Juan Manuel de Salcedo
|11th Governor of Spanish Louisiana|
|Preceded by||Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta y O'Farrill|
|Succeeded by|| Pierre Clément de Laussat |
as French Governor of Louisiana
|Spouse(s)||Francisca de Quiroga y Manso|
|Battles/wars||Seven Years' War|
Juan Manuel de Salcedo was the 11th and final governor of Spanish Louisiana, from 1801–1803. He was governor at the time of the cession of the Louisiana territory to France in fulfillment of the terms of the Treaty of San Ildefonso.
France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed on 1 October 1800 between the Spanish Empire and the First French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange their North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany. The terms were later confirmed by the March 1801 Treaty of Aranjuez.
A native of Bilbao, Salcedo pursued a military career and served as an officer in the defense of the Lordship of Biscay in the Seven Years' War.By 1780, he was in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where he was to remain for twenty years, rising to the position of teniente del rey (lieutenant to the king).
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is also the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015. The Bilbao metropolitan area has roughly 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain; with a population of 875,552 the comarca of Greater Bilbao is the fifth-largest urban area in Spain. Bilbao is also the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region.
The Lordship of Biscay was a region under feudal rule in the region of Biscay in the Iberian Peninsula between c.1040 and 1876, ruled by a political figure known as the Lord of Biscay. One of the Basque señoríos, it was a territory with its own political organization, with its own naval ensign, consulate in Bruges and customs offices in Balmaseda and Urduña, from the 11th Century until 1876, when the Juntas Generales were abolished. Since 1379, when John I of Castile became the Lord of Biscay, the lordship got integrated into the Crown of Castile, and eventually the Kingdom of Spain.
The Seven Years' War was a global war fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, Sweden, and the Electorate of Saxony. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.
Salcedo was appointed governor of Louisiana on October 24, 1799 to replace Governor Gayoso, who had died in office, but due to ill health he did not actually assume the position until July 15, 1801.During the interim, Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta y O'Farrill served as governor in his stead. His governorship was not well-regarded; he reportedly humiliated the members of the Cabildo and boycotted its meetings. He was quite hostile to the United States; one of his first official acts was to dispatch arms to Natchitoches, along with instructions to keep Americans out of the district, and he forbade the granting of land to American citizens.
Don Manuel Luis Gayoso de Lemos y Amorín, KOM, OTS was the governor of Spanish Louisiana from 1797 until his death in 1799.
Sebastián Nicolás de Bari Calvo de la Puerta y O'Farrill, 1st Marquess of Casa Calvo, KOS was a Spanish nobleman and soldier who served as Governor of Louisiana between 1799 and 1801.
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected; but they were considered to be representative of all land-owning heads of household (vecinos). The colonial cabildo was essentially the same as the one developed in medieval Castile.
Salcedo's tenure as governor ended with the return of Louisiana to France, shortly before the Sale of Louisiana. His predecessor, Casa Calvo, assisted him in the transfer of power to the new French governor, Pierre Clément de Laussat, after which Salcedo returned to Cadiz, Spain.Although Salcedo initial intended to retire to the Canary Islands, he sought and received permission to stay in Spain to be closer to his youngest son and his family and by early 1805 Salcedo was assigned to Andalusia.
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the territory of Louisiana by the United States from France in 1803. In return for fifteen million dollars, or approximately eighteen dollars per square mile, the United States acquired a total of 828,000 sq mi. The treaty was negotiated by French Treasury Minister François Barbé-Marbois and American delegates James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston.
The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are also known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union proper. It is also one of eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality as recognized by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland.
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, and the second largest autonomous community in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville. Its capital is the city of Seville.
Salcedo married Francisca de Quiroga y Manso in Malaga in 1775.Their son, Manuel María de Salcedo, later served as governor of Spanish Texas. His brother, Nemesio de Salcedo, was the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces.
