Jude the Apostle

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Saint Jude the Apostle
Anthonis van Dyck 088.jpg
Apostle Jude by Anthony van Dyck
Apostle and Martyr
Born1st century AD
Galilee, Roman Empire
Died1st century AD
Persia, or Ararat, Armenia [1]
Venerated in Eastern Orthodox Churches,
Roman Catholic Church,
Eastern Catholic Churches,
Oriental Orthodox Churches,
Church of the East,
Anglican Communion,
Lutheranism,
Aglipayan Church
Islam
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Major shrine St. Thaddeus Armenian Monastery, northern Iran; Saint Peter's, Rome; Reims, Toulouse, France[ citation needed ]
Feast 28 October (Western Christianity)
19 June & 21 August (Eastern Christianity) [2]
Attributes Axe, club, boat, oar, medallion
Patronage Armenia; lost causes; desperate situations; hospitals; St. Petersburg, Florida; Cotta; [3] the Chicago Police Department; Clube de Regatas do Flamengo from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Lucena, Quezon, Sibalom, Antique, and Trece Mártires, Cavite, the Philippines; and Sinajana in Guam

Jude, also known as Judas Thaddaeus [4] (Greek : Θαδδαῖος; Coptic : ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ; Syriac/Aramaic: ܝܗܘܕܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ), [5] was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is generally identified with Thaddeus, and is also variously called Jude of James, Jude Thaddaeus, Judas Thaddaeus or Lebbaeus. He is sometimes identified with Jude, the brother of Jesus, but is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Jesus prior to his crucifixion. Catholic writer Michal Hunt suggests that Judas Thaddaeus became known as Jude after early translators of the New Testament from Greek into English sought to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot and subsequently abbreviated his forename. [6] Most versions of the New Testament in languages other than English and French refer to Judas and Jude by the same name. [7]

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Coptic language Latest stage of the Egyptian language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian, is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century as an official language. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet with the addition of six or seven signs from Demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have, in the 2nd century BC.

Syriac language dialect of Middle Aramaic

Syriac, also known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family that is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet. Having first appeared in the early first century CE in Edessa, classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature. Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. Syriac was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Anatolia and Eastern Arabia. Syriac originated in Mesopotamia and eventually spread west of Iraq in which it became the lingua franca of the region during the Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian period.

Contents

The Armenian Apostolic Church honors Thaddeus along with Saint Bartholomew as its patron saints. In the Roman Catholic Church, he is the patron saint of desperate cases and lost causes.

Armenian Apostolic Church National church of Armenia

The Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities. The Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its official religion under the rule of King Tiridates in the early 4th century. The church originated in the missions of Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century, according to tradition.

Bartholomew the Apostle Christian Apostle

Bartholomew was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He has also been identified as Nathanael or Nathaniel, who appears in the Gospel of John when introduced to Jesus by Philip ,*(John 1:43–51) although many modern commentators reject the identification of Nathanael with Bartholomew.

Patron saint saint regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

Saint Jude's attribute is a club. He is also often shown in icons with a flame around his head. This represents his presence at Pentecost, when he received the Holy Spirit with the other apostles. Another common attribute is Jude holding an image of Jesus Christ, known as the Image of Edessa. In some instances, he may be shown with a scroll or a book (the Epistle of Jude) or holding a carpenter's rule. [8]

A club is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick, usually made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times. There are several examples of blunt-force trauma caused by clubs in the past, including at the site of Nataruk in Turkana, Kenya, described as the scene of a prehistoric conflict between bands of hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. In popular culture, clubs are associated with primitive cultures, especially cavemen.

Icon religious work of art, generally a panel painting, in Eastern Christianity

An icon is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, in the cultures of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic, and certain Eastern Catholic churches. The most common subjects include Christ, Mary, saints and angels. Although especially associated with "portrait" style images concentrating on one or two main figures, the term also covers most religious images in a variety of artistic media produced by Eastern Christianity, including narrative scenes. Icons can represent various scenes in the Bible.

Pentecost Christian holy day commemorating the New Testament account of Holy Spirits descent upon the Apostles

The Christian holy day of Pentecost, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles.

