Julie London

Last updated
Julie London
Julie London 1958.JPG
London in 1958
Born
Julie Peck

(1926-09-26)September 26, 1926
DiedOctober 18, 2000(2000-10-18) (aged 74)
Encino, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Resting place Forest Lawn Memorial Park
Occupation
  • Singer
  • actress
  • pin-up model
Years active1944–1981
Spouse(s)
Jack Webb
(m. 1947;div. 1954)

Bobby Troup
(m. 1959;died 1999)
Children5
Musical career
Genres
Labels

Julie London (née Peck; September 26, 1926 – October 18, 2000) was an American singer and actress whose career spanned more than 40 years. Born in Santa Rosa, California to vaudevillian parents, London was discovered while working as an elevator operator in downtown Los Angeles, and began her career as an actress. London's 35-year acting career began in film in 1944, and included roles as the female lead in numerous westerns, co-starring with Rock Hudson in The Fat Man (1951), with Robert Taylor and John Cassavetes in Saddle the Wind (1958), and opposite Robert Mitchum in The Wonderful Country (1959).

Contents

In the mid-1950s, she signed a recording contract with the newly established Liberty Records, and released a total of 32 albums of pop and jazz standards during the 1950s and 1960s, with her signature song being "Cry Me a River", which she introduced in 1955. London was noted by critics for her husky, smoky voice and languid vocal style. She released her final studio album in 1969, but achieved continuing success playing the female starring role of nurse Dixie McCall, in the television series Emergency! (1972–1979), in which she appeared opposite her real-life husband, Bobby Troup. The show was produced by her ex-husband, Jack Webb.

A shy and introverted woman, London rarely granted interviews, and spent the remainder of her life out of the public sphere. In 1995, she suffered a stroke, which left her with permanent health problems, and died five years later of a heart attack.

Early life

Julie London was born Julie Peck [lower-alpha 1] on September 26, 1926 in Santa Rosa, California, the only child of Josephine Rosalie Peck (née Taylor; 1905 1976) and Jack Peck (1901 1977), who were a vaudeville song-and-dance team. [6] At one time, her mother worked in a pharmacy. In 1929, when she was three years old, the family moved to San Bernardino, where she made her professional singing debut on her parents' radio program. [7]

Throughout her early life, both London and her mother were admirers of Billie Holiday. [8] London was described by friends and family as a shy child "without much self-confidence". [9] In 1941, when she was 14, her family moved to Hollywood. In her teen-aged years, she began to sing in local nightclubs in Los Angeles. [8] She graduated from the Hollywood Professional School in 1945, and worked as an elevator operator in downtown Los Angeles throughout high school. [10]

Career

Discovery and early film roles

In 1943, London met Sue Carol, a talent agent and then-wife of actor Alan Ladd, while operating the elevator at Roos Bros., an upscale clothing store on Hollywood Boulevard. [11] Struck by London's features, Carol facilitated a screen test for the inexperienced actress, and London signed a contract with her. London subsequently met Esquire photographer Henry Waxman while working her second job as a clerk at a menswear store, and he shot photographs of her that appeared in the magazine's November 1943 issue. [12] These photos helped establish her as a pin-up girl prized by GIs during World War II. [13]

She made her film debut while still in high school, appearing under the name Julie London in the exploitation film Nabonga in 1944. [13] After a series of uncredited roles, she signed a contract with Warner Bros. Pictures, appearing in the war film Task Force (1949) [14] and the Western Return of the Frontiersman (1950). [15] She was then cast in the lead role of Pat Boyd in the William Castle-directed film noir The Fat Man (1951), opposite J. Scott Smart and Rock Hudson. [16] London completed shooting the film in August 1950. [17] After Warner Bros. dropped her contract, [15] London was offered a contract with Universal Pictures based on the role, but turned it down, opting instead to focus on her marriage to actor Jack Webb. [17]

