Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"

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Jubilee Medal
"XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"

Medal <<20 Years Since the Creation of the Worker's and Peasants' Red Army>>.jpg

Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" (obverse)
Awarded by Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Type Jubilee medal
Eligibility Citizens of the Soviet Union
Awarded for Civil war service and 20 years service
Status No longer awarded
Statistics
Established January 24, 1938
Total awarded 37,504
20 years saf rib.png
Ribbon of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"
Reverse of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" MRKKAx01R.jpg
Reverse of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"

The Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" (Russian : Юбилейная медаль «XX лет Рабоче-Крестьянской Красной Армии») was a state military commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established on January 24, 1938 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR [1] to denote the twentieth anniversary of the creation of the Soviet Armed Forces.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Soviet Armed Forces 1912-1991 combined military forces of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union were the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.

Contents

Medal Statute

The Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" was awarded to staff and commanding officers of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army and Navy who had, as of February 23, 1938 (the Day of the Red Army), served for 20 years in its ranks, and to those honoured during the Civil War and the war for freedom and independence of the motherland in units of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army and Navy; to those awarded the Order of the Red Banner for distinguished service during the Civil War. [1]

Russian Civil War multi-party war in the former Russian Empire, November 1917-October 1922

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen.

Order of the Red Banner Soviet award for Heroism in combat or long service in the armed forces

The Order of the Red Banner was the first Soviet military decoration. The Order was established on 16 September 1918, during the Russian Civil War by decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. It was the highest award of Soviet Russia, subsequently the Soviet Union, until the Order of Lenin was established in 1930. Recipients were recognised for extraordinary heroism, dedication, and courage demonstrated on the battlefield. The Order was awarded to individuals as well as to military units, cities, ships, political and social organizations, and state enterprises. In later years, it was also awarded on the twentieth and again on the thirtieth anniversary of military, police, or state security service without requiring participation in combat.

The time served in the units and detachments of the Red Guards and the Red guerrilla groups that operated against the enemies of Soviet power between 1917 and 1921 counted towards award of the medal. [1]

Red Guards (Russia) paramilitary volunteer formation during the Russian Revolution

Red Guards were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power". Red Guards were a transitional military force of the collapsing Imperial Russian Army and the base formations of Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and the first months of the Russian Civil War. Most of them were formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and some of the units were reorganized into the Red Army during 1918. The Red Guards formations were organized across most of the former Russian Empire, including territories outside the contemporary Russian Federation such as Finland, Estonia, Ukraine, and others. They were not centralized and were formed by decision of a local political party and local soviet members. By fighting to protect and extend the power of the soviets, they aided the creation of a new state that would give "all power to the soviets": the Soviet Union.

The Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" was worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other medals of the USSR, it was located immediately after the Medal "For Tapping of the Subsoil and Expansion of the Petrochemical Complex of Western Siberia". [1]

Medal description

Original variant 1938 to 1943 of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" MRKKA25186.jpg
Original variant 1938 to 1943 of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"

The Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" is a 32 mm in diameter oxidised silver matte finished circular medal with a polished 2.5 mm rim. On the obverse, a large red enamelled five pointed star with a silvered edge, the tip of each point reaching the medal's edge; at the bottom sitting on the rim, in deep relief, the prominent 8 mm high gilded Roman numeral "XX" going up between the star's lower rays to superimpose it over 4 mm. [1]

On the reverse, a 25 mm high relief image of a Red Army soldier clad in the winter uniform of the Red Guard and firing a rifle, at the lower right side of the soldier, the dates "1918-1938". [1]

From its establishment in 1938 to 1943, the medal was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a small rectangular mount covered by a red silk moiré ribbon. In 1943, this changed to the now standard Soviet pentagonal mount, now covered by a 24 mm wide silk moiré grey ribbon with a 2 mm red edge stripe on each side. [1]

Recipients (partial list)

From January 1938 to the end of December 1940, 32,127 people received the medal. [2]

All individuals listed below are recipients of the Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army".

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 24, 1938" (in Russian). Legal Library of the USSR. 1938-01-24. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
  2. КПСС и строительство Советских Вооружённых сил. 2-е изд., доп. М., Воениздат, 1967. стр.205