Identity

New Testament

Jude is clearly distinguished from Judas Iscariot, another apostle and later the betrayer of Jesus. Both Jude and Judas are translations of the name Ὶούδας in the Koine Greek language original text of the New Testament, which in turn is a Greek variant of Judah (Y'hudah), a name which was common among Jews at the time. In most Bibles in languages other than English and French, Jude and Judas are referred to by the same name.

Judas Iscariot one of the original Twelve Disciples of Jesus Christ, known for betrayal of Jesus

Judas Iscariot(; Biblical Hebrew: יהודה‎, romanized: Yehûdâh, lit. 'God is praised'; Greek: Ὶούδας Ὶσκαριώτης) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Disciples of Jesus Christ. According to all four canonical gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus to the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane by kissing him and addressing him as "rabbi" to reveal his identity to the crowd who had come to arrest him. His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason. Judas's epithet Iscariot most likely means he came from the village of Kerioth, but this explanation is not universally accepted and many other possibilities have been suggested.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Aside from Judas Iscariot, the New Testament mentions Jude or Judas six times, in four different contexts:

  1. "Jude of James", one of the twelve apostles (Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13);
  2. "Judas, (not Judas Iscariot)", apparently an apostle (John 14:22);
  3. the brother of Jesus (Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3);
  4. the writer of the Epistle of Jude, who identifies himself as "the brother of James" (Jude 1).

The first two are almost always thought to be the same person, [9] although theologian Raymond Brown saw the identification as uncertain. [10] The latter two are also usually thought to be the same person, though this too is not certain; see Epistle of Jude.

Raymond Edward Brown was an American Catholic priest, a member of the Sulpician Fathers and a prominent biblical scholar. He was regarded as a specialist concerning the hypothetical "Johannine community", which he speculated contributed to the authorship of the Gospel of John, and he also wrote influential studies on the birth and death of Jesus. Brown was professor emeritus at Union Theological Seminary (UTS) in New York where he taught for 29 years. He was the first Catholic professor to gain tenure there, where he earned a reputation as a superior lecturer.

Epistle of Jude Book of the Bible

The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is traditionally attributed to Jude, the servant of Jesus and the brother of James the Just.

Catholic tradition generally holds all of these four to be the same person; while Protestants generally believe 1&2 to be one person, and 3&4 to be a one person, but different from 1&2.

Brother of James or son of James?

Translations into English from the original Greek of the New Testament vary in their rendering of Luke 6:16 and Acts 1:13. A literal translation of the references to Jude in these passages gives "Jude of James", as in Young's Literal Translation of the Bible, but scholars differ on whether this means "Jude, brother of James" or "Jude, son of James". The King James and the Douay-Rheims versions call him "Judas the brother of James", making him the same person as the writer of the Epistle of Jude, who identifies himself as "Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James" (Jude 1:1).

Youngs Literal Translation

Young's Literal Translation (YLT) is a translation of the Bible into English, published in 1862. The translation was made by Robert Young, compiler of Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible and Concise Critical Comments on the New Testament. Young used the Textus Receptus (TR) and the Masoretic Text (MT) as the basis for his translation. He wrote in the preface to the first edition, "It has been no part of the Translator's plan to attempt to form a New Hebrew or Greek Text—he has therefore somewhat rigidly adhered to the received ones." Young produced a “Revised Version” of his translation in 1887, but he stuck with the Received Text. He wrote in the preface to the Revised Edition, "The Greek Text followed is that generally recognized as the 'Received Text,' not because it is thought perfect, but because the department of Translation is quite distinct from that of textual criticism, and few are qualified for both. If the original text be altered by a translator, the reader is left in uncertainty whether the translation given is to be considered as that of the old or of the new reading." A new Revised Edition was released ten years after Robert Young's death on October 14, 1888. The 1898 version was based on the TR, easily confirmed by the word "bathe" in Revelation 1:5 and the word "again" in Revelation 20:5. The "Publishers' Note to the Third Edition" explains, "The work has been subjected to a fresh revision, making no alteration on the principles on which the Translation proceeds, but endeavouring to make it as nearly perfect in point of accuracy on its present lines as possible."

Douay–Rheims Bible First complete English language Catholic Bible

The Douay–Rheims Bible is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church. The New Testament portion was published in Reims, France, in 1582, in one volume with extensive commentary and notes. The Old Testament portion was published in two volumes twenty-seven years later in 1609 and 1610 by the University of Douai. The first volume, covering Genesis through Job, was published in 1609; the second, covering Psalms to 2 Machabees plus the apocrypha of the Vulgate was published in 1610. Marginal notes took up the bulk of the volumes and had a strong polemical and patristic character. They offered insights on issues of translation, and on the Hebrew and Greek source texts of the Vulgate.