Mainstream films and music

After divorcing Webb in 1954, London resumed her career, appearing in the drama film The Fighting Chance , which was filmed in May 1955 and released by 20th Century Fox. [18] Earlier in 1955, London was spotted singing at a jazz club in Los Angeles by record producer Simon Waronker, who was recommended to her by her friend (and future husband) Bobby Troup. [19] Despite her notable stage fright, Waronker was impressed by London's vocals and delivery, and later recalled that "The lyrics poured out of her like a hurt bird." [19] Waronker convinced London to pursue a recording career, and signed her with the then-newly established Liberty Records. [20] London recorded 32 albums [21] in a career that began in 1955 with a live performance at the 881 Club in Los Angeles. [22] Her debut album, Julie Is Her Name , was released in December of that year after a self-titled single, and Billboard named her the most popular female vocalist for 1955, 1956, and 1957. She was the subject of a 1957 Life cover article in which she was quoted as saying, "It's only a thimbleful of a voice, and I have to use it close to the microphone. But it is a kind of oversmoked voice, and it automatically sounds intimate." [23]

London's debut recordings (which appeared on her self-titled extended play) were completed under the New York-based Bethlehem Records label. [24] Four additional tracks recorded during these sessions were later included on the album Bethlehem's Girlfriends, a compilation album released in 1957. [25] Bobby Troup was one of the session musicians on the album. London recorded the standards "Don't Worry About Me", "Motherless Child", "A Foggy Day", and "You're Blasé". London's most famous single, "Cry Me a River", was written by her high-school classmate Arthur Hamilton and produced by Troup. [26] The recording became a million-seller after its release on her debut album in 1955. [27]

London with John Cassavetes in Saddle the Wind (1958) John Cassavetes and Julie London in Saddle the Wind.png
London with John Cassavetes in Saddle the Wind (1958)

While her music career earned her public notice, London also continued to appear in films, with lead roles in the film noir Crime Against Joe (1956), as well as appearing as herself in the Jayne Mansfield musical comedy The Girl Can't Help It (1956), in which London performs three songs, including "Cry Me a River". [28] The film was a box-office success, and became one of the top-30 highest-grossing films of 1956. [29] London subsequently appeared in a television advertisement for Marlboro cigarettes, singing the "Marlboro Song". [30] She went on to appear in several Westerns: In 1957, she appeared in Drango playing a Southern belle harboring fugitives, [31] followed by a starring role opposite Gary Cooper in Man of the West , a Western drama in which her character, the film's only woman, is abused and humiliated by an outlaw gang. [32] The same year, she appeared as a pending bride in the Western Saddle the Wind, opposite Robert Taylor and John Cassavetes; [33] London's performance received critical acclaim in The New York Times . [34] She subsequently appeared in The Wonderful Country in 1959, opposite Robert Mitchum, in which she plays a downtrodden wife of an army major. [35]

In 1960, London released the album Julie...At Home , which was recorded at her residence in Los Angeles. [8] The same year, she released Around Midnight , which incorporated a larger backing band in comparison to her previous releases. [36] She continued to release numerous albums on Liberty Records throughout the 1960s, including Whatever Julie Wants (1961), Love Letters (1962), The End of the World (1963), and All Through the Night (1965), the latter a collection of songs by Cole Porter. [37]

Television work and final recordings

London and second husband Bobby Troup in character in season one of Emergency! Julie London Bobby Troup Emergency 1971.JPG
London and second husband Bobby Troup in character in season one of Emergency!

London appeared on numerous television series in the 1960s, including guest appearances on Rawhide (1960), [38] Laramie (1960), [38] I Spy (1965), [39] and The Big Valley (1968). [40] She and second husband Bobby Troup also frequently appeared as panelists on the game shows Tattletales , Hollywood Squares , and Masquerade Party , among others, in the 1970s. [41] On May 28, 1964, Troup and she recorded a one-hour program for Japanese television in Japan. [42] London sang 13 of her classic songs, including "Bye Bye Blackbird", "Lonesome Road", and "Cry Me a River". [42] She continued to release studio albums until the end of the decade, with her final studio album being Yummy, Yummy, Yummy (1969), a collection of contemporary covers of tracks by Laura Nyro, The Doors, Bob Dylan, The Beatles, and others. [43] After this, London stopped singing professionally, as she had lost significant vocal control due to years of smoking and drinking. [44]

Emergency!

