Juan Guzmán Cruchaga

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Juan Guzmán Cruchaga
Juan Guzman Cruchaga.jpg
Juan Guzmán Cruchaga in 1930
Born Juan Guzmán Cruchaga
(1895-03-27)27 March 1895
Santiago, Chile
Died July 21, 1979 (age 84)
Viña del Mar, Chile
Occupation poet, author, and diplomat
Nationality Chilean
Alma mater University of Chile
Genre non-fiction, political
Spouse Raquel Tapia Caballero
Children Juan Guzmán Tapia (son)
Relatives Juan José Guzmán (father)
Amelia Cruchaga Aspillaga (mother)

Juan Guzmán Cruchaga (March 27, 1895 – July 21, 1979) was a Chilean poet and diplomat. He won the Chilean National Prize for Literature in 1962. Guzman Cruchaga was of Basque descent. [1] He was the son of Juan José Guzmán Guzmán and Amelia Cruchaga Aspillaga. He attended the colegio de San Ignacio from 1905, finishing his humanities subjects in 1912. In 1913 he enrolled into the Faculty of Law of Universidad de Chile, quitting during his third year there.

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

He was hired as an employee at the Court of Accounts, job which he fulfilled until 1917. He collaborated with the Zig-Zag magazine, becoming a poet in his own right, later publishing his first book: "Juan al Brasero".

He began travelling in 1917, briefly returning to Chile from time to time. He then was named consul at Tampico, México, which would only be the first diplomatic post he acquired.

He continued writing, becoming famous, culminating in being the recipient of the Chilean National Literary Prize in 1962.

Juan Guzmán Cruchaga died in Viña del Mar on 21 July 1979. He was married to Raquel Tapia Caballero. He is the father of former judge Juan Guzmán Tapia.

Juan Guzmán Tapia Chilean judge

Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia is a retired Chilean judge.

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Many Basques arrived in Chile in the 16th,17th,18th,19th and early 20th century from their homeland in northern Spain and parts of southwestern France, as conquistadors, soldiers, sailors, merchants, priests and labourers. Due to their traditional hard work and entrepreneurship, many of them rose to the top of the social scale and intermarried into the Chilean elites of Castilian descent, giving birth to the new Basque-Chilean aristocracy in Chile. This union is the basis of the Chilean elite of today. But also, they immensely contributed to the ethnic make up of the bulk of the Chilean population. The Basque settlers also intermarried into the native American population of central Chile in the middle of the colonial period to form the large mestizo population that exists in Chile today; mestizos create modern middle and lower classes; other Basque settlers also intermarried with mestizos of Castilian descent. Many years after the first waves of settlers, thousands of Basque refugees fleeing Spanish Civil War in 1939 also settled and have many descendants in the country and have even intermarried with Spanish ethnic groups other than Castilians, and other European ethnic groups. An estimated 1.6 million (10%) to 4.7 million (30%) Chileans have a surname of Basque origin. This figure is to the least as the number of Basque descendence is great and plentiful. If one were to compare the large wave of Basques that fled to the population in the Basque Country you can see that in a way ethnically speaking Chile has more Basque blood than the country of origin.

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References

Memoria Chilena Memoria Chilena is a digital resource centre that offers documents and original content related to key topics of the cultural identity of Chile.

Memoria Chilena is a Chilean cultural website which, according to its own words, "offers investigations and documents related to key topics which make up the Chilean identity, accessible through the areas of history, literature, social sciences, music, and visual arts." Memoria Chilena is, also, a virtual library, which preserves material from the Biblioteca Nacional de Chile and other institutions from the Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos (DIBAM).

Biblioteca Nacional de Chile The national library of Chile

The Biblioteca Nacional de Chile is the national library of Chile. It is located on the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins in Santiago, in a building completed in 1925, though its history reaches to the early nineteenth century before it was relocated to its current home.