Juan Fernández Islands

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Juan Fernández Islands

Archipiélago Juan Fernández
Special Territory and Commune
Archpielago Juan Fernandez (Vista hacia Robinson Crusoe).jpg
Bandera Juan Fernandez.svg
Flag
Escudo de Juan Fernandez.svg
Coat of arms
Comuna de Juan Fernandez.svg
Chile location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Juan Fernández Islands
Coordinates: 33°38′29″S78°50′28″W / 33.64139°S 78.84111°W / -33.64139; -78.84111 Coordinates: 33°38′29″S78°50′28″W / 33.64139°S 78.84111°W / -33.64139; -78.84111
Country Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Region Flag of Valparaiso Region, Chile.svg  Valparaíso
Province Valparaíso
Discovered22 November 1574
Colony status1895
Commune  created21 September 1979
Special territory status30 July 2007
Named for Juan Fernández
Capital San Juan Bautista
Government
[1]
  Type Municipality
  Body Municipal council
   Alcalde (Mayor)Felipe Paredes Vergara (PH)
Area
[2]
  Total99.6 km2 (38.5 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
1,268 m (4,160 ft)
Population
 (2012 Census) [2]
  Total900
  Density9.0/km2 (23/sq mi)
   Urban
800
   Rural
100
Sex
[2]
  Men536
  Women364
Time zone UTC-4 (CLT [4] )
  Summer (DST) UTC-3 (CLST [5] )
Area code(s) 56
Currency Peso (CLP)
Website Juan Fernández Islands

The Juan Fernández Islands (Spanish : Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group in the South Pacific Ocean reliant on tourism and fishing. Situated 670 km (362 nmi; 416 mi) off the coast of Chile, they are composed of three main volcanic islands: Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk and Santa Clara. The group is considered part of Insular Chile.

Contents

The islands are primarily known for having been the home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk for more than four years from 1704, which may have inspired Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe . [6] Most of the archipelago's present-day inhabitants reside on Robinson Crusoe Island, and mainly in the capital, San Juan Bautista, located at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast. [7]

The group of islands is part of Chile's Valparaíso Region (which also includes Easter Island) and, along with the Desventuradas Islands, forms one of the nine communes of Valparaíso Province. The islands are named after Juan Fernandez, the explorer who discovered them in the 1570s.

Geography

Landsat 7 image of the Juan Fernandez Islands on 15 September 1999, shows the unique pattern of clouds known as "Karman vortex street" caused by the interaction of winds with the islands' mountains Vortex-street-1.jpg
Landsat 7 image of the Juan Fernández Islands on 15 September 1999, shows the unique pattern of clouds known as "Kármán vortex street" caused by the interaction of winds with the islands' mountains

Alejandro Selkirk is the largest of the Juan Fernández Islands at 49.5 km2 (19.1 sq mi), and its highest peak, Cerro de Los Inocentes, is also the highest point of the archipelago at 1,268 m (4,160 ft). The island's population was 57 in 2012. Robinson Crusoe is the second largest island in the archipelago at 47.9 km2 (18 sq mi); its highest peak, El Yunque, is 915 m (3,002 ft). The population of Robinson Crusoe was 843 in 2012. Santa Clara is 2.2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) in area and reaches a height of 375 m (1,230 ft). Santa Clara is uninhabited. [8] The maximum elevations of Juan Fernández, 915 m (3,002 ft) for Robinson Crusoe and 1,329 m (4,360 ft) for Alejandro Selkirk, respectively, are high enough to cause the phenomenon known as Kármán vortex street, which can be seen from space.

The islands are volcanic in origin, produced by the movement of the Nazca Plate over the Juan Fernández hotspot. As the plate moved eastward over the hot spot, volcanic eruptions formed the Juan Fernández Ridge before being subducted under the South American continent at the Peru–Chile Trench. The islands occur where the peaks of the submarine ridge have protruded above sea level. Radiometric dating indicates that Santa Clara is the oldest of the islands, at 5.8 million years old, followed by Robinson Crusoe, 3.8 – 4.2 million years old, and Alexander Selkirk, 1.0 – 2.4 million years old.

