Juiz de Fora

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Juiz de Fora
Municipality
Vista parcial de Juiz de Fora MG a partir do Shopping Independencia.JPG
Bandeira de Juiz de Fora.svg
Flag
Brasao-jf.png
Seal
Nickname(s): 
JF
Motto(s): 
Pro Patria et Urbe "For the homeland and the city"
MinasGerais Municip JuizdeFora.svg
Brazil location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Juiz de Fora
Location in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Coordinates: 21°45′43″S43°20′58″W / 21.76194°S 43.34944°W / -21.76194; -43.34944 Coordinates: 21°45′43″S43°20′58″W / 21.76194°S 43.34944°W / -21.76194; -43.34944
Country Brazil
Region Southeast
State Minas Gerais
Incorporated 30 May 1850
Government
  MayorMargarida Salomão (PT)
Area
  Total1,436 km2 (554 sq mi)
Elevation
678 m (2,224 ft)
Population
 (2020 [1] )
  Total573,285
  Density359.59/km2 (931.3/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
  Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code
36000-000
Area code(s) +55 32
Demonym juiz-forano
Website Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais

Juiz de Fora (Portuguese pronunciation:  [ˈʒwiʒ dʒi ˈfɔɾɐ] , Outsider Judge ), also known as J.F., is a city in the southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the state border with Rio de Janeiro. According to 2020 estimates the current population is about 573,285 inhabitants. The geographical area of the municipality is 1,437 km2 (555 sq mi).

Contents

The city's location was a key factor in its economic and demographic development since it is situated between the three most important financial and economic metropolises of southeast Brazil (and also the three largest urban sprawls of the country): Rio de Janeiro (189 km (117 mi)), Belo Horizonte (260 km (160 mi)) and São Paulo (486 km (302 mi)). Major highways connect Juiz de Fora with these three metropolitan areas, the most important being the BR 040 which connects Brasília with Rio de Janeiro via Belo Horizonte. The city is built on the Paraibuna, a major tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river.

History

Juiz de Fora in 1893. Juiz de fora (1893).jpg
Juiz de Fora in 1893.

The origins of Juiz de Fora can be traced back to the beginnings of the 18th century, when the Caminho Novo (New Way) road was opened linking Rio de Janeiro to the gold rush area of Minas Gerais around Vila Rica (now Ouro Preto). The region was covered with dense forest (hence its name; "Zona da Mata", Forest Zone). Despite the opening of the new route the area remained largely uninhabited and most of its scarce settlement was centered on the road itself. The first permanent inhabitants of the municipality were merchants and farmers who supplied the travelers' needs on the long road between the coast and the gold region.

Further development would only take place after the decline of gold mining in the central zone of Minas Gerais. The capital previously invested in the mines was now invested in coffee plantations, and the region of Zona da Mata became a fertile ground to invest in. The position of the village then called Santo Antônio do Paraibuna was favourable due to the road connection with the capital of the country and its harbour.

In 1850 the small village was officially elevated to city status. Progress continued in 1861 with the completion of the first macadamized road in Latin America, the Estrada União e Indústria (Union and Industry), replacing the Caminho Novo. Its name reflected the new found wealth of the city, for industry replaced coffee-related agriculture as its economic heart. Five years later a new railway, the Estrada de Ferro Dom Pedro II, reached the city and in 1889 the first hydroelectric powerplant of Latin America (Marmelos Zero) was built on the Paraibuna river on the outskirts of the city along the Estrada União e Indústria.

As both foreign and domestic capital fueled the industrial boom the city became a major centre (becoming the largest urban area of the state). By first decade of the 20th century Juiz de Fora was among the main textile and industrial producers in South America and in Brazil particularly. The city's wealth was second only to major cities such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. But as the coffee rush frontier moved southwestwards it reached the state of São Paulo and its immensely fertile plateaus which became the richest in the federation and industry flourished there as it had in Juiz de Fora itself. The city of Juiz de Fora became the major industrial centre in a state that was being much surpassed by São Paulo in industrial output, and worse still much of the wealth generated by the state (a large bulk by Juiz de Fora itself) was being used in the building of the new state capital Belo Horizonte (replacing Ouro Preto at the centre of the gold region), founded at the end of the 19th century and which, in the Brazilian and Latin-American tradition of centralization, was intended to be the largest city of the state. The Great Depression of the 30s worsened the city's decay which would only be overcome five decades later. By the 1940s the city had lost its nationwide influence due to the continued growth of Belo Horizonte and the loss of industry.