Most modern translations (including the New International Version, Revised Standard Version and New Revised Standard Version), identify him as "Jude the son of James", and not the same person as the author of the Epistle of Jude. Protestant scholar Darrell L. Bock writes that it must mean "son" not "brother", because when "brother" is intended, the Greek word for "brother" (adelphos) is present. [11] Bock also says that means he was not the brother of Jesus. Additionally the use of the genitive case of "James" (Iakovou) in Greek, usually signifies or implies the person's father to be distinguished from his homonyms. [12]


Brother of Jesus?

Opinion is divided on whether Jude the apostle was also Jude, brother of Jesus, the traditional author of the Epistle of Jude. [13] Generally, Catholics believe the two Judes are the same person, [14] while Protestants generally do not.

According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis, who lived c. 70–163 AD, Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of Judas the brother of Jesus that Papias identifies with Thaddeus:

Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus, who was the mother of James the bishop and apostle, and of Simon and Thaddeus, and of one Joseph...(Fragment X) [15]

Possible identity with Thaddeus

St. Thaddeus, St. Sandukht and other Christians in Sanatruk's prison St. Thaddeus, St. Sandukht and other Christians in Sanatruk's prison.jpg
St. Thaddeus, St. Sandukht and other Christians in Sanatruk's prison

In the apostolic lists at Matthew 10:3 and Mark 3:18, Jude is omitted, but there is a Thaddeus (or in some manuscripts of Matthew 10:3, "Lebbaeus who was surnamed Thaddaeus", and therefore in the King James Version) listed in his place. This has led many Christians since early times to harmonize the lists by positing a "Jude Thaddeus", known by either name. This is made plausible by the fact that "Thaddeus" seems to be a nickname (see Thaddeus) and that many New Testament figures have multiple names (such as Simon Peter and Joseph Barnabas). A further reason is the fact that the name "Judas" was tarnished by Judas Iscariot. It has been argued that for this reason it is unsurprising that Mark and Matthew refer to him by an alternate name. [16]

Some Biblical scholars reject this theory, however, holding that Jude and Thaddeus did not represent the same person. [17] They have proposed alternative theories to explain the discrepancy: an unrecorded replacement of one for the other during the ministry of Jesus because of apostasy or death; [18] the possibility that "twelve" was a symbolic number and an estimation; [19] or simply that the names were not recorded perfectly by the early church. [20]

Thaddeus, one of the twelve apostles, is often indistinguishable from Thaddeus of Edessa, one of the Seventy Disciples. [21] [22]

In some Latin manuscripts of Matthew 10:3, Thaddeus is called Judas the Zealot.

In other manuscripts

According to the Golden Legend, which is a collection of hagiographies, compiled by Jacobus de Varagine in the thirteenth century:

This Judas was called by many names. He was said Judas James, for he was brother to James the Less, and he was called Thaddeus, which is as much to say as taking a prince; or Thadee is said of Thadea, that is a vesture, and of Deus, that is God, for he was vesture royal of God by ornament of virtues, by which he took Christ the prince. He is said also in the History Ecclesiastic, Lebbæus, which is as much to say as heart, or worshipper of heart. Or he is said Lebbæus of lebes, that is a vessel of heart by great hardiness, or a worshipper of heart by purity, a vessel by plenitude of grace, for he deserved to be a vessel of virtues and a caldron of grace. [23] [24]

The same work writes that "Simon Cananean and Judas Thaddeus were brethren of James the Less and sons of Mary Cleophas, which was married to Alpheus."

The Letter or Epistle of Saint Jude in the Bible is usually attributed to the Apostle Jude, and is a short piece. Some statues of Saint Jude include the letter (such as the statue of Saint Jude by Adam Kossowski in Faversham, Kent). [25]

Tradition and legend

Saint Thaddeus Armenian Monastery, Iran. Saint Thaddeus Monastery.jpg
Saint Thaddeus Armenian Monastery, Iran.