The seafloor around Juan Fernández Islands is rich in Manganese–Iron nodules, which may be of potential economic interest. [9]

Climate

The islands have a subtropical Mediterranean climate, [10] moderated by the cold Humboldt Current, which flows northward to the east of the islands, and the southeast trade winds. Temperatures range from 10 °C (50 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F), with an annual mean of 15.4 °C (60 °F). Higher elevations are generally cooler, with occasional frosts on Robinson Crusoe.

Average annual precipitation is 1,081 mm (42.6 in), varying from 318 mm (12.5 in) to 1,698 mm (66.9 in) year to year. Much of the variability in rainfall depends on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Rainfall is higher in the winter months, and varies with elevation and exposure; elevations above 500 m (1,640 ft) experience almost daily rainfall, while the western, leeward side of Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara are quite dry.

Climate data for Juan Fernández Islands (1981–2010, extremes 1958–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
24.8
(76.6)
22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
21.8
(71.2)
23.5
(74.3)
25.2
(77.4)
26.9
(80.4)
28.8
(83.8)
Average high °C (°F)21.5
(70.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.1
(70.0)
19.3
(66.7)
17.6
(63.7)
16.2
(61.2)
15.0
(59.0)
14.8
(58.6)
15.0
(59.0)
16.0
(60.8)
17.6
(63.7)
19.8
(67.6)
17.9
(64.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
18.5
(65.3)
18.1
(64.6)
16.5
(61.7)
15.0
(59.0)
13.6
(56.5)
12.5
(54.5)
12.2
(54.0)
12.3
(54.1)
13.3
(55.9)
14.8
(58.6)
16.9
(62.4)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
16.6
(61.9)
16.1
(61.0)
14.6
(58.3)
13.1
(55.6)
11.8
(53.2)
10.8
(51.4)
10.4
(50.7)
10.4
(50.7)
11.3
(52.3)
12.7
(54.9)
14.7
(58.5)
13.2
(55.8)
Record low °C (°F)10.6
(51.1)
4.2
(39.6)
9.0
(48.2)
4.2
(39.6)
4.6
(40.3)
4.8
(40.6)
5.0
(41.0)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41.0)
6.2
(43.2)
7.3
(45.1)
9.2
(48.6)
3.0
(37.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)32.5
(1.28)
34.5
(1.36)
60.3
(2.37)
91.1
(3.59)
160.8
(6.33)
180.1
(7.09)
160.2
(6.31)
126.3
(4.97)
87.7
(3.45)
54.1
(2.13)
35.1
(1.38)
24.1
(0.95)
1,046.8
(41.21)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)111013152123211916141010183
Average relative humidity (%)73737377787879777776747376
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.0209.1158.1123.0108.599.093.0105.4147.0204.6249.0260.42,005.1
Source 1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile [11] [12]
Source 2: Climate and Temperature (humidity and sun) [13]

Biota and ecology

The Juan Fernández islands are home to a high percentage of rare and endemic plants and animals, and are recognized as a distinct ecoregion. The volcanic origin and remote location of the islands meant that the islands' flora and fauna had to reach the archipelago from far across the sea; as a result, the island is home to relatively few plant species and very few animal species. The closest relatives of the archipelago's plants and animals are found in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregions of southern South America, including the Valdivian temperate rain forests, Magellanic subpolar forests, and Desventuradas Islands.

Flora

There are 209 native species of vascular plants in the Juan Fernandez Islands, approximately 150 of which are flowering plants, and 50 are ferns. There are 126 species (62 percent) that are endemic, with 12 endemic genera and two endemic families, Lactoridaceae and Thyrsopteridaceae. Many plants are characteristic of the Antarctic flora, and are related to plants found in southern South America, New Zealand and Australia. Vegetation zones generally correspond to elevation, with grasslands and shrublands at lower elevations, tall and montane forests at middle elevations, and shrublands at the highest elevations. The two main islands have somewhat distinct plant communities.