The city's decay can be seen in the figures for its population which remained stagnant from the early 1930s to the late 1960s. By the mid-1970s, the city started to experience new growth, which continues to this day. This new era began with the establishment of a federal university (UFJF) in the city and the decision by the Brazilian military junta (1964–1985) to promote the city as a major military centre. This sparked a phenomenon rarely experienced by post-industrial towns: the industrial rebirth of the city, this time following Brazilian industrialization itself, based on heavy-industry such as steel and engineering.

Recently, the city seems to be experiencing a new era in its history, again following a boom in Brazilian economy, and is reinventing itself as a major centre for services (such as telecommunications, with an important call centre) and education (following the federal university, private colleges have been established in the city).

Today Juiz de Fora is an important commercial centre for the surrounding region and is the core of an unofficial metropolitan area of more than 1 million inhabitants.

Geography

Location

Juiz de Fora is located in southeast of Minas Gerais state. It is in a strategic location close to the important metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte and São Paulo and on the main route from Rio de Janeiro to Belo Horizonte and Brasília. The distance of Juiz de Fora to important cities is: [2]

Climate

Although lying within tropical latitudes the climate is relatively mild. The altitude of 700 to 900 m (2,300 to 3,000 ft) makes the weather usually cooler and rainier than the lower surrounding areas. Under the Köppen climate classification Juiz de Fora's climate is classified as a humid subtropical climate with two distinct seasons, one hotter and rainier (October to April) and one cooler and drier (May to September). The average annual temperature is around 19 °C (66 °F) with an average high of 24 °C (75 °F) and an average low of 15 °C (59 °F). It is very humid with average humidity of 80%. The annual rainfall varies between 1,300 and 1,500 mm (51 and 59 in).

Climate data for Juiz de Fora
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)25.9
(78.6)
26.8
(80.2)
25.7
(78.3)
23.9
(75.0)
22.8
(73.0)
21.2
(70.2)
21.2
(70.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
23.8
(74.8)
24.5
(76.1)
25
(77)
23.7
(74.7)
Average low °C (°F)17.8
(64.0)
18.2
(64.8)
17.5
(63.5)
16.3
(61.3)
15.4
(59.7)
13.2
(55.8)
12.5
(54.5)
12.4
(54.3)
13.4
(56.1)
15
(59)
16.2
(61.2)
16.9
(62.4)
15.4
(59.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)299.8
(11.80)
217.4
(8.56)
198.3
(7.81)
107.1
(4.22)
65.4
(2.57)
34.2
(1.35)
27.5
(1.08)
16.5
(0.65)
49.9
(1.96)
112.4
(4.43)
191
(7.5)
327.1
(12.88)
1,646.6
(64.83)
Average relative humidity (%)83.481.183.984.383.38677.973.683.181.281.385.382.03
Source: Climate-charts [3]

Economy

Juiz de Fora is the third most important industrial center in the state of Minas Gerais, despite being the fourth largest in terms of population[ citation needed ]. It was once the state's largest city, a position which was held up until the beginning of the 20th century (it held the second position until the 1980s). There are important steel mills and automotive factories (Mercedes-Benz being the most famous) in the city, along with several textile factories.

The city is also an important trade center with a considerable area of influence, being considered the capital of the Zona da Mata region of the state. It has four big shopping malls, several hyper-marts and many smaller shops.

Transport

Major Roads

Railways

Airports

Itamar Franco Airport Juiz de Fora Airport.jpg
Itamar Franco Airport

Culture

The massive presence of immigrants – especially from Portugal, Italy, Germany, Syria and Lebanon and more recently China – throughout its history has given the city a cosmopolitan spirit and diverse cuisine. Walking down Rio Branco Avenue, (the city's several kilometers long main avenue) one can find typical German, Italian, Arabic, Portuguese, Chinese and Japanese restaurants, as well as traditional Brazilian and vegetarian cuisine.

