Juan de Oñate

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Juan de Oñate
NEW MEXICO San Juan Pueblo DonJuan De Onate First Govenor of New Spain.jpg
Oñate Monument Center, Alcalde, NM
1st Spanish Governor of New Mexico
In office
November 1598 18 April 1606
Succeeded byCristóbal de Oñate (son)
Personal details
now Zacatecas City, Mexico
Died"on or about June 3" 1626 (aged 76) [1]
Guadalcanal, Seville, Spain
Occupationexplorer and governor of New Mexico
Signature Fig3-11.gif

Juan de Oñate y Salazar (Spanish pronunciation:  [ˈxwan de oˈɲate] ; 1550–1626) was a conquistador from New Spain, explorer, and colonial governor of the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México in the viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements in the province, now in the Southwestern United States.

<i>Conquistador</i> soldiers, explorers, and adventurers primarly at the service of the Spanish Empire, and also to the Portuguese Empire

Conquistador is a term widely used to refer to the knights, soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa, and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

New Spain viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire (1535-1821)

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area that included territories in North America, South America, Asia and Oceania. It originated in 1521 after the fall of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the main event of the Spanish conquest, which did not properly end until much later, as its territory continued to grow to the north. It was officially created on 8 March 1535 as a viceroyalty, the first of four viceroyalties Spain created in the Americas. Its first viceroy was Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, and the capital of the viceroyalty was Mexico City, established on the ancient Mexico-Tenochtitlan.

Santa Fe de Nuevo México province of New Spain (1598-1821), territory of Mexico (1821-1846), provisional government of the USA (1846-1850)

Santa Fe de Nuevo México was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico. The first capital was San Juan de los Caballeros from 1598 until 1610, and from 1610 onward the capital was La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís. The naming, capital, the Palace of the Governors, and rule of law were retained as the New Mexico Territory, and the subsequent U.S. State of New Mexico, became a part of the United States. The New Mexican citizenry, primarily consisting of Hispano, Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, and Comanche peoples, became citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.


Today Oñate is known for the 1599 Acoma Massacre. Following a dispute that led to the death of thirteen Spaniards at the hands of the Acoma, including Oñate's nephew, Juan de Zaldívar, Oñate ordered a brutal retaliation against Acoma Pueblo. The Pueblo was destroyed. [2] Around 800-1000 Acoma were killed. [3]

Acoma Massacre 1696 massacre of Acoma Puebloans by Spanish soldiers

The Acoma Massacre refers to the brutal punitive expedition by Spanish conquistadors at Acoma Pueblo in January 1599 that resulted in the deaths of around 800 Acoma men, women and children during a three-day battle. Of the remaining Acoma who survived the attack, many were either enslaved or otherwise severely punished.

Juan de Zaldívar (1514–1570) was a Spanish official and explorer in New Spain. He served as a city councillor of Guadalajara from 1539 to 1570. He explored Northern New Spain in search of the mythical towns of Cíbola and Quivira. By the 1560s, he was the owner of mines, farms and slaves, and one of the richest men in New Spain.

Acoma Pueblo Native American pueblo in New Mexico

Acoma Pueblo is a Native American pueblo approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico in the United States. Four villages make up Acoma Pueblo: Sky City, Acomita, Anzac, and McCartys. The Acoma Pueblo tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity. The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled roughly 5,000,000 acres (2,000,000 ha). The community retains only 10% of this land, making up the Acoma Indian Reservation. Acoma Pueblo is a National Historic Landmark.

Of the 500 or so survivors, at a trial at Ohkay Owingeh, Oñate sentenced most to twenty years of forced "personal servitude" and additionally mandated that all men over the age of twenty-five have a foot cut off. [3] He was eventually banished from New Mexico and exiled from Mexico City for five years, convicted by the Spanish government of using "excessive force" against the Acoma people. [2]

Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico New Mexico Place listed on National Register of Historic Places

Ohkay Owingeh is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people. The 2010 census found that 1,143 people lived in the CDP, while 1,522 people in the U.S. reported being exclusively Ohkay Owingeh and 1,770 people reported being Ohkay Owingeh exclusively or in combination with another group.

