|Born||26 March 1824|
|Died||August 26, 1874 50) (aged|
|Known for||First woman to graduate from a French university (1861)|
Julie-Victoire Daubié (26 March 1824 in Bains-les-Bains – 26 August 1874 in Fontenoy-le-Château) was a French journalist. She was the first woman to have graduated from a French university when she obtained a bachelor's degree in Lyon in 1861.
Bains-les-Bains is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in eastern France. It is the administrative capital of the Canton of Bains-les-Bains.
Fontenoy-le-Château is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France. In January 2013 it merged with the former commune of Le Magny.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics.
Josephine Butler translated a part of Julie-Victoire Daubié's books into English.
Josephine Elizabeth Butler was an English feminist and social reformer in the Victorian era. She campaigned for women's suffrage, the right of women to better education, the end of coverture in British law, the abolition of child prostitution, and an end to human trafficking of young women and children into European prostitution.
She was born on March 26, 1824,in Bains-les-Bains in the Vosges. Her father died when she was less than two years old, and she and her seven siblings moved with their mother to Fontenoy, staying with the family of their father. She studied Latin, Greek, German, history, and geography with help from her brother. In 1844, she received a teacher's certificate of ability, and had also studied zoology at the Museum of Natural History in Paris. At the museum, she was taught by renowned specialist Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Despite her education and lack of laws explicitly barring women from entering academia, she was rejected from numerous French universities. Despite the rejections, she continued taking classes while working as a governess.
The Vosges are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany. Together with the Palatine Forest to the north on the German side of the border, they form a single geomorphological unit and low mountain range of around 8,000 km2 (3,100 sq mi) in area. It runs in a north-northeast direction from the Burgundian Gate to the Börrstadt Basin, and forms the western boundary of the Upper Rhine Plain.
Zoology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study".
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
She entered an essay competition in 1859 held by the Imperial Academy of Science and Fine Letters of Lyon. She wrote a nearly-300-page work titled "The Poor Woman in the 19th Century. Female Conditions and Resources," which detailed professional and academic exclusion for women, wage inequality, and other travails. The essay took first prize, and Daubie was given admittance.
The gender pay gap or gender wage gap is the average difference between the remuneration for men and women who are working. Women are generally paid less than men. There are two distinct numbers regarding the pay gap: unadjusted versus adjusted pay gap. The latter takes into account differences in hours worked, occupations chosen, education and job experience. For example, someone who takes time off will likely not earn as much as someone who does not take time off from work. In the United States, for example the unadjusted average female's annual salary has commonly been cited as being 78% of the average male salary, compared to 80–98% for the adjusted average salary.
In 1861, she became the first woman to present herself at the baccalaureate exams.She was 37-years-old when she became the first female baccalaureate in France, in August 1861.
After her graduation, she continued to write about the conditions faced by women, as an activist and a scholar.She also moved to a large house she purchased in Fontenoy and set up an embroidery shop, which she entrusted to her niece. She also settled on the Champs-Elysee in Paris and became a recognized economic journalist. In 1871, she also became a literature graduate in Lyon, becoming the first female graduate in letters. She also remained activist for women's rights and later a journalist.
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.
She was 50 when she died on August 25, 1874, in Lorraine at the Fontenoy-le-Château, due to tuberculosis.
In March 2018, Google featured her in their "Google Doodles".
Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt.
Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, also known as Madame Lebrun or Madame Le Brun, was a prominent French portrait painter of the late eighteenth century.
Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.3 km (7.6 mi) from the center of Paris. Argenteuil is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department, the seat of the arrondissement of Argenteuil.
Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse was a French salon holder and letter writer. She held a prominent salon in Paris during the Enlightenment. She is best-known today, however, for her letters, first published in 1809, which offer compelling accounts of two tragic love affairs.
Elisabeth Félix, better known only as Mademoiselle Rachel, was a French actress.
Raymonde de Laroche, born Elise Raymonde Deroche, was a French pilot and the first woman in the world to receive an aeroplane pilot's licence.
Jacqueline Worms de Romilly was a Franco-Greek philologist, classical scholar and fiction writer. She was the first woman nominated to the Collège de France, and in 1988, the second woman to enter the Académie française.
Albertine Adrienne Necker de Saussure was a Genevan and then Swiss writer and educationalist, and an early advocate of education for women.
Sylvie Testud is a French actress, writer, and film director, whose film career began in 1991. She won the César Award for Most Promising Actress for Murderous Maids (2000), the César Award for Best Actress for Fear and Trembling (2003), and the European Film Award for Best Actress for Lourdes (2009). Her other film roles include Beyond Silence (1996), La Vie en Rose (2007), and French Women (2014).
Marie-Victoire Lemoine was a French classicist painter.
Raphaël Enthoven is a French philosophy teacher, radio host and television host. An agrégé who taught at Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 and Paris Diderot University, Enthoven is known to the French public for hosting various philosophy-related shows on radio and television. Although he has been described as a philosopher, Enthoven himself rejects being labeled as such.
Julia Catherine Beckwith was credited as being Canada's first novelist.
Madeleine Brès, née Gebelin, was the first French woman to obtain a medical degree.
Emma Maria Macfarren was an English pianist and composer who used the pseudonym Jules Brissac.
Kenza Dali is a French football player who currently plays for French club Dijon of the Division 1 Féminine. She plays as an attacking midfielder and before joining Lyon, she played for Paris Saint-Germain, who she joined following the 2010–11 season after a successful season with Rodez AF. Prior to playing for Rodez, Dali spent five years with Lyon. She spent the majority of her career with Lyon playing on the club's reserve team in D3 Féminine, the third level of women's football in France.
Women letter writers in early modern Europe created lengthy correspondences, where they expressed their intellect and their creativity; in the process, they also left a rich historic legacy.
Marie Bonnevial was a French teacher and women's rights activist. She became Grand Mistress of the Supreme Council of Le Droit Humain.
Le Droit des femmes was a French feminist journal that appeared from 1869 to 1891. It was founded and edited by Léon Richer, and in the early days supported financially by Maria Deraismes. The newspaper supported many women's causes, but always avoided directly supporting women's suffrage. It was one of the longest running journals of its type in the 19th century.
Raymonde Tillon was a French politician. She was affiliated with the French Communist Party and was in the French Resistance during the Second World War.
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|By Julie-Victoire Daubié|