London remained close with ex-husband Jack Webb, and in 1972, he cast her and Troup in his television series Emergency! , on which he was executive producer. London played Rampart General Hospital's chief emergency-room nurse, Dixie McCall, while Troup was cast as emergency-room physician Dr. Joe Early. They also appeared in the same roles in an episode of the Webb-produced series Adam-12 . [45] The on-screen friendship among London, Troup, Randolph Mantooth, and Kevin Tighe, who played paramedics Johnny Gage and Roy DeSoto, carried over into real life. London and Troup maintained their friendship with Mantooth and Tighe after the series ended. [46]

In 1977, after a six-year run of 128 episodes, Emergency! was cancelled, despite good ratings. London, the only actress to appear in every episode of the series, was invited back for two of the four subsequent TV movie specials, before the show finally ended in 1979. During this time, London appeared in television advertisements for Rose Milk Skin Care Cream. [47] Later, Webb offered London a position as executive producer of future television projects, but she chose to retire from the television industry work to spend more time with her family. She completed her last musical recording "My Funny Valentine" for the soundtrack of the Burt Reynolds film Sharky's Machine , in 1981. [48]

Artistry

Predominantly a torch singer, [8] London possessed a contralto vocal range, [49] described by critics as both "sultry" [23] and "low-keyed". [50] Her recordings were often noted by critics for being "intimate", [8] [51] typically featuring sparse guitar and bass arrangements. [52] A BBC Legends episode noted: "Some singers sing as though they are addressing a crowd; some sing as though they are in a bar with a lot of people—[London] sings as though she's in one room, with you—and that's the difference." [8]

Music journalist Lucy O'Brien said of London: "[In] the mid-'50s... pop [was] in a period of transition from big band swing to small jazz combos; you've got rock'n'roll, you've got R&B—and she managed to incorporate all those influences and feed that into her music. She was very much of her time." [8] As her career progressed into the 1960s, London's recordings incorporated more elaborate instrumentation, with her vocals backed by larger ensembles. [21]

Personal life

Julie and Jack Webb with Stacey and Lisa, 1953 Jack Webb and Julie London with Stacey and Lisa, 1953.jpg
Julie and Jack Webb with Stacey and Lisa, 1953

In 1947, London married actor/producer Jack Webb. [53] Their relationship was based partly on their common love of jazz. [54] They had two daughters, Stacy and Lisa. London and Webb divorced in 1954. Webb died December 23, 1982. Stacy Webb died in a traffic accident in 1996, one day after her mother's 70th birthday. [55]

In 1959, London married jazz composer and musician Bobby Troup, and they remained married until his death in 1999. They had one daughter, Kelly Troup (died 2002), and twin sons, Jody (died 2010) and Reese Troup. [56] London was the stepmother of Cynthia and Ronne Troup, Troup's daughters by his first marriage (to Cynthia Hare).[ citation needed ]

Withdrawn and introverted despite her public persona, [57] [58] London rarely granted media interviews and never discussed the breakup of her marriage to Webb. [8]

Death

London was a chain smoker from the age of 16 onward, at some periods smoking in excess of three packs of cigarettes per day. [59] She suffered a stroke in 1995 and was in poor health for the following five years. She died of cardiac arrest [60] in the early morning hours of October 18, 2000, at the Encino-Tarzana Regional Medical Center in Encino, age 74. [61] [62] [63] London was buried next to Troup in the Courts of Remembrance Columbarium of Providence, at Forest Lawn-Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles. [64] Her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (for recording) is at 7000 Hollywood Boulevard in Los Angeles.

