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|Born||Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno|
16 May 1917
San Gabriel, Jalisco, Mexico
|Died||7 January 1986 68) (aged|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Occupation||Writer, screenwriter, photographer|
|Notable works|| El Llano en llamas (1953) |
Pedro Páramo (1955)
Juan Nepomuceno Carlos Pérez Rulfo Vizcaíno, best known as Juan Rulfo (Spanish: [ˈxwan ˈrulfo]
Rulfo was born in 1917 in Apulco, Jalisco (although he was registered at Sayula), in the home of his paternal grandfather.Rulfo's birth year was often listed as 1918, because he had provided an inaccurate date to get into the military academy that his uncle, David Pérez Rulfo — a colonel working for the government — directed.
After his father was killed in 1923 and his mother died in 1927, Rulfo's grandmother raised him in Guadalajara, Jalisco.Their extended family consisted of landowners whose fortunes were ruined by the Mexican Revolution and the Cristero War of 1926–1928, a Roman Catholic revolt against the persecutions of Christians by the Mexican government, following the Mexican Revolution.
Rulfo was sent to study in the Luis Silva School, where he lived from 1928 to 1932. [ citation needed ] Rulfo attended a seminary (analogous to a secondary school) from 1932 to 1934, but did not attend a university afterwards, as the University of Guadalajara was closed due to a strike and because Rulfo had not taken preparatory school courses.He completed six years of elementary school and a special seventh year from which he graduated as a bookkeeper, though he never practiced that profession.
Rulfo moved to Mexico City, where he entered the National Military Academy, which he left after three months. He then hoped to study law at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. In 1936, Rulfo was able to audit courses in literature at the University, because he obtained a job as an immigration file clerk through his uncle.
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It was at the University that Rulfo first began writing under the tutelage of a coworker, Efrén Hernández [ citation needed ]. In 1944, Rulfo had co-founded the literary journal Pan. Later, he was able to advance in his career and travel throughout Mexico as an immigration agent. In 1946, he started as a foreman for Goodrich-Euzkadi, but his mild temperament led him to prefer working as a wholesale traveling sales agent. This obligated him to travel throughout all of southern Mexico, until he was fired in 1952 for asking for a radio for his company car.
Rulfo obtained a fellowship at the Centro Mexicano de Escritores, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation.[ citation needed ] There, between 1952 and 1954, he was able to write two books.[ citation needed ]
The first book was a collection of harshly realistic short stories, El Llano en llamas (1953). The stories centered on life in rural Mexico around the time of the Mexican Revolution and the Cristero War. Among the best-known stories are "¡Diles que no me maten!" ("Tell Them Not To Kill Me!"), a story about an old man, set to be executed, who is captured by order of a colonel, who happens to be the son of a man whom the condemned man had killed about forty years ago, the story contains echoes of the biblical Cain and Abel theme as well as themes critical to the Mexican Revolution such as land rights and land use; and "No oyes ladrar los perros" ("Don't You Hear the Dogs Barking(?)"), about a man carrying his estranged, adult, wounded son on his back to find a doctor.
The second book was Pedro Páramo (1955), a short novel about a man named Juan Preciado who travels to his recently deceased mother's hometown, Comala, to find his father, only to come across a literal ghost town ─ populated, that is, by spectral figures. Initially, the novel met with cool critical reception and sold only two thousand copies during the first four years; later, however, the book became highly acclaimed. Páramo was a key influence for Latin American writers such as Gabriel García Márquez. Pedro Páramo has been translated into more than 30 languages, and the English version has sold more than a million copies in the United States.[ citation needed ]
The book went through several changes in name. In two letters written in 1947 to his fiancée Clara Aparicio, he refers to the novel he was writing as Una estrella junto a la luna (A Star Next to the Moon), saying that it was causing him some trouble.[ citation needed ] During the last stages of writing, he wrote in journals that the title would be Los murmullos (The Murmurs). With the assistance of a grant from the Centro Mexicano de Escritores, Rulfo was able to finish the book between 1953 and 1954;[ citation needed ] it was published in 1955.