Today, Oñate remains a controversial figure in New Mexican history: in 1998 the right foot was cut off a statue of the conquistador that stands in Alcalde, New Mexico in protest of the massacre, and significant controversy arose when a large equestrian statue of Oñate was erected in El Paso, Texas in 2006. [4] [5]

Alcalde, New Mexico CDP in New Mexico, United States

Alcalde is a census-designated place (CDP) in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 285 at the 2010 census. "Alcalde" literally means "Mayor" in Spanish.

El Paso, Texas City in Texas, United States

El Paso is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, in the far western part of the state. The 2017 population estimate for the city from the U.S. Census was 683,577. Its metropolitan statistical area (MSA) covers all of El Paso and Hudspeth counties in Texas, and has a population of 844,818.

Early years

Oñate was born either in 1550, at Zacatecas in New Spain (colonial México) to a family of Spanish-Basque colonists and silver mine owners. His father was the conquistador and silver baron Cristóbal de Oñate, a descendant of the noble house of Haro. His mother was Doña Catalina Salazar y de la Cadena who was a descendant by her maternal line of a famous Jewish converso family, the Ha-Levi's. [6] His ancestor Cadena fought in the 1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Al-Andalus, and was the first to break through the line of defense protecting Mohammad Ben Yacub. The family was granted another coat of arms, and thereafter were known as "Cadenas". [7]

Silver Chemical element with atomic number 47

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Cristóbal de Oñate was a Spanish Basque explorer, conquistador and colonial official in New Spain. He is considered the founder of the contemporary city of Guadalajara in 1531, as well as other places in Nueva Galicia.

The House of Haro was one of the most powerful families of Castile during the Middle Ages and strongly supported the expansionist policies of Alfonso VI of Castile. As a reward, Íñigo López was named the first Lord of Biscay.

Juan de Oñate married Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, granddaughter of Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of the Triple Alliance, and the great-granddaughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin. [8]

Dona Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma, was a wealthy Mexican heiress and the wife of conqueror and explorer Don Juan de Oñate who led an expedition in 1598 and founded the first Spanish settlement in what is now the state of New Mexico. She was the granddaughter of Spanish explorer and conquistador Hernán Cortés, and the great-granddaughter of Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II.

Hernán Cortés Spanish conquistador

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Aztec Empire Imperial alliance of city states located in central Mexico during the 15th and 16th centuries

The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521.

Governship and 1598 New Mexico expedition

Texas Historical Marker for Don Juan De Onate and El Paso Del Rio Norte Texas Historical Marker for Don Juan De Onate and El Paso Del Rio Norte.jpg
Texas Historical Marker for Don Juan De Onate and El Paso Del Rio Norte

In response to a bid by Juan Bautista de Lomas y Colmenares, and subsequently rejected by the King, in 1595 Philip II's Viceroy /Luis de Velasco selected Oñate from two other candidates to organize the resources of the newly acquired territory. [9]

The agreement with Viceroy Velasco tasked Oñate with two goals; the better-known aim was to explore and colonize the unknown lands annexed into the New Kingdom of León y Castilla (present day New Mexico) and the Viceroyalty of New Spain. His second goal was to capture Capt. Francisco Leyva de Bonilla (a traitor to the crown known to be in the region) as he already was transporting other criminals. His stated objective otherwise was to spread Catholicism by establishing new missions in Nuevo México. Oñate is credited with founding the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, and was the province's first colonial governor, acting from 1598 to 1610. He held his colonial government at Ohkay Owingeh, and renamed the pueblo there 'San Juan de los Caballeros'.

In late 1595, the Viceroy de Zúñiga, followed his predecessor's advice and in the summer of 1596 delayed Oñate's expedition in order to review the terms of the original agreement signed, before the previous Viceroy had left office. In March 1598, Oñate's expedition moved out and forded the Rio Grande (Río del Norte) south of present-day El Paso and Ciudad Juárez in late April.