Tradition holds that Saint Jude preached the Gospel in Judea, Samaria, Idumaea, Syria, Mesopotamia and Libya. [26] He is also said to have visited Beirut and Edessa, though the emissary of the latter mission is also identified as Thaddeus of Edessa, Addai, [27] one of the Seventy. [28] The 14th-century writer Nicephorus Callistus makes Jude the bridegroom at the wedding at Cana. The legend reports that St. Jude was born into a Jewish family in Paneas, a town in Galilee later rebuilt during the Roman period and renamed Caesarea Philippi. [29] [note 1]

In all probability, he spoke both Greek and Aramaic, like almost all of his contemporaries in that area, and was a farmer by trade. According to the legend, St. Jude son of Clopas and Mary of Clopas, sister of Virgin Mary. [31] Tradition has it that Jude's father, Clopas, was martyred because of his forthright and outspoken devotion to the risen Christ.

Although Saint Gregory the Illuminator is credited as the "Apostle to the Armenians", when he baptized King Tiridates III of Armenia in 301, converting the Armenians, the Apostles Jude and Bartholomew are traditionally believed to have been the first to bring Christianity to Armenia, and are therefore venerated as the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Linked to this tradition is the Saint Thaddeus Monastery (now in northern Iran) and Saint Bartholomew Monastery (now in southeastern Turkey) which were both constructed in what was then Armenia.

Tradition holds that Jude the Apostle was vegetarian. [32]

Death and remains

Symbol of his martyrdom Thaddeus mosaic.jpg
Symbol of his martyrdom

According to tradition, Saint Jude suffered martyrdom about 65 AD in Beirut, in the Roman province of Syria, together with the apostle Simon the Zealot, with whom he is usually connected. The axe that he is often shown holding in pictures symbolizes the way in which he was killed. [33] Their acts and martyrdom were recorded in an Acts of Simon and Jude that was among the collection of passions and legends traditionally associated with the legendary Abdias, bishop of Babylon, and said to have been translated into Latin by his disciple Tropaeus Africanus, according to the Golden Legend account of the saints. [34]

Sometime after his death, Saint Jude's body was brought from Beirut to Rome and placed in a crypt in St. Peter's Basilica which was visited by many devotees. Now his bones are in the left transept of St. Peter's Basilica under the main altar of St. Joseph in one tomb with the remains of the apostle Simon the Zealot. These were moved here on 27 December 1665. [35] According to another popular tradition, the remains of St. Jude were preserved in an Armenian monastery on an island in the northern part of Issyk-Kul Lake in Kyrgyzstan at least until the mid-15th century. Later legends either deny that the remains are preserved there or claim that they were moved to a yet more desolate stronghold in the Pamir Mountains.

A plain ossuary marked with the inscription "Judas Thaddaeus" (Ιουδας Θαδδαιου) was found in Kefar Barukh, Jezreel Valley, alongside fragments of four uninscribed ossuaries. The site was dated by lamps and other pottery to no later than the early-second century. [36]

Iconography

Church of Saints Simon and Jude Thaddeus in Rudno, Poland. Church of Saints Simon and Jude Thaddeus in Rudno.jpg
Church of Saints Simon and Jude Thaddeus in Rudno, Poland.

Jude is traditionally depicted carrying the image of Jesus in his hand or close to his chest, betokening the legend of the Image of Edessa, recorded in apocryphal correspondence between Jesus and Abgar which is reproduced in Eusebius' History Ecclesiastica, I, xiii. Eusebius relates that King Abgar of Edessa (now Şanlıurfa in southeast Turkey) sent a letter to Jesus seeking a cure for an illness afflicting him. With the letter he sent his envoy Hannan, the keeper of the archives, offering his own home city to Jesus as a safe dwelling place. The envoy painted a likeness of Jesus with choice paints (or alternatively, impressed with Abgar's faith, Jesus pressed his face into a cloth and gave it to Hannan) to take to Abgar with his answer. Upon seeing Jesus' image, the king placed it with great honor in one of his palatial houses. After Christ's execution, Jude Thomas the Apostle sent Addai, one of the 70 or 72 in Luke 10:1–12 to King Abgar [37] and the king was cured. Astonished, he converted to Christianity, along with many of the people under his rule. Additionally, St. Jude is often depicted with a flame above his head, representing his presence at Pentecost, when he was said to have received the Holy Spirit with the other apostles.