Alejandro Selkirk is mostly covered with grassland from 0 to 400 m (1,300 ft), interspersed with wooded ravines (quebradas), home to dry forests of Myrceugenia and Zanthoxylum fagara . From 400 m (1,300 ft) to 600 m (2,000 ft) are lower montane forests, with upper montane forest from 600 m (2,000 ft) to 950 m (3,100 ft). The treeline is at approximately 950 m (3,100 ft), above which is alpine shrubland and grassland, dominated by temperate Magellanic vegetation such as Acaena, Dicksonia, Drimys, Empetrum, Gunnera, Myrteola, Pernettya , and Ugni . On Robinson Crusoe, grasslands predominate from 0 to 100 m (300 ft); introduced shrubs from 100 m (300 ft) to 300 m (1,000 ft); tall forests from 300 m (1,000 ft) to 500 m (1,600 ft); montane forests from 500 m (1,640 ft) to 700 m (2,300 ft), with dense tree cover of Cuminia fernandezia, Fagara , and Rhaphithamnus venustus ; tree fern forests from 700 m (2,300 ft) to 750 m (2,500 ft), and brushwood forests above 750 m (2,500 ft). Santa Clara is covered with grassland.

Three endemic species dominate the tall and lower montane forests of the archipelago, Drimys confertifolia on both main islands, Myrceugenia fernandeziana on Robinson Crusoe, and M. schulzii on Alexander Selkirk. Endemic tree fern species of southern hemisphere genus Dicksonia (D. berteroana on Robinson Crusoe and D. externa on Alexander Selkirk) and the endemic genus Thyrsopteris (T. elegans) are the predominant species in the tree-fern forests. An endemic species of sandalwood, Santalum fernandezianum , was overexploited for its fragrant wood, has not been seen since 1908, and is believed extinct. The Chonta palm (Juania australis) is endangered.

Fauna

The Juan Fernández Islands have a very limited fauna, with no native land mammals, reptiles, or amphibians. Seventeen land and sea-bird species breed on the islands. The island has three endemic bird species, and three endemic subspecies. Introduced fauna by humans include rats and goats. Robinson Crusoe Island is home to an endemic and endangered hummingbird, the Juan Fernández firecrown (Sephanoides fernandensis). This large hummingbird, about 11 cm (4 in) long, is thought to number only about 500 individuals. The other endemic bird species are the Juan Fernández tit-tyrant ( Anairetes fernandezianus) of Robinson Crusoe Island, and the Masafuera rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae) of Alejandro Selkirk Island. [14] The islands support the entire known breeding populations of two petrel species, Stejneger's Petrel Pterodroma longirostris (IUCN status VU) and the Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma externa (IUCN status VU). In addition, the Juan Fernandez Islands may still support a third breeding petrel species, De Filippi's Petrel Pterodroma defilippiana (IUCN status VU), whose only other known breeding grounds are on the Desventuradas Islands.

The Magellanic penguin breeds on Robinson Crusoe Island within the archipelago. [15] The endemic Juan-Fernandez spiny lobster (without claws) lives in the marine waters (Jasus frontalis). The Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii) also lives on the islands. This species was nearly exterminated in the sixteenth to nineteenth century, but it was rediscovered in 1965. A census in 1970 found about 750 fur seals living there. Only two were sighted on the Desventuradas Islands, located some 780 km (485 mi) to the north. The actual population of the Desventuradas may be higher, because the species tends to hide in sea caves. There seems to be a yearly population increase of 16–17 percent.

History

Robinson Crusoe Island, as seen in the late 19th or early 20th century. The ship in Cumberland Bay is the cruiser Esmeralda. Isla Robinson1890-1922.JPG
Robinson Crusoe Island, as seen in the late 19th or early 20th century. The ship in Cumberland Bay is the cruiser Esmeralda .