On the Catholic calendar day of Ascension, April 30, 1598, the exploration party assembled on the south bank of the Rio Grande. In an Ascension Day ceremony, Oñate led the party in prayer, as he claimed all of the territory across the river for the Spanish Empire. Oñate's original terms would have make this land a separate viceroyalty to the crown in New Spain; this move failed to stand after de Zúñiga reviewed the agreement.[ citation needed ]

All summer, Oñate's expedition party followed the middle Rio Grande Valley to present day northern New Mexico, where he engaged with Pueblo Indians. Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, a captain of the expedition, chronicled Oñate's conquest of New Mexico's indigenous peoples in his epic Historia de la Nueva México, published in 1610. [10]

Acoma War

In October 1598, a skirmish erupted when a squad of Oñate's men demanded supplies from the Acoma Pueblo, although the Acoma themselves needed their stored food to survive the coming winter. The Acoma resisted and 11 Spaniards were killed, including Oñate's nephew, Juan de Zaldívar. [11] In January 1599, Oñate condemned the conflict as an uprising and ordered the pueblo destroyed, a mandate carried out by Juan de Zaldívar's brother, Vicente de Zaldívar, in an offensive known as the Acoma Massacre. An estimated 800-1000 Acoma died in the siege of the pueblo, and the 500 survivors [12] were put on trial and sentenced by Oñate. All men and women older than 12 were enslaved for 20 years. In addition, men older than 25 (24 individuals) had one foot amputated. [13] [14]

Great Plains Expedition

In 1601, Oñate undertook a large expedition east to the Great Plains region of central North America. The expedition party included 130 Spanish soldiers and 12 Franciscan priests—similar to the expedition of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire—and a retinue of 130 American Indian soldiers and servants. The expedition possessed 350 horses and mules. Oñate journeyed across the plains eastward from New Mexico in a renewed search for Quivira, the fabled "city of gold." As had the earlier Coronado Expedition in the 1540s, Oñate encountered Apaches in the Texas Panhandle region.

Oñate proceeded eastward, following the Canadian River into the modern state of Oklahoma. Leaving the river behind in a sandy area where his ox carts could not pass, he went across country, and the land became greener, with more water and groves of Black walnut (Juglans nigra) and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) trees. [15]

Escanjaque people

Jusepe probably led the Oñate party on the same route he had taken on the Umana and Leyba expedition six years earlier. They found an encampment of native people that Oñate called the Escanjaques. He estimated the population at more than 5,000 living in 600 houses. [16] The Escanjaques lived in round houses as large as 90 feet (27 m) in diameter and covered with tanned buffalo robes. They were hunters, according to Oñate, depending upon the buffalo for their subsistence and planting no crops.

The Escanjaques told Oñate that Etzanoa, a large city of their enemies, the Rayado Indians, was located only about twenty miles away. It seems possible that the Escanjaques had gathered together in large numbers either out of fear of the Rayados or to undertake a war against them. They attempted to enlist the assistance of the Spanish and their firearms, alleging that the Rayados were responsible for the deaths of Humana and Leyva a few years before.

The Escanjaques guided Oñate to a large river a few miles away and he became the first European to describe the tallgrass prairie. He spoke of fertile land, much better than that through which he had previously passed, and pastures "so good that in many places the grass was high enough to conceal a horse." [17] He found and tasted a fruit of good flavor, possibly the pawpaw.

Rayado people

Near the river, Oñate's expedition party and their numerous Escanjaque guides saw three or four hundred Rayados on a hill. The Rayados advanced, throwing dirt into the air as a sign that they were ready for war. Oñate quickly indicated that he did not wish to fight and made peace with this group of Rayados, who proved to be friendly and generous. Oñate liked the Rayados more than he did the Escanjaques. They were "united, peaceful, and settled." They showed deference to their chief, named Caratax, whom Oñate detained as a guide and hostage, although "treating him well." [18]

Caratax led Oñate and the Escanjaques across the river to Etzanoa, a settlement on the eastern bank, one or two miles from the river. The settlement was deserted, the inhabitants having fled. It contained "about twelve hundred houses, all established along the bank of another good-sized river which flowed into the large one [the Arkansas].... the settlement of the Rayados seemed typical of those seen by Coronado in Quivira in the 1540s. The homesteads were dispersed; the houses round, thatched with grass, large enough to sleep ten persons each, and surrounded by large granaries to store the corn, beans, and squash they grew in their fields." With difficulty Oñate restrained the Escanjaques from looting the town and sent them home.