Veneration

Statue of St. Jude in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran by Lorenzo Ottoni. Thaddeus San Giovanni in Laterano 2006-09-07.jpg
Statue of St. Jude in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran by Lorenzo Ottoni.
Procession in Lima, Peru. SJTLima001.JPG
Procession in Lima, Peru.

According to tradition, after his martyrdom, pilgrims came to his grave to pray and many of them experienced the powerful intercessions of St. Jude. Thus the title, 'The Saint for the Hopeless and the Despaired'. St. Bridget of Sweden and St. Bernard had visions from God asking each to accept St. Jude as 'The Patron Saint of the Impossible'. [33] [38] [39]

His feast day is 28 October (Roman Catholic Church, Episcopal Church and Lutheran Church) and 19 June and 21 August (Eastern Orthodox Church). [40] [41]

The Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) began working in present-day Armenia soon after their founding in 1216. At that time, there was already a substantial devotion to Saint Jude by both Catholic and Orthodox Christians in the area. This lasted until persecution drove Christians from the area in the 18th century. Devotion to Saint Jude began again in earnest in the 19th century, starting in Italy and Spain, spreading to South America, and finally to the United States (starting in the vicinity of Chicago) owing to the influence of the Claretians and the Dominicans in the 1920s.

Patronage

Among some Roman Catholics, Saint Jude is venerated as the "patron saint of lost causes". This practice stems from the belief that few Christians invoked him for misplaced fear of praying to Christ's betrayer, Judas Iscariot, because of their similar names. The ignored Jude thus supposedly became quite eager to assist anyone who sought his help, to the point of interceding in the most dire of circumstances. The Church also wanted to encourage veneration of this "forgotten" apostle, and maintained that Saint Jude would intercede in any lost cause to prove his sanctity and zeal for Christ.[ citation needed ]

Saint Jude is the patron saint of the Chicago Police Department and of Clube de Regatas do Flamengo (a soccer team in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). His other patronages include desperate situations and hospitals. One of his namesakes is St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, which has helped many children with terminal illnesses and their families since its founding in 1962. [42]

Shrines and churches

Many countries venerate the Apostle Jude and have constructed shrines or churches dedicated to his memory. Such sites include those in Australia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Cuba, India, Iran, the Philippines, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States and Lebanon. The National Shrine of St. Jude in Chicago, Illinois was founded in 1929 by the Claretian Missionaries. The Nationwide Center of St. Jude Devotions [43] in Baltimore was founded in 1917 by the Pallottines. The National Shrine of Saint Jude Thaddeus in the Philippines was erected by the Archdiocese of Manila in 1954 as Espíritu Santo Chinese Parish. The Shrine holds the saint's novena liturgy every Thursday, and is now under the Society of the Divine Word that also runs the attached Saint Jude Catholic School. The National Shrine of Saint Jude at Faversham in England was founded in 1955. [44]

In Islam

The Qur’anic account of the disciples of Jesus does not include their names, numbers, or any detailed accounts of their lives. Muslim exegesis, however, more-or-less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John and Simon the Zealot. [45]

See also

Notes

  1. However, Philostorgius, the 5th-century Arian Christian historian, says in his Historia Ecclesiastica: "The district of Paneas was formerly called Dan. But in the course of time it came to be called Caesarea Philippi, and later still, when the heathen erected in it a statue of the God Pan, its name was changed to Paneas." [30]