The archipelago was discovered on 22 November 1574, by the Spanish sailor Juan Fernández, who was sailing south between Callao and Valparaíso along a route which he also discovered, hundreds of miles west of the coast of Chile, which avoided the northerly Humboldt current. He called the islands Más Afuera, Más a Tierra, and Santa Clara. [16]

In the 17th and 18th centuries, the islands were used as a hideout for pirates and became the location of a penal colony. It was during this period that Alexander Selkirk became marooned on the islands. In the 1740s, they were visited by Commodore Anson's flotilla during his ill-fated venture to the South Seas. The location of the archipelago was fixed by Alessandro Malaspina in 1790; previous charts had differed on the location. [17] British and American whaling vessels were regular visitors to the islands, starting with the London (Captain Joshua Coffin) in 1795. [18]

During the maritime fur trade era of the early 19th century the islands were a source of fur seal skins, and the Juan Fernández fur seal was nearly driven to extinction. In his book, Two Years Before the Mast (Chapter VII), Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the islands as he found them circa 1834. At this time the main island was being used as a penal colony. However, when Dr John Coulter visited the penal colony in the early 1840s, he reported it deserted after the convicts had risen up and killed the soldiers who had held them captive. The prisoners fled to mainland Chile, where they were later hunted down and shot. The story appears in Coulter's book Adventures in the Pacific (1845). In 1908, the islands were visited by the Swedish Magellanic Expedition and Carl Skottsberg is believed to have been the last to have seen the Santalum fernandezianum tree alive.

SMS Dresden, shortly before its scuttling in Cumberland Bay SMS Dresden before scuttling.jpg
SMS Dresden, shortly before its scuttling in Cumberland Bay

Late in 1914 the islands were the rendezvous for Admiral Maximilian von Spee's East Asiatic Squadron as he gathered his ships together before defeating the British under Admiral Christopher Cradock at the Battle of Coronel. Following the Royal Navy's win at the Battle of the Falkland Islands a month later, the only surviving German cruiser, SMS Dresden, was hunted down and cornered illegally at Más a Tierra early in 1915, although she was in Chilean territorial waters, where it was scuttled after a brief battle with British cruisers. [19]

In 1966 the Chilean government renamed Más Afuera as Alejandro Selkirk Island and Más a Tierra as Robinson Crusoe Island, in order to promote tourism. Incidentally, Selkirk never set foot on Más Afuera, only on Más a Tierra. On 30 July 2007, a constitutional reform gave the Juan Fernández Islands and Easter Island the status of "special territories" of Chile. Pending the enactment of a charter the archipelago will continue to be governed as a commune of the Valparaíso Region. [20]

On 27 February 2010, a tsunami following the 8.8 magnitude earthquake off Maule, Chile struck the islands causing at least 8 deaths. [21] Eleven people were reported as missing. [22] Some early reports described the tsunami as being 40 m (130 ft) high, but later reports measured it at 3 m (10 ft). Most of the town of San Juan Bautista on Robinson Crusoe Island was destroyed. [23] [24] [25]

Government

As a commune, the Juan Fernández Islands are a third-level administrative division of Chile governed by a municipal council, headed by a mayor (Spanish : alcalde ) who is directly elected every four years. The mayor for the term 2012–2016 was Felipe Paredes Vergara. [1]

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, the commune was represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Joaquín Godoy (RN) and Aldo Cornejo (PDC) as part of the 13th electoral district (together with Valparaíso and Easter Island). It was represented in the Senate by Francisco Chahuán Chahuán (RN) and Ricardo Lagos Weber (PPD) as part of the 6th senatorial constituency (Valparaíso-Coast).

Travel

The islands are served by Robinson Crusoe Airfield, located on Robinson Crusoe Island.

Demographics

According to data from the 2012 Census of Population and Housing, the commune of Juan Fernández had 900 inhabitants; of these, 800 (88.9 percent) lived in urban areas and 100 (11.1 percent) in rural areas. At that time there were 536 men and 364 women. Most of the population is of European origin, mainly Spanish, British, German and other European nationalities. [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Desventuradas Islands Archipelago of Chile

The Desventuradas Islands is a group of four small islands located 850 kilometres (530 mi) off the coast of Chile, northwest of Santiago in the Pacific Ocean. They are considered part of Insular Chile.