The next day the Oñate expedition proceeded onward for another eight miles through heavily populated territory, although without seeing many Rayados. At this point, the Spaniards' courage deserted them. There were obviously many Rayados nearby and soon Oñate's men were warned that the Rayados were assembling an army. Discretion seemed the better part of valor. Oñate estimated that three hundred Spanish soldiers would be needed to confront the Rayados, and he turned his soldiers around to return to New Mexico.

Return to Nuevo México

Oñate had worried about the Rayados hurting or attacking his expedition party, but it was instead the Escanjaques who repelled his men on their return to New Mexico. Oñate described a pitched battle with 1,500 Escanjaques, probably an exaggeration, but many Spaniards were wounded and many natives killed. After more than two hours of fighting, Oñate himself retired from the battlefield. The hostage Rayado chief Caratax was freed by a raid on Oñate and Oñate freed several women captives, but he retained several boys at the request of the Spanish priests for instruction in the Catholic faith. The attack may have arisen from Oñate's kidnapping of Caratax and the women and children. [19]

Oñate and his men returned to San Juan de los Caballeros, arriving there on November 24, 1601 [20] without any further incidents of note.

Contemporary studies

The path of Oñate's expedition and the identity of the Escanjaques and the Rayados are much debated. Most authorities believe his route led down the Canadian River from Texas to Oklahoma, cross-country to the Salt Fork, where he found the Escanjaque encampment, and then to the Arkansas River and its tributary, the Walnut River at Arkansas City, Kansas where the Rayado settlement was located. Archaeological evidence favors the Walnut River site. [21] A minority view would be that the Escanjaque encampment was on the Ninnescah River and the Rayado village was on the site of present-day Wichita, Kansas. [22]

Authorities have speculated that the Escanjaques were Apache, Tonkawa, Jumano, Quapaw, Kaw, or other tribes. Most likely they were Caddoan and spoke a Wichita dialect. We can be virtually certain that the Rayados were Caddoan Wichitas.[ citation needed ] Their grass houses, dispersed mode of settlement, a chief named Catarax (Caddi was a Wichita title for a chief), [23] the description of their granaries, and their location all are in accord with Coronado's earlier description of the Quivirans. However, they were probably not the same people Coronado met. Coronado found Quivira 120 miles north of Oñate's Rayados. The Rayados spoke of large settlements called Tancoa — perhaps the real name of Quivira — in an area to the north. [24] Thus, the Rayados were related culturally and linguistically to the Quivirans but not part of the same political entity. The Wichita at this time were not unified, but rather a large number of related tribes scattered over most of Kansas and Oklahoma, so it is not implausible that the Rayados and Escanjaques spoke the same language, but were nevertheless enemies.[ citation needed ]

Colorado River Expedition

Onate's 1605 "signature graffiti" on Inscription Rock, in El Morro National Monument 1605 graffiti.jpg
Oñate's 1605 "signature graffiti" on Inscription Rock, in El Morro National Monument

Oñate's last major expedition went to the west, from New Mexico to the lower valley of the Colorado River. [25] The party of about three dozen men set out from the Rio Grande valley in October 1604. They traveled by way of Zuñi, the Hopi pueblos, and the Bill Williams River to the Colorado River, and descended that river to its mouth in the Gulf of California in January 1605, before returning along the same route to New Mexico. The evident purpose of the expedition was to locate a port by which New Mexico could be supplied, as an alternative to the laborious overland route from New Spain.

The expedition to the lower Colorado River was important as the only recorded European incursion into that region between the expeditions of Hernando de Alarcón and Melchior Díaz in 1540, and the visits of Eusebio Francisco Kino beginning in 1701. The explorers did not see evidence of prehistoric Lake Cahuilla, which must have arisen shortly afterwards in the Salton Sink.