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References

  1. Butler, Alban. "St Jude, Apostle". EWTN. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  2. Lanzi, Fernando; Lanzi, Gioia (2004). Saints and Their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Liturgical Press. p. 70. ISBN   9780814629703.
  3. "St. Jude Shrine, Yoodhapuram". Yoodhapuramchurch.com. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  4. "Saint Judas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  5. https://st-takla.org/Coptic-History/CopticHistory_01-Historical-Notes-on-the-Mother-Church/Christian-Church-History__034-Saint-Judas-Yahooza.html
  6. "The Letter of Saint Jude". Agape Bible Study. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  7. "Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Saint Jude". Catholic Doors. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  8. Fournier, Catherine (2010). "Saint Simon and Saint Jude". Domestic Church Communications Ltd.
  9. Commentary on John 14:22, Expositor's Bible Commentary CDROM, Zondervan, 1978
  10. Brown, Raymond E., The Gospel According to Saint John volume 2, p. 641.
  11. Darrell L. Bock, Luke, volume 1, 1:1–9:50, (Baker Books, 1994), p. 546
  12. "Ποιος ήταν ο Άγιος Ιούδας ο Θαδδαίος". ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ Online.
  13. Neyrey, Jerome H., 2 Peter, Jude, Anchor Bible Reference Library, Doubleday, 1993. p.44-45.
  14. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Brethren of the Lord".
  15. of Hierapolis, Papias. Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord. Fragment X. earlychristianwritings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  16. For instance Otto Harpan, in "The Apostle" (Sands, 1962), quoted at "St. Jude". 12apostlesofthecatholicchurch.com. Archived from the original on 26 January 2005.
  17. Pesch, Rudolf. "Simon-Petrus. Geschichte und geschichtliche Bedeutung der ersten Juengers Jesu Christ", Paepste und Papsttum15, Hiersmann, 1980. p.36.
  18. Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew volume 3, pp 130–133, 200 ("Christian imagination was quick to harmonize and produce Jude Thaddeus, a conflation that has no basis in reality.")
  19. Sanders, E.P., Jesus and Judaism, Fortress Press, 1985. ISBN   0-334-02091-3. p.102
  20. Fitzmyer, Joseph, The Gospel according to Luke: Introduction, translation, and notes, Volume 2, The Anchor Bible, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981–1985. ISBN   0-385-00515-6. p.619-620
  21. Kutash, V. Rev. Ihor,. "Thaddeus, Apostle of the Seventy". Ukrainian-orthodoxy.org. Retrieved 16 December 2013.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. Emanuela Marinelli (2014). "Judas, Thaddeus, Addai: possible connections with the vicissitudes of the Edessan and Constantinopolitan Mandylion and any research perspectives | Mimmo Repice and Emanuela Marinelli". Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation (ATSI). Academia.edu. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  23. de Voragine, Jacobus (1275). The Golden Legend or Lives Of The Saints . Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  24. Stracke, Richard. Golden Legend: Life of SS. Simon and Jude . Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  25. "Shrine of Saint Jude".
  26. "About Saint Jude, Shrine of St. Jude Thaddeus, San Francisco, Ca". Stjude-shrine.org. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  27. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Doctrine of Addai". newadvent.org. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  28. "Lk 10:1–12". usccb.org. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  29. Ján Majerník; Joseph Ponessa; Laurie Watson Manhardt (2005). Come and See: The Synoptics: On the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke. Emmaus Road Publishing. p. 108. ISBN   978-1-931018-31-9.
  30. John Francis Wilson (23 July 2004). Caesarea Philippi: Banias, the Lost City of Pan. I.B.Tauris. p. 61. ISBN   978-0-85771-115-1.
  31. "Who is St. Jude?, International Shrine of St. Jude, New Orleans, La". Judeshrine.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  32. Murray, Lawrence (1 June 1998). The AMAZING SPREAD of CHRISTIANITY. ISBN   978-0-9722149-2-6.
  33. 1 2 "St. Jude Shrine Koothattukulam : St.Jude the Apostle". Archived from the original on 1 December 2012.
  34. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Apocrypha".
  35. "Shrine of Saint Jude".
  36. Prausnitz M. and Rahmani L.Y. (1967). Jewish Burial Caves of the Early Second Century CE at Kfar Baruch. In Me'eretz Kishon: The Book of the 'Emek. Kishon County Council, Tel Adashim. 309-312.
  37. The Doctrine of Addai, see http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/addai_2_text.htm
  38. "Biography of St. Jude Thaddeus, St. Jude's Pilgrim Shrine, Travandrum, India". Stjudetvm.com. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  39. "Biography of St. Jude Thaddeus, St. Jude's Novena". stjudenovena.org.
  40. "Άγιος Θαδδαίος ο Απόστολος". Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  41. Saint Jude | History, Facts, & Feast Day . Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  42. Orsi, Robert A. (1996). Thank you, St. Jude women's devotion to the patron saint of hopeless causes. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. pp. x. ISBN   9780300162691.
  43. Nationwide Center of St. Jude Devotions
  44. "Who is Saint Jude?". Carmelite.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  45. Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brandon M. (2003). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (Roman & Littlefield). p. 86. ISBN   978-0810843059. Muslim exegesis identifies the disciples of Jesus as Peter, Andrew, Matthew, Thomas, Philip, John, James, Bartholomew, and Simon