<i>Gunnera</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Gunneraceae

Gunnera is the sole genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Gunneraceae, which contains 63 species. Some species have extremely large leaves. Species in the genus are variously native to Latin America, Australia, New Zealand, Papuasia, Hawaii, insular Southeast Asia, Africa, and Madagascar. The stalks of many species are edible.

<i>Myrceugenia</i> genus of plants

Myrceugenia is a genus of evergreen woody flowering trees and shrubs belonging to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, first described as a genus in 1855. The genus is native to South America from central Brazil to southern Chile. It is closely related to the genus Luma; some botanists include Myrceugenia in that genus.

Robinson Crusoe Island island of Chile

Robinson Crusoe Island, formerly known as Más a Tierra, is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the more populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago, with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

Alejandro Selkirk Island island of Chile

Alejandro Selkirk Island, previously known as Más Afuera and renamed after the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk, is the largest and most westerly island in the Juan Fernández Archipelago of the Valparaíso Region of Chile. It is situated 180 km west of Robinson Crusoe Island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.

Selkirk may refer to:

Santa Clara Island island of Chile

Santa Clara Island is a tiny, uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Robinson Crusoe Island in a group of islands known as the Juan Fernández Islands. The island is of volcanic origin and is approximately 1 km (0.6 mi) long and 0.6 km (0.4 mi) wide. The island group is politically part of the South American country Chile, and is administratively assigned to the Region of Valparaíso.

Archipiélago de Juan Fernández National Park

Archipiélago de Juan Fernández National Park is a national park located in the Pacific Ocean 665 kilometres west of Chile's mainland port of San Antonio, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. The park covers 96 square kilometres and comprises the Santa Clara, Alejandro Selkirk and the most part of the Robinson Crusoe Island islands.

Masafuera rayadito species of bird

The Masafuera rayadito is a rare bird endemic to Alejandro Selkirk Island in the Juan Fernández Islands. The species is a member of the ovenbird family and only one of two species in the rayadito genus. The species' natural habitat is humid montane scrub, dominated by tree ferns and ferns between 800–1300 m above sea level.

De Filippis petrel species of bird

De Filippi's petrel or Masatierra petrel is a species of seabird in the family Procellariidae. It is endemic to Chile where it nests in the Juan Fernández Islands and Desventuradas Islands. Its natural habitats are open seas and rocky shores.

Juan Fernández petrel species of bird

The Juan Fernández petrel is a species of seabird in the family Procellariidae. It nests on a single island off the coast of Chile, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. It was previously classified as a subspecies of the white-necked petrel, which is found in tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

San Juan Bautista, Chile Town in Valparaíso, Chile

San Juan Bautista is the main town in the Juan Fernández Islands. Some sources say it was founded in 1877, while others give an earlier date of 1750. It is located on Cumberland Bay on the center of the northeast coast of Robinson Crusoe Island.

Geology of Chile

The geology of Chile is a characterized by processes linked to subduction such as volcanism, earthquakes and orogeny. The buildings blocks of Chile's geology assembled during the Paleozoic Era. Chile was by then the southwestern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana. In the Jurassic Gondwana begun to split and the ongoing period of crustal deformation and mountain building known as the Andean orogeny begun. In the Late Cenozoic Chile definitely separated from Antarctica, the Andes expienced a great rise accomplained by a cooling climate and the onset of glaciations.

Tourism in Chile Economy sector of Chile

Since the mid-1990s, tourism in Chile has become one of the main sources of income for the country, especially in its most extreme areas. In 2005, this sector grew by 13.6%, generating more than US$500 million, equivalent to 1.33% of the national GDP.

The islands of Chile encompass the various islands that the government of Chile has sovereignty over. By far the majority of these are the islands in the south of the country. Chile has one of the world's longest coastlines, and one of the most dangerous for boats; it is more than 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) long and has at least 5,000 rocky islands.

<i>Podophorus</i> genus of plants

Podophorus is an extinct genus of plants in the grass family. The only known species is Podophorus bromoides, which was native to Robinson Crusoe Island in the South Pacific Ocean. This is one of the Juan Fernández Islands, part of the Republic of Chile. The plant was last collected in the wild in the mid-19th century and is now considered extinct. A genetic analysis of the type material found it to be most closely related to Megalachne, also endemic to the Juan Fernández archipelago. This clade was in turn found to be nested within a paraphyletic Festuca, most closely related to F. pampeana of South America.