Legacy

London performed "Cry Me a River" in the film The Girl Can't Help It (1956), and her recording gained later attention for its use in the films Passion of Mind (2000) and V for Vendetta (2006). [8] The track was ranked number 48 in NPR's list of the 50 Greatest Jazz Vocals of all time. [65] Her albums Julie...At Home and Around Midnight (both released in 1960) were both included in the book 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. [21] She has been named as an influence by several contemporary artists, including Lana Del Rey. [66] Music journalist Will Friedwald referred to London as "one of the most influential stylists of the early 20th century." [67] London also inspired a tribute from Jools Holland and Jamiroquai as part of their music video version of "I'm in the Mood for Love" shortly after her passing.

Her cover of the Ohio Express song "Yummy Yummy Yummy" was featured on the HBO television series Six Feet Under and appears on its soundtrack album. London's "Must Be Catchin' " was also featured in the 2011 premiere episode of the ABC series Pan Am .

Discography

Filmography

Film

YearTitleRoleNotesRef.
1944 Nabonga Doreen Stockwell [68]
1945 Janie GirlfriendUncredited [68]
1945 Diamond Horseshoe ChorineUncredited [68]
1945On Stage EverybodyVivian Carlton [68]
1946 Night in Paradise Palace MaidenUncredited [68]
1947 The Red House Tibby [68]
1948 Tap Roots Aven Dubney [69]
1949 Task Force Barbara McKinney [69]
1950 Return of the Frontiersman Janie Martin [69]
1951 The Fat Man Pat Boyd [69]
1955 The Fighting Chance Janet Wales [69]
1956 Crime Against Joe Frances 'Slacks' Bennett [69]
1956 The Girl Can't Help It Herself [69]
1956 The Great Man Carol Larson [69]
1957 Drango Shelby Ransom [69]
1958 Saddle the Wind Joan Blake [69]
1958 A Question of Adultery Mary Loring [70]
1958 Voice in the Mirror Ellen Burton [70]
1958 Man of the West Billie Ellis [70]
1959 Night of the Quarter Moon Ginny O'Sullivan Nelson [70]
1959 The Wonderful Country Helen Colton [70]
1960 The 3rd Voice Corey Scott [70]
1961 The George Raft Story Sheila Patton [70]
1968 The Helicopter Spies Laurie Sebastian [71]

Television

YearTitleRoleNotes
1954 Armstrong Circle Theatre Episode: "Hit a Blue Note" (5.15)
1956The Rosemary Clooney ShowEpisode 2
1957 The Ed Sullivan Show (10.27)
1957 Zane Grey Theater JulieEpisode: "A Time to Live" (1.25)
1957 Shower of Stars Episode: "Jazz Time" (3.7)
1957 Playhouse 90 AngelaEpisode: "Without Incident (1.36)
1957 Person to Person Season 5 premiere
1957 The Big Record HerselfEpisode 3
1957–1961 What's My Line? Herself – Mystery Guest3 episodes
1959 The David Niven Show Maggie MaloneEpisode: "Maggie Malone" (1.9)
1959 Adventures in Paradise Dalisay LynchEpisode: "Mission to Manilla" (1.7)
1960 The Red Skelton Show Up and Coming VocalistEpisode: "Clem the Disc Jockey" (9.13)
1960 Laramie June BrownEpisode: "Queen of Diamonds" (2.1)
1960 Rawhide Anne DanversEpisode: "Incident at Rojo Canyon" (3.1)
1960 Michael Shayne AnitaEpisode: "Die Like a Dog" (1.3)
1960Dan RavenJune CareyEpisode: "Tinge of Red" (1.12)
1961 Hong Kong Penny CarrollEpisode: "Suitable for Framing" (1.14)
1961 The Barbara Stanwyck Show JulieEpisode: "Night Visitors" (1.14)
1961 Checkmate Libby NolanEpisode: "Goodbye, Griff" (1.28)
1961Follow the SunJill RaineyEpisode: "Night Song" (1.11)
1962 The Jack Benny Program Herself-SingerEpisode: "March 4, 1962"
1963 The Eleventh Hour Joan AshmondEpisode: "Like a Diamond in the Sky" (1.19)
1963The Dick Powell TheatreLinda BaxterEpisode: "Charlie's Duet" (2.25)
1965 The Alfred Hitchcock Hour BarbaraEpisode: "Crimson Witness" (3.12)
1965 The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson Herself – SingerEpisode: "October 19, 1965"
1965 I Spy PhyllisEpisode: "Three Hours on a Sunday Night" (1.12)
1967 The Man from U.N.C.L.E. Laura SebastianEpisode: "The Prince of Darkness Affair: Part II" (4.5)
1968 The Hollywood Squares Herself5 episodes
1968 The Big Valley Julia SaxonEpisode: "They Called Her Delilah" (4.2)
1972 Adam-12 Dixie McCall, R.N.Episode: "Lost and Found" (5.4)
1972–1978 Emergency! Dixie McCall, R.N.126 episodes, (final appearance)