Juiz de Fora is an important regional cultural center, one of the few towns in south-east Minas Gerais to have permanently functional cinemas, theatres, music venues and light entertainment. There is a nationally important museum (Museu Mariano Procópio) and a Philharmonic Orchestra (Orquestra Filarmônica Pró-Musica). The city also hosts a yearly classical music festival, the Festival Internacional de Música Brasileira Colonial e Música Antiga (International Festival of Brazilian Colonial Music and Early Music). It is home to the "Meninos Cantores da Academia" the second oldest choir in this category in Brazil and to the Coral Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora an eclectic and neat choir with a remarkable musical legacy of 50 years in the city. Cultural life is also boosted by many cinema, gastronomic and rock festivals like: "Primeiro Plano Juiz de fora Cinema Festival", [4] [5] "JF Sabor","Deutsches Fest" (The festival celebrates and preserves the cultural customs, the gastronomy and everything related to the German traditions. In 2018, the party celebrated 160 years of the German immigration to Juiz de Fora), [6] "Comida di Buteco JF" and "Festival de Bandas Novas". [7] The rock festival has been supporting the local music scene and promoting countless new bands since 1999. [8]

The Federal University and several private-owned colleges in Juiz de Fora turn it in a highly sought destination for students. Some of the courses at the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora are reputedly among the best in Brazil, considered the second best university in the state of Minas Gerais and 14th position among Brazilian universities according to international ranking in 2018. [9] The cultural life of Juiz de Fora is marked by great eclecticism, which can be seen in its architecture. Art Nouveau buildings dating from the first decade of the 20th century are intermingled with those in Art Deco style from the mid-20th century, and many modern concrete edifices including one building by Oscar Niemeyer.

Sport

Football

Juiz de Fora is the home of Tupi and Tupynambás. Tupi was the 1932 runner-up of Campeonato Mineiro, [10] and has won several city championships. Tupi won the Minas Gerais Second Division in 2001, was 3rd place in 2008 Campeonato Mineiro and won Taça Minas Gerais in 2008. It is widely regarded as one of the most important teams of the state, despite lacking national prestige. They won the 2011 Campeonato Brasileiro Série D (national fourth division) after beating Santa Cruz in both legs of the final, [10] having qualified for the tournament after América de Teófilo Otoni withdrew before the start of the competition. [11] In 2015, they finished 3rd place at the 2015 Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, achieving promotion for the Brazilian second tier for the first time in the team history,. [12] However, they finished 18th in the 2016 Campeonato Brasileiro Série B and was relegated back to Série C. After missing promotion in the final stage in 2017, the next year saw Tupi relegated to Série D due to goal difference.

Meanwhile, after the 60s, Tupynambás had sporadically played at Campeonato Mineiro lower levels with their football department closed most of the years. They returned to professional football in 2016 after receiving a percentage fee from sale of Danilo, who started his youth career at the club, from Porto to Real Madrid [13] and were promoted from the third division of Campeonato Mineiro in the same year. [14] In 2018, Tupynambás finished in 2nd place at the second division of Campeonato Mineiro, earning promotion to the 2019 Campeonato Mineiro. [15]

In 2019, with both teams together in Minas Gerais first division since 1970, Tupi had a disappointing campaign after failing to win a single match and being relegated after finishing in the last place; meanwhile Tupynambás won their first match by 5-1 against Villa Nova, [16] defeated their city rivals in the second match by 1-0 [17] and finished in the 8th place, being beaten by Atlético Mineiro in the quarter-finals. [18]

Volleyball

In 2011, UFJF volleyball team won promotion to Superliga Brasileira de Voleibol for the first time. [19] In its first season, UFJF finished 11th from 12 teams [20] and is pending invitation to stay at the top division for 2012/13 season. [21] Later on the team changed its name to JF Vôlei and it was ranked # 7 in the superliga 2016/2017,the team's best performance so far. [22]

Demography

Ethnic groups found in Juiz de Fora include: Portuguese, Italians, Africans, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians, others Arabs, Japanese and more recently Chinese.