Manuel María de Salcedo y Quiroga, (Málaga, Spain,, was a governor of Spanish Texas from 1808 until his execution in 1813. Salcedo gained leadership experience helping his father Juan Manuel de Salcedo, the 11th and last Spanish governor of Louisiana,. In 1807, the younger Salcedo was appointed governor of Texas, and he officially assumed that role on November 7, 1808. As governor, he and his uncle Nemesio Salcedo, the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces, often disagreed, especially on immigration issues.
Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.
Nemesio de Salcedo was a Spanish colonial official who served as the Commandant-General of the Provincias Internas, which at the time included much of northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States.
Justo José de Urquiza y García was an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860.
Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giral, FRS, FRSA, KOS was a Spanish general of the navy, explorer, scientist, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. He was appointed to that office after France ceded the territory to Spain in 1763, following its defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. Ulloa's rule was resisted by the French Creole colonists in New Orleans, who expelled him in 1768 from West Louisiana.
West Florida was a region on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico that underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. As its name suggests, it was formed out of the western part of former Spanish Florida, along with lands taken from French Louisiana; Pensacola became West Florida's capital. The colony included about two thirds of what is now the Florida Panhandle, as well as parts of the modern U.S. states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.
The West Florida Controversy refers to two border disputes that involved Spain and the United States in relation to the region known as West Florida over a period of 37 years. The first dispute commenced immediately after Spain received the colonies of West and East Florida from the Kingdom of Great Britain following the American Revolutionary War. Initial disagreements were settled with Pinckney's Treaty of 1795.
The Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition was an 1812–13 joint Mexican-US filibustering expedition against Spanish Texas during the early years of the Mexican War of Independence.
The Treaty of Aranjuez (1801) was agreed on 21 March 1801 by France and Spain. It confirmed the terms of the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso dated 1 October 1800, in which Spain agreed to exchange its North American colony of Spanish Louisiana for territories in Tuscany.
Three Flags Day commemorates March 9 and 10, 1804, when Spain officially completed turning over the Louisiana colonial territory to France, who then officially turned over the same lands to the United States, in order to finalize the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
Louisiana was an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1763 to 1801 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, which had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682. It is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso (1800) and the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801). In 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 14 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions.
Juan Bautista Elguézabal (1741–1805) was the temporary ruler of the Spanish province of Texas in 1797, and the Governor of Texas from 1800 to 1805. He also temporarily ruled the province of Louisiana in 1803.
Francisco Domingo Joseph Bouligny y Paret was a high-ranking Spanish military and political figure in Spanish Louisiana. As a francophone in Spanish service, he was a bridge between Creole and French Louisiana and Spain following the transfer of the territory from France to Spain. Bouligny served as lieutenant governor under Bernardo de Gálvez, founded the city of New Iberia in 1779, and served as acting military governor in 1799.
Juan de Canaveris (1748–1822) was an Italian lawyer and politician, who served during the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata as accounting officer in the Tribunal de Cuentas de Buenos Aires. He had achieved a high social status in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, where supported the revolutionary movements of May, being the only neighbor of Italian origin who attended in the Open Cabildo, of May 22, 1810.
Simón de Herrera y Leyva (1754–1813) was a lifelong political and military professional for Spain, primarily in the lands known as New Spain and at times ventured to Europe. He became an interim governor of Spanish Texas at San Antonio and a governor of Nuevo León.
Francisco Coloma y Maceda, Marqués of Canales de Chozas (1617–1677) was a Spanish oidor and licentiate who served as the 29th Governor-General of the Philippines. He is the fifth Governor-General of the Philippines from the Real Audiencia of Manila. Prior to being governor, Coloma served as senior auditor (oidor) in charge of military affairs during the administrations of Governor-General Diego de Salcedo to Manuel de León.
Don Nicolás María Vidal y Madrigal, civil governor of Spanish Louisiana and Spanish Florida from 1799–1801.
Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta y O'Farrill
| Spanish Governor of Louisiana |
Pierre Clément de Laussat
as French Governor of Louisiana
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