Juan Esteban Montero

Last updated
Juan Esteban Montero
Juan Esteban Montero 1932 cropped.jpg
20th President of Chile
In office
December 4, 1931 June 4, 1932
Succeeded by Arturo Puga
Acting President of Chile
In office
November 15, 1931 December 15, 1931
Preceded by Manuel Trucco
In office
July 27, 1931 August 20, 1931
Preceded byPedro Opaso
Succeeded by Manuel Trucco
Personal details
Born(1879-02-12)February 12, 1879
Santiago, Chile
DiedFebruary 25, 1948(1948-02-25) (aged 69)
Santiago, Chile
Political party Radical
Spouse(s)Graciela Fehrman Martínez
Children
  • Juan Esteban
  • Pedro
  • Benjamín
  • Carmen
Alma mater University of Chile
Occupation Lawyer

Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez (February 12, 1879 February 25, 1948) was a Chilean political figure. He served twice as president of Chile between 1931 and 1932.

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

President of Chile head of state and head of government of Chile

The President of Chile, officially known as the President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of Chile. The President is responsible for both the Chilean government and state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures. It is also considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", and is essential to the country's political stability.

Contents

Early life

He was born in Santiago, the son of Benjamín Montero and of Eugenia Rodríguez. Juan Esteban Montero studied at the colegio de San Ignacio and at the Universidad de Chile. He graduated as a lawyer on September 16, 1901, and soon after became professor of civil and Roman law at his alma mater. He also worked as a government lawyer and in private practice. He married Graciela Fehrman Martínez, with whom he had four children: Juan Esteban, Pedro, Benjamín and Carmen.

Presidency

Montero's first incursion in politics was in 1931, when President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo named him Minister of the Interior and Social Welfare. After the resignation of president Ibáñez on July 26, 1931 he reluctantly agreed to serve in similar position to Ibáñez's successor, Pedro Opazo; just to find himself promoted to president the very next day, after Opazo's resignation. Montero, as a way out of the political impasse, immediately called for presidential elections. In the meanwhile he assumed as Vice President.

Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Chilean army officer and political figure

General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. He served as President twice, first between 1927 and 1931, and then from 1952 to 1958, serving for 11 years in office.

Very soon after, Montero accepted the presidential nomination of the Radical Party, and in order to qualify, he resigned his vicepresidency on August 20, 1931. The position was assumed by Manuel Trucco. The Trucco administration was only supposed to be a caretaker one, keeping order in the country until the presidential elections. Nonetheless it was faced with very difficult moments such as the Sailors' mutiny in the navy, caused by the reduction of the salaries of the enlisted men (September 1–5, 1931), which was controlled only after an aerial bombing of the fleet and presaged difficult times ahead.

Manuel Trucco Vice President of Chile

Manuel Trucco Franzani was a Chilean politician and provisional vice president of Chile in 1931.

Chilean Navy maritime warfare branch of Chiles military

The Chilean Navy is the naval force of Chile.

Supported by the Liberals and Conservatives as well as the Radicals, Juan Esteban Montero was the clear winner of the presidential elections, obtaining almost 64% of the popular vote, defeating leftist José Santos Salas, a protégé of former President Carlos Ibáñez. He took over on November 15, in the midst of a political and economic chaos that resulted from the market crash of 1929. His program called for the implementation of an austerity program that involved the reduction of public expenditures and public salaries, a downsizing of the public administration and an increase of the foreign debt. Notwithstanding these harsh measures, the depreciation of the currency continued, and inflation soared while the Central Bank reserves were at an all time low. This economic program only managed to cause widespread discontent, while in no way improving the economy, and in turn led to his downfall.

Conservative Party (Chile) Chilean political party

The Conservative Party of Chile was one of the principal Chilean political parties since its foundation in 1836 until 1948, when it broke apart. In 1953 it reformed as the United Conservative Party and in 1966 joined with the Liberal Party to form the National Party. The Conservative Party was a right-wing party, originally created to be the clericalist, pro-Catholic Church group.

José Santos Salas

José Santos Salas Morales was a Chilean physician and politician. He was candidate for the presidential election of 1925, where he was defeated by Emiliano Figueroa.

Wall Street Crash of 1929 stock Market crash of 1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Stock Market Crash of 1929 or the Great Crash, is a major stock market crash that occurred in late October 1929. It started on October 24 and continued until October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed.

On June 4, 1932, colonel Marmaduke Grove staged a coup d'état by taking over the Air Force base of El Bosque, in Santiago, and demanding the resignation of President Montero. Montero refused to call on the army to put down the coup, and instead chose to resign. That same night, the victorious revolutionaries organized a Government Junta composed of retired General Arturo Puga, Eugenio Matte and Carlos Davila, with colonel Grove as their minister of Defense. After this episode, Montero retired completely from politics, and went back to private practice and business. He died in Santiago, on February 25, 1948, at the age of 69.

Marmaduke Grove politician

Marmaduke Grove Vallejo, his name erroneously spelled Marmaduque Grobeh, was a Chilean Air Force officer, political figure and member of the Government Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932.

Chilean Air Force Air warfare branch of Chiles armed forces

The Chilean Air Force is the air force of Chile, a branch of the Chilean military.

Government Junta of Chile (1932)

Government Junta of Chile, was a political structure established during the anarchy that followed the resignation of President Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. The Socialist Republic of Chile ended with the election of Arturo Alessandri as new president of Chile.

See also

Political offices
Preceded by
Carlos Frödden
Minister of the Interior and Social Welfare
1931
Succeeded by
Miguel Letelier
Preceded by
Carlos Frödden
Minister of the Interior
1931
Succeeded by
Luis Gutiérrez
Preceded by
Pedro Opazo
President of Chile
1931
Succeeded by
Manuel Trucco
Preceded by
Manuel Trucco
President of Chile
19311932
Succeeded by
Arturo Puga

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