See also

Notes

  1. Though some sources list her birth name as Nancy Peck, [1] [2] the California Birth Index corroborates her birth name as being Julie, listing the birth of Julie Peck on September 26, 1926, in Sonoma County, California, to a Mrs. Taylor. [3] A Time magazine profile [4] as well as her obituaries in both The Guardian and The New York Times confirm this. [5]

Related Research Articles

Ella Fitzgerald American jazz singer

Ella Jane Fitzgerald was an American jazz singer, sometimes referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing, timing, intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing.

Jack Webb American actor, producer, director, author

John Randolph Webb was an American actor, television producer, director, and screenwriter, who is most famous for his role as Sgt. Joe Friday in the Dragnet franchise. He was the founder of his own production company, Mark VII Limited.

Queen Latifah American musician and actress

Dana Elaine Owens, better known by her stage name Queen Latifah, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, actress, and producer. Born in Newark, New Jersey, she signed with Tommy Boy Records in 1989 and released her debut album All Hail the Queen on November 28, 1989, featuring the hit single "Ladies First". Nature of a Sista' (1991) was her second and final album with Tommy Boy Records.

Kathryn Grayson Actress from the United States

Zelma Kathryn Elisabeth Hedrick was an American actress and coloratura soprano.

Ricky Nelson Actor, musician, singer

Eric Hilliard Nelson, known professionally as Ricky Nelson until his 21st birthday when he officially dropped the "y" and simply became Rick Nelson, was an American rock & roll star, pop pioneer, musician, and singer-songwriter. From age eight he starred alongside his family in the radio and television series The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. In 1957 he began a long and successful career as a popular recording artist. As one of the top "teen idols" of the 1950s his fame led to a motion picture role co-starring alongside John Wayne and Dean Martin in Howard Hawks's western feature film Rio Bravo (1959). He placed 53 songs on the Billboard Hot 100, and its predecessors, between 1957 and 1973, including "Poor Little Fool" in 1958, which was the first number 1 song on Billboard magazine's then-newly created Hot 100 chart. He recorded 19 additional Top 10 hits and was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on January 21, 1987. In 1996 Nelson was ranked No. 49 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time.

Cass Elliot American recording artist, singer, record producer, and actress

Cass Elliot, also known as Mama Cass, was an American singer and actress who is best known for having been a member of the Mamas and the Papas. After the group broke up, she released five solo albums. In 1998, she was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for her work with the Mamas and the Papas.

Michelle Phillips American singer, actress, songwriter

Michelle Phillips is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and former model. She rose to fame as a vocalist in the musical quartet the Mamas and the Papas in the mid-1960s. Phillips garnered critical acclaim for her voice, which was deemed by Time magazine as the "purest soprano in pop music." She later established a successful career as an actress in film and television in the 1970s. Phillips is the last surviving original member of the Mamas and the Papas.