Wildlife of Chile

The wildlife of Chile encompasses a diverse range of animals and plants, a condition is attributed to the country's slender and elongated shape, which spans a wide range of latitude, and also its altitude, ranging from the windswept coastline of the Pacific coast on the west to northern Andes to the sub-Antarctic, high Andes mountains in the east. There are many distinct ecosystems.

Insular Chile

Insular Chile, also called Las islas Esporádicas, or "the Sporadic Islands", is a scattered group of oceanic islands of volcanic origin located in the Chilean Sea, at some distance from mainland Chile, and which are under the sovereignty of Chile.

Cerro de Los Inocentes Mountain in Chile

Cerro de Los Inocentes is the highest mountain in the Juan Fernández Islands, Valparaíso Region, Chile. It is a nesting ground for the Stejneger's petrel.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 "Censos de poblacion y vivienda". Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (2012). Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  3. Santibáñez, H.T., Cerda, M.T. (2004). Los parques nacionales de Chile: una guía para el visitante. Colección Fuera de serie. Editorial Universitaria. ISBN   9789561117013
  4. "Chile Time" Archived 11 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine . World Time Zones (2007). Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  5. "Chile Summer Time" Archived 11 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine . World Time Zones (2007). Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  6. Severin, Tim (2002). In Search of Robinson Crusoe . New York: Basic Books. pp.  17–19. ISBN   978-046-50-7699-4.
  7. 1 2 The islands' area and population data retrieved from the 2012 census.
  8. Santibáñez, H. T.; Cerda, M. T. (2004). Los parques nacionales de Chile: una guía para el visitante. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria. ISBN   978-956-11-1701-3.
  9. García, Marcelo; Correa, Jorge; Maksaev, Víctor; Townley, Brian (2020). "Potential mineral resources of the Chilean offshore: an overview". Andean Geology . 47 (1): 1–13.
  10. "Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Juan Fernández" Archived 23 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Corporacion Nacional Forestal de Chile (2010). Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  11. "Datos Normales y Promedios Históricos Promedios de 30 años o menos" (in Spanish). Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  12. "Temperatura Histórica de la Estación Juan Fernández, Estación Meteorológica. (330031)" (in Spanish). Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  13. "San Juan Bautista, Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands Weather Averages". Climate and Temperature (2013). Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  14. Gonzalez J. (2014). Phylogenetic position of the most endangered Chilean bird: the Masafuera Rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae; Furnariidae). Tropical Conservation Science. 7:677–689.
  15. Hogan, C. Michael (2008) "Magellanic Penguin". Global Twitcher. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  16. Brand, Donald D. (1967). The Pacific Basin: A History of its Geographical Explorations. New York: The American Geographical Society. p. 127.
  17. Kendrick, John (2003). Alejandro Malaspina: Portrait of a Visionary. Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen's Press. p. 46. ISBN   0-7735-2652-8.
  18. Robert Langdon (ed.) Where the whalers went: an index to the Pacific ports visited by American whalers (and some other ships) in the 19th century, Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, 1984, p.124. ISBN   0-86784-471-X
  19. "El Crucero Alemán Dresden". Commune Juan Fernández (2010). Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  20. "Chilean Law 20,193". National Congress of Chile (2007).
  21. Harrell, Eben (2 March 2010). "Chile's President: Why Did Tsunami Warnings Fail?". Time Magazine. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
  22. Gutierrez, Thelma (27 February 2010). "First Waves of Tsunami Arrive at Hawaii". CNN. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  23. Spinali, Gwen (27 February 2010). "40 Meter Tsunami Wave Smashes Juan Fernández Island". Hollywood Backstage. Retrieved 27 February 2010.
  24. Unravelling the Chilean Tsunami Archived 5 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine . Times Online (1 March 2010). Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  25. "Forty-Meter Tsunami Wave Hits Juan Fernández Island". Newsolio (27 February 2010). Retrieved 27 February 2010