The population was 238,510 in 1970 with 7.6% living in rural areas.

Juiz de Fora downtown. Vista do centro de Juiz de Fora-MG.JPG
Juiz de Fora downtown.

As of the 2010 census, there were 516,248 people living in Juiz de Fora. The racial composition of the city was:

Color/RaceNumberPercentage
White 294,08056.9%
Mixed 144,15327.9%
Black 73,94214.3%
Asian 3,5350.7%
Amerindian 5380.1%

The population of Juiz de Fora since the first census, in 1872:

YearPopulation
187218,800
189022,600
1920118,500
1940118,400
1950111,300
1960125,000
1970238,500
1980305,800
1991385,100
1996424,000
2000456,400
2002471,693
2005501,153
2006509,109
2007513,348
2008520,612
2009526,706
2014550,710
2017563,769
2020573,285

Notable people from Juiz de Fora

José duardo Gattas Bara Jogador de voley (Tri campeão brasileiro) Jogou na seleção brasileira

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References

  1. IBGE 2020
  2. "Prefeitura de Juiz de Fora" (in Portuguese). PJF . Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  3. Climate-charts. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  4. "Mais de 50 curtas na 16ª edição do Festival Primeiro Plano". tribunademinas.com.br. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  5. "Festival Primeiro Plano começa nesta segunda-feira (5) no Teatro Paschoal Carlos Magno". tribunademinas.com.br. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  6. "24ª Deutsches Fest in Juiz de Fora". g1.globo.com. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  7. "19ª edição do Festival de Bandas Novas começa neste sábado". tribunademinas.com.br. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  8. "Festival de Bandas Novas completa 20 anos em Juiz de Fora". ombrelo.com.br. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  9. "UFJF é a segunda melhor de Minas segundo ranking internacional". ufjf.br. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  10. 1 2 Tupi vence, estraga festa do Santa Cruz e conquista o título da Série D | globoesporte.com. Globoesporte.globo.com (20 November 2011).
  11. América-TO desiste de disputar a Série D – Futebol – Placar Archived 6 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine . Placar.abril.com.br (25 October 2013).
  12. http://globoesporte.globo.com/mg/zona-da-mata-centro-oeste/noticia/2015/12/acesso-inedito-serie-b-eterniza-2015-como-ano-historico-para-tupi-mg.html
  13. https://globoesporte.globo.com/mg/zona-da-mata-centro-oeste/futebol/noticia/apos-faturar-com-venda-para-real-time-de-mg-pode-lucrar-com-ida-de-danilo-para-o-city.ghtml
  14. https://esporte.uol.com.br/futebol/campeonatos/mineiro/ultimas-noticias/2019/01/20/negociacoes-de-lateral-na-europa-ajudaram-a-colocar-time-na-elite-de-mg.htm
  15. https://www.futebolinterior.com.br/futebol/Mineiro/Unica/2018/noticias/2018-04/confira-os-classificados-e-os-rebaixados-no-modulo-ii-de-minas-gerais
  16. https://www.mg.superesportes.com.br/app/noticias/futebol/interior/2019/01/20/noticia_interior,562450/em-volta-a-elite-do-mineiro-tupynambas-surpreende-e-massacra-villa-no.shtml Diários Associados
  17. https://globoesporte.globo.com/mg/zona-da-mata-centro-oeste/futebol/campeonato-mineiro/jogo/23-01-2019/tupynambas-tupi-mg.ghtml
  18. https://globoesporte.globo.com/mg/futebol/campeonato-mineiro/
  19. UFJF conquista vaga para Superliga de Vôlei Masculino | ACESSA.com – Esporte. ACESSA.com.
  20. Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  21. Espaço do Vôlei: Esperando convite, UFJF trabalha novos objetivos na temporada 2012/2013. Espacodovolei.com.
  22. http://superliga.cbv.com.br/16-17/classificacao/Masculino/1