Irene Hervey American film, stage, and television actress

Irene Hervey was an American film, stage, and television actress who appeared in over fifty films and numerous television series spanning her five-decade career.

Pola Negri Polish actress, singer and memorist

Pola Negri was a Polish stage and film actress and singer who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles and was acknowledged as a sex symbol.

Bobby Troup American actor and musician

Robert W. Troup Jr. was an American actor, jazz pianist, singer, and songwriter. He wrote the song "Route 66" and acted in the role of Dr. Joe Early with his wife Julie London in the television program Emergency! in the 1970s.

Barbara La Marr Actress

Barbara La Marr was an American film actress and screenwriter who appeared in 27 films during her career between 1920 and 1926. La Marr was also noted by the media for her beauty, dubbed as the "Girl Who Is Too Beautiful," as well as her tumultuous personal life.

Cry Me a River (Arthur Hamilton song) American torch song

"Cry Me a River" is a popular American torch song, written by Arthur Hamilton, first published in 1953 and made famous in 1955 with the version by Julie London.

Robert Fuller (actor) American actor

Robert Fuller is an American horse rancher and retired actor. He began his career on television, guest-starring primarily on Western programs, while appearing in several movies, including: The Brain from Planet Arous; Teenage Thunder ; Return of the Seven (1966); Incident at Phantom Hill ; and The Hard Ride (1971). In his five decades of television, Fuller was known for his deep, raspy voice and was familiar to television viewers throughout the 1960s and 1970s from his co-starring roles as Jess Harper and Cooper Smith on the popular 1960s Western series Laramie and Wagon Train, and was also well known for his starring role as Dr. Kelly Brackett in the 1970s medical /action drama Emergency!

Nina Foch Dutch American actress

Nina Foch was a Dutch-born American actress and director who later became an instructor in both subjects. Her career spanned six decades, consisting of over 50 feature films and over 100 television appearances. She was the recipient of numerous accolades, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress, and a National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress. Foch established herself as a dramatic actress in the late 1940s, often playing cool, aloof sophisticates.

Nature Boy 1948 song by Nat King Cole

"Nature Boy" is a song first recorded by American jazz singer Nat King Cole. It was released on March 29, 1948, as a single by Capitol Records, and later appeared on the album, The Nat King Cole Story. The song was written in 1947 by eden ahbez and is partly autobiographical. It is a tribute to ahbez's mentor Bill Pester, who had originally introduced him to Naturmensch and Lebensreform philosophies, which ahbez practiced. When Cole was performing in 1947 at the Lincoln Theater, ahbez wanted to present the song to him, but was ignored. He left the copy with Cole's valet, and from him the singer came to know of "Nature Boy". After receiving appreciation for his performance of the song, Cole wanted to record it but needed consent from the writer. Eventually, he tracked down ahbez.

Margo Guryan is an American songwriter, singer, musician and lyricist. As a songwriter, her work was first recorded in 1958, although it was for her 1960s song "Sunday Mornin'", a hit for both Spanky and Our Gang and Oliver, that she is perhaps best known. Her songs have also been recorded by Cass Elliot, Glen Campbell and Astrud Gilberto, among others.

<i>Lonely Girl</i> (album) 1956 studio album by Julie London

Lonely Girl is an LP album by Julie London, released by Liberty Records under catalog number LRP-3012 as a monophonic recording in 1956, and later in rechanneled stereo under catalog number LST-7029 in 1959.

Ronne Troup is an American actress and educator whose acting roles include Polly Williams Douglas on the sitcom My Three Sons.