Between 1956 and 1958, Rulfo worked on a novella entitled El gallo de oro(The Golden Cockerel), which was not published until 1980. A revised and corrected edition was issued posthumously in 2010. The Fundación Rulfo possesses fragments of two unfinished novels, La cordillera and Ozumacín. Rulfo told interviewer Luis Harss that he had written and destroyed an earlier novel set in Mexico City.
From 1954 to 1957, Rulfo collaborated with "La comisión del rio Papaloapan", a government institution working on socioeconomic development of the settlements along the Papaloapan River. From 1962 until his death in 1986, he worked as editor for the National Institute for Indigenous People.
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Rulfo married Clara Angelina Aparicio Reyes (Mexico City, 12 August 1928) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, on 24 April 1948; they had four children, Claudia Berenice (Mexico City, 29 January 1949), Juan Francisco (Guadalajara, Jalisco, 13 December 1950), Juan Pablo (México City, 18 April 1955) and Juan Carlos Rulfo (México City, 24 January 1964).
Gabriel García Márquez has said that he felt blocked as a novelist after writing his first four books and that it was only his life-changing discovery of Pedro Páramo in 1961 that opened the way to the composition of his masterpiece, One Hundred Years of Solitude .[ citation needed ] He noted that all of Rulfo's published writing, put together, "add up to no more than 300 pages; but that is almost as many and I believe they are as durable, as the pages that have come down to us from Sophocles".[ citation needed ]
The Juan Rulfo Foundation, which was established by Rulfo's family after his death, [ citation needed ]holds more than 6,000 negatives of his photographs. A selection of Rulfo's photographs, accompanied by essays by Carlos Fuentes and others, has been published under the title of Juan Rulfo's Mexico.
The Cristero War or the Cristero Rebellion (1926–29), also known as La Cristiada[la kɾisˈtjaða], was a widespread struggle in central-western Mexico in response to the imposition of secularist and anti-clerical articles of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico, which were perceived by opponents as anti-Catholic measures aimed at imposing state atheism. The rebellion was instigated as a response to an executive decree by President Plutarco Elías Calles to enforce Articles 3, 5, 24, 27, and 130 of the Constitution, a move known as the Calles Law. Calles sought to eliminate the power of the Catholic Church and all organizations which were affiliated with it as an institution, and suppress popular religious celebrations in local communities. The massive, popular rural uprising in the north-central region of Mexico was tacitly supported by the Church hierarchy and it was also aided by urban Catholic supporters. US Ambassador Dwight W. Morrow brokered negotiations between the Calles government and the Church. The government made some concessions, the Church withdrew its support for the Cristero fighters and the conflict ended in 1929. It has been variously interpreted as a major event in the struggle between Church and State that dates back to the 19th century with the War of Reform; as the last major peasant uprising in Mexico following the end of the military phase of the Mexican Revolution in 1920; and as an anti-revolutionary uprising by prosperous peasants and urban elites opposed to the agrarian reforms of the Revolution.
Sayula is a town and municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco, approximately 100 kilometers south of Guadalajara. It is surrounded by smaller towns, such as Usmajac, San Andres, El Reparo, and Amacueca.
Tepatitlán de Morelos is a city and municipality founded in 1530, in the central Mexican state of Jalisco. It is located in the area known as Los Altos de Jalisco, about 70 km east of state capital Guadalajara. It is part of the macroregion of the Bajío. Its surrounding municipality of the same name had an area of 1,532.78 km². Its most distinctive feature is the Baroque-style parish church in the centre of the city dedicated to Saint Francis of Assisi. Other notable sites include the kiosk that sits on the Plaza de Armas in downtown, the Temple of San Antonio, and the city hall. The latter is one of the most distinctive features in the city, built in neoclassic-baroque style.
Juan José Arreola Zúñiga was a Mexican writer and academic. He is considered Mexico's premier experimental short story writer of the twentieth century. Arreola is recognized as one of the first Latin American writers to abandon realism; he used elements of fantasy to underscore existentialist and absurdist ideas in his work. Although he is little known outside his native country, Arreola has served as the literary inspiration for a legion of Mexican writers who have sought to transform their country's realistic literary tradition by introducing elements of magical realism, satire, and allegory. Alongside Jorge Luis Borges, he is considered one of the masters of the hybrid subgenre of the essay-story. He published only one novel, La feria.