They mistakenly thought that the Gulf of California continued indefinitely to the northwest, giving rise to a belief that was common in the 17th century that the western coasts of an Island of California were what was seen by sailing expeditions in the Pacific.

Native groups observed living on the lower Colorado River, were, from north to south, the Amacava (Mohave), Bahacecha, Osera (Pima), at the confluence of the Gila River with the Colorado, in a location later occupied by the Quechan, Alebdoma.

Seen by Oñate below the Gila junction but subsequently reported upstream from there, in the area where Oñate had encountered the Coguana, or Kahwans, Agalle, and Agalecquamaya, or Halyikwamai, and the Cocopah.

Concerning areas that the explorers had not observed directly, they gave fantastic reports about races of human and areas said to be rich in gold, silver, and pearls.

Later life

In 1606, Oñate was recalled to Mexico City for a hearing regarding his conduct. After finishing plans for the founding of the town of Santa Fé, he resigned his post and was tried and convicted of cruelty to both natives and colonists. He was banished from New Mexico for life and exiled from Mexico City for 5 years. [26]

Eventually Oñate went to Spain, where the king appointed him head of all mining inspectors in Spain. He died in Spain in 1626. He is sometimes referred to as "the Last Conquistador." [27]


Oñate is honored by some for his exploratory ventures but is vilified by others for his cruelty to the Keres people of Acoma Pueblo.

New Mexico

Historic Marker at "Paraje de Fra Cristobal," Rio Grande crossing Scenic marker paraje de fra cristobal.jpg
Historic Marker at "Paraje de Fra Cristobal," Rio Grande crossing

Oñate High School in Las Cruces, New Mexico and Oñate Elementary School in Gallup, New Mexico are named after Juan de Oñate. The historic central business district of Española, New Mexico is named Paseo de Oñate, also known as Oñate Street.

Alcalde statue

In the Northern Rio Grande National Heritage Center (until 2017 the Oñate Monument and Visitor Center) in Alcalde, New Mexico is a 1991 bronze statue dedicated to the man. In 1998 New Mexico celebrated the 400th anniversary of his arrival. Shortly before (December 29, 1997), and the close dates are no coincidence, unknown perpetrator(s) cut off the statue's right foot [28] and left a note saying, "Fair is fair." Sculptor Reynaldo Rivera recast the foot, but a seam is still visible. Some commentators suggested leaving the statue maimed as a symbolic reminder of the foot-amputating Acoma Massacre. A local filmmaker, Chris Eyre, was contacted by one of the two perpetrators, saying "I'm back on the scene to show people that Oñate and his supporters must be shamed." Eyre is working on a documentary "about the incident and what it reveals about racism in New Mexico."

In 2017 the statue's left foot was painted red, and the words "Remember 1680" (year of the Pueblo revolt) were written with paint on the monument's base. [29]

2014 400th anniversary of exile

In 1614, Oñate was exiled from what is now New Mexico and charged with mismanagement and excessive cruelty, especially at the Acoma massacre at Acoma Pueblo where, in 1599, after killing 500 warriors and 300 women and children, he ordered the right foot be chopped off of all surviving Acoma warriors. 24 men suffered this fate. Males between the ages of 12 and 25 were also enslaved for 20 years, along with all of the females above the age of 12. When King Phillip of Spain heard the news of the massacre and punishments, Oñate was brought on 30 charges of mismanagement and excessive cruelty in suppressing Indian uprisings. He was found guilty of cruelty, immorality, and false reporting and returned to Spain to live out the remainder of his life. 2014 marked the 400th anniversary of Juan de Oñate's exile from New Mexico. Despite his atrocities, Oñate is still celebrated today at the Española Valley Fiestas. [30]


In 1997 the City of El Paso hired the sculptor John Sherrill Houser to create a statue of the conquistador. In reaction to protests, two city council members retracted their support for the project. [28] The $2,000,000 statue took nearly nine years to build and was stationed in the sculptor's Mexico City warehouse. The statue was completed in early 2006, transported in pieces on flatbed trailers to El Paso during the summer, and was installed in October. The controversy over the statue prior to its installation was the subject of the documentary film The Last Conquistador, presented in 2008 as part of PBS' P.O.V. television series. [31] [32]

