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A județ (pronounced [ʒuˈdets] , plural județe [ʒuˈdetse] ) is an administrative division in Romania, and was also used from 1940 to 1947 in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1998 to 2003 in Moldova.
Județ translates into English as "jurisdiction", but is commonly rendered as county (the preferred term for that being comitat in Romanian).[ citation needed ]
There are 41 județe in Romania, divided into municipii (municipalities), orașe (cities) and comune (communes). Each județ has a county seat (reședință de județ) which serves as its administrative capital; this designation usually belongs to the largest and most developed city in the respective county. The central government is represented by one prefect in every județ.
Bucharest, the capital, acts as its own județ. It also acts as the county seat of Ilfov.
In the Romanian Principalities, the județ was an office with administrative and judicial functions, corresponding to both judge and mayor. The word is etymologically rooted in the Latin "judicium", and is therefore cognate to other administrative institutions like the Sardinian giudicati , or terms like jurisdiction and judge .
In Romanian, the term județ does not take an initial capital unless it is the first word of a sentence.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French conté or cunté denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl) or a viscount. Literal equivalents in other languages, derived from the equivalent of "count", are now seldom used officially, including comté, contea, contado, comtat, condado, Grafschaft, graafschap, and zhupa in Slavic languages; terms equivalent to English language administrative terms such as municipality, district, circuit and commune/community are now often instead used.
Caraș-Severin is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Serbia. The majority of its territory lies within the historical region of Banat, with a few northeastern villages considered part of Transylvania. The county seat is Reșița. The Caraș-Severin county is part of the Danube–Criș–Mureș–Tisa Euroregion.
The 41 județe and the municipality of Bucharest comprise the official administrative divisions of Romania. They also represent the European Union' s NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania.
Bihor County is a county (județ) of Romania, in Crișana. Its capital city is Oradea.
Botoșani County is a county (județ) of Romania, in Western Moldavia, with the capital city at Botoșani.
Suceava County is a county (județ) of Romania. Most of its territory lies in the southern portion of the historical region of Bukovina, while the remainder forms part of Western Moldavia proper. The county seat is the historical city of Suceava, formerly the capital of the Principality of Moldavia during the late Middle Ages and then a pivotal, predominantly German-speaking commercial town of the Habsburg/Austrian Empire at the border with the Kingdom of Romania throughout the Modern Age up until 1918.
Iași County is a county (județ) of Romania, in Western Moldavia, with the administrative seat at Iași. It is the most populous county in Romania, after the Municipality of Bucharest.
Slobozia is the capital city of Ialomița County, Muntenia, Romania, with a population of 48,241 in 2011.
Orhei, also formerly known as Orgeev, is a city, municipality and the administrative centre of Orhei District in the Republic of Moldova, with a population of 21,065. Orhei is approximately 40 kilometres north of the capital, Chișinău.
According to the Moldovan law on territorial administrative organisation, Moldova is divided administratively into the following administrative territorial units: districts, cities/towns and villages. The administrative territorial organization of Moldova is made on 2 levels:
Romania's administration is relatively centralized and administrative subdivisions are therefore fairly simplified.
Lăpușna County was a county Romanian: județ) in the Kingdom of Romania.
Hotin County was a county in the Principality of Moldavia (1359-1812), the Governorate of Bessarabia (1812–1917), the Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–1918), and the Kingdom of Romania.
Soroca County was a county in the Kingdom of Romania. The seat was Soroca.
Fălciu County was an administrative territorial entity in Moldavia, then a county (judeṭ) in Romania between 1859 and 1950. Its capital was the town of Huși. Another important town was Fălciu.
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat.
Bălți County was a county in the Kingdom of Romania between 1925 and 1938, with the seat at Bălți.
Orhei was a county in the Kingdom of Romania between 1925 and 1938, and again between 1941 and 1944, with the seat at Orhei.
Ismail County was a county (județ) of Romania, in Bessarabia, with the capital city at Ismail.
Orhei County was a county in Moldova from 1998 to 2003. It bordered Soroca County, Ungheni County, Bălţi County, Chişinău County, and Transnistria. Its capital was the city of Orhei.