Jean Meyer is a Mexican historian and author of French origin. He has published extensively on the Cristero War and on the caudillo Manuel Lozada.
Juan Soriano was a Mexican artist known for his paintings, sculptures and theater work. He was a child prodigy whose career began early as did his fame with various writers authoring works about him. He exhibited in the United States and Europe as well as major venues in Mexico such as the Museo de Arte Moderno and the Palacio de Bellas Artes. His monumental sculptures can be found in various parts of Mexico and in Europe as well. Recognitions of his work include Mexico's National Art Prize, the Chevalier des Arts et Lettres and membership in France's Legion of Honour.
Fondo de Cultura Económica is a Spanish language, non-profit publishing group, partly funded by the Mexican government. It is based in Mexico but it has subsidiaries throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
The Xavier Villaurrutia Award is a prestigious literary prize given in Mexico, to a Latin American writer published in Mexico. Founded in 1955, it was named in memory of Xavier Villaurrutia.
Tomás Segovia was a Mexican author, translator and poet of Spanish origin. He was born in Valencia, Spain, and studied in France and Morocco. He went into exile to Mexico, where he taught at the Colegio de México and other universities. Segovia founded the publication Presencia (1946), was director of La Revista Mexicana de Literatura (1958–1963), formed part of the magazine Plural, and collaborated in Vuelta.
El llano en llamas is a collection of short stories written in Spanish by Mexican author Juan Rulfo and first published in 1953.
Guillermo Schmidhuber de la Mora is a Mexican author, playwright, and critic.
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Ricardo Lancaster-Jones y Verea, MA BE KHS was a Mexican historian, diplomat, scholar, professor, art collector and sugarcane entrepreneur who made significant contributions toward the study of the haciendas of the State of Jalisco (Mexico) in the twentieth century. He spoke Spanish, English, French, Italian and Latin fluently. He authored and published numerous articles for newspapers and specialized magazines in Mexico, South America, Spain, United Kingdom and United States. His enthusiasm for History led him to become a professor of Regional History at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara in 1965. Later on, in 1973, he earned his MA degree in Latin American Studies at the University of New Mexico. He is especially mentioned by Mexican academics Mauricio Beuchot (2001) and José María Murià (2003) as an early historian of the haciendas in Western Mexico.
Rosa Furman Epstein was a Mexican actress.
Los Altos de Jalisco, or the Jaliscan Highlands, are a geographic and cultural region in the eastern part of the Mexican State of Jalisco, famed as a bastion of Mexican culture, cradling traditions from Tequila production to Charrería equestrianism. Los Altos are part of the greater Bajío region of Mexico, considered to be one of safest regions with one of the highest qualities of life in Latin America
Ricardo Zohn-Muldoon is a Mexican-American composer and chair of the composition department at Eastman School of Music. His Comala was a finalist for the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for Music and he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1995, a Mozart Medal in 1994, and a Lillian Fairchild Award in 2011. He was a student of George Crumb.
Victoriano Ramírez López, also known as "El Catorce", was a Mexican General of the Cristero War known for his excellent combat skills.
Luis Valsoto is a Mexican artist strongly associated with the state of Jalisco, which has honored his work multiple times. He is noted for his depictions of ordinary life and everyday things, especially domestic animals such as dogs, cats and horses. He has exhibited his work individually in various venues in Mexico and the United States and collectively both in Mexico and several other countries.
Manuel Garcia-Rulfo is a Mexican actor. He is best known for roles in films such as Cake and Bless Me, Ultima, as well as the television program From Dusk till Dawn: The Series. He starred as one of the titular characters in the 2016 remake The Magnificent Seven.
Soler Serrano, Joaquín, "Entrevista con Juan Rulfo" in A Fondo ( TV show ), RTVE2, April 17, 1977.
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