The City of El Paso unveiled the eighteen ton, 34-foot-tall (10 m) statue in a ceremony on April 21, 2007. Oñate is mounted atop his Andalusian horse while holding the La Toma declaration in his right hand. The statue precipitated controversy due to Oñate's war crimes, and as such it was protested by groups such as the Acoma tribe during the development of the project as well as during the inauguration. The statue, however, was welcomed by segments of the local population (including portions of the Hispanic community), as well as by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Carlos Westendorp.[ citation needed ] According to Houser, it is the largest and heaviest bronze equestrian statue in the world.

See also

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  1. Simmons, Marc, The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1991 p.193-94
  2. 1 2 "Background | The Last Conquistador | POV | PBS". POV | American Documentary Inc. 22 January 2008.
  3. 1 2 Trujillo, Michael L. (2008). "Oñate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico". Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. 33 (2): 91–99.
  4. "400 years later, Acoma protests Spanish cruelty - Timeline - Native Voices". www.nlm.nih.gov.
  5. Temple, Georgia (July 10, 2008). "Controversy surrounding 'The Last Conquistador' statue in El Paso topic of documentary". Midland Reporter-Telegram.
  6. Simmons, Marc, The Last Conquistador:Juan de Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1991, p. 30
  7. La Calle de Cadena en Mexico," pps. 1—46, Guillermo Porras Munoz
  8. L. Thrapp, Dan Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: G-O, University of Nebraska Press, 1991, p. 1083
  9. https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/kcc/chap3.htm
  10. Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (1992). Miguel Encinias; Alfred Rodríguez; Joseph P. Sánchez (eds.). Historia de la Nueva México, 1610 : a critical and annotated Spanish/English edition. Paso Por Aqui Series on the Nuevomexicano Literary Heritage. Translated by Joseph P. Sánchez. UNM Press. ISBN   0826313922 via Google Books.
  11. "San Gabriel de Yunque-Ouinge: San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico". Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary: American Latino Heritage. National Park Service, US Department of the Interior.
  12. Simmons, p. 143
  13. Simmons, p. 145
  14. Ramon A. Gutierrez (February 1, 1991). When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Stanford University Press. p. 53.
  15. Bolton, Herbert Eugene, ed. Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916, 250-267
  16. Bolton, 257
  17. Bolton, 253
  18. Vehik, Susan C. "Wichita Culture History," Plains Anthropologist, Vol 37, No. 141, 1992, 327
  19. Bolton, 264
  20. http://www.ghosttowns.com/states/nm/yunqueyunque.html
  21. Hawle, Marlin F. European-contact and Southwestern Artifacts in the lower Walnut Focus Sites at Arkansas City Kansas, Plains Anthropologists, Vol. 45, No. 173, Aug 2000
  22. Vehik, Susan C. (1986). "Onate's Expedition to the Southern Plains: Routes, Destinations, and Implications for Late Prehistoric Cultural Adaptations". Plains Anthropologist. 31 (111): 13–33.
  23. The Pawnee Indians. George E. Hyde 1951. New edition in The Civilization of the American Indian Series, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1974. ISBN   0-8061-2094-0, page 19
  24. Vehik, 22-23
  25. Hammond, George P., and Agapito Rey, Don Juan de Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1953; Laylander, Don, "Geographies of Fact and Fantasy: Oñate on the Lower Colorado River, 1604-1605," Southern California Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 4, 2004, 309-324.
  26. https://www.pbs.org/pov/lastconquistador/background/
  27. Simmons, Marc, The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, 1991, book title
  28. 1 2 Ginger Thompson. "As a Sculpture Takes Shape in Mexico, Opposition Takes Shape in the U.S.," The New York Times, January 17, 2002. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  29. Romero, Simon (30 September 2017). "Statue's Stolen Foot Reflects Divisions Over Symbols of Conquest". New York Times. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  30. Matthew J. Martinez (August 2014). "Remembering 400 Years of Exile".
  31. POV - The Last Conquistador
  32. Vimeo: The Last Conquistador