figure and reformer, who served thrice as the President of Chile, first between 1920 and 1924, then for part of 1925, and finally from 1932 until 1938.
Emiliano Figueroa Larraín was President of Chile from December 23, 1925 until his resignation on May 10, 1927. He also served as Acting president for a few months on 1910.
Pedro Opaso Letelier was a Chilean politician and provisional vice president of Chile in 1931.
Government Junta of Chile, was the political structure established to rule Chile following the anti-conservative military coup that assumed power after first interfering in progressive President Arturo Alessandri's deadlocked government. It ruled the country until it was ousted by yet another military coup, and gave way to the January Junta.
The Socialist Republic of Chile was a short-lived political entity in Chile, that was proclaimed by the Government Junta that took over that year.
The Ariostazo occurred on August 25, 1939, and was a brief revolt of the Tacna artillery regiment, led by General Ariosto Herrera, in what turned out to be a non-violent attempt against the government of Chilean President Pedro Aguirre Cerda.
The Chilean naval mutiny of 1931 was a violent rebellion of Chilean Navy enlisted men against the government of Vice President Manuel Trucco.
Alberto Cabero Díaz was a Chilean politician, President of the Chilean Senate and Member of Government Junta in 1932. He was a member of the Radical Party.
The Presidential Republic is the period in the History of Chile spanning from the approval of the 1925 Constitution on 18 September 1925, under the government of Arturo Alessandri Palma, to the fall of the Popular Unity government headed by the President Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973. The period spans the same time as the "Development inwards" period in Chilean economic history.
Fernando Maturana Barahona was the 13th Mayor of the commune of Pichilemu, office which he held between November 1930 and October 1932, under Presidents Carlos Ibáñez del Campo and Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez.
The following lists events that happened during 1931 in Chile.
The Socialist Radical Party was a centre-left political party of Chile that existed from 1931 to 1941.