Julie London discography Artist discography

The discography of American jazz singer Julie London consists of 29 studio albums, one live album, six compilation albums, two additional albums, and 29 singles. After a moderately successful film career, London signed a recording contract with the newly formed Liberty Records in 1955. Her debut single "Cry Me a River" reached number nine on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1955. In June 1957, it would also peak at number twenty-two on the UK Singles Chart. "Cry Me a River" became London's most successful and highest-selling single of her musical career. The single would sell three million copies in total. Her debut studio album Julie Is Her Name was issued in December 1955 and reached the second position on the Billboard 200 albums chart. London's next three studio releases, Lonely Girl (1956), Calendar Girl (1956), and About the Blues (1957), reached the top-twenty of the Billboard 200 survey as well.

Lyn Stanley American jazz singer

Lyn Stanley is an American jazz singer.

References

  1. Hal Leonard Corporation 2007, p. 20.
  2. Owen 2017, p. 1.
  3. "The Birth of Julie Peck". California Birth Index . Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  4. "LIFE". Time Inc. 24 February 1947: 87–. ISSN   0024-3019.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. Bergan, Ronald (October 20, 2000). "Obituary: Julie London". The Guardian. Retrieved December 30, 2017.
  6. Summerfield 2008, p. 43.
  7. "Julie London Profile". Metacritic. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Heaton, Lewis (dir.) (2009). "Julie London: The Lady's Not a Vamp". Legends. BBC4.
  9. Owen 2017, p. 6.
  10. Owen 2017, p. 8.
  11. Owen 2017, pp. 7-8.
  12. Owen 2017, p. 10.
  13. 1 2 Owen 2017, p. 11.
  14. Owen 2017, p. 22.
  15. 1 2 Owen 2017, p. 23.
  16. Owen 2017, p. 26.
  17. 1 2 Owen 2017, p. 27.
  18. Owen 2017, p. 49.
  19. 1 2 Owen 2017, p. 42.
  20. Owen 2017, pp. 42–7.
  21. 1 2 3 Moon 2008, p. 454.
  22. McKnight-Trontz 1999, p. 77.
  23. 1 2 LIFE. Time Inc. February 18, 1957. p. 74. ISSN   0024-3019.
  24. Owen 2017, pp. 36, 42–50.
  25. "Bethlehem Records - Just Out". Billboard: 56. April 13, 1957.
  26. Cason 2004, p. 102.
  27. Murrells 1978, p. 75.
  28. Owen 2017, pp. 56-58.
  29. Owen 2017, p. 58.
  30. Owen 2017, p. 119, 142.
  31. Owen 2017, p. 123.
  32. Loy 2004, p. 63.
  33. Owen 2017, pp. 76–7.
  34. H.H.T. (March 21, 1958). "'Saddle the Wind' Opens at Loew's State". The New York Times . Archived from the original on November 23, 2015.
  35. Owen 2017, p. 98.
  36. Johnson, Zac. "Around Midnight - Julie London". AllMusic. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  37. Owen 2017, pp. 241–44.
  38. 1 2 Owen 2017, p. 109.
  39. Owen 2017, p. 295.
  40. Owen 2017, p. 252.
  41. Owen 2017, p. 211.
  42. 1 2 "The Julie Jones Television Show Videos". JulieLondon.org. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  43. Owen 2017, p. 243.
  44. Owen 2017, p. 200.
  45. Owen 2017, p. 204.
  46. "Randolph Mantooth Biography". Starpulse.com. 1945-09-19. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  47. Jain, Subhash J. (1985). Marketing Planning and Strategy. South-Western Publishing Company. p. 517.
  48. Owen 2017, p. 248.
  49. Haywood, Ebony. "What is a true contralto?". Our Pastimes. Leaf Group Ltd. Archived from the original on January 21, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  50. Scott, John L. (February 16, 1967). "Julie Gives Her Fans an Earful". Los Angeles Times.
  51. Owen 2017, p. 168.
  52. Owen 2017, p. 173.
  53. Owen 2017, p. xviii.
  54. Staggs 2003, p. 289.
  55. Owen 2017, pp. 224–25.
  56. "Julie London Biography". Musicianguide.com. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  57. "Actress-Singer Julie London Dies". ABC News.
  58. Bergan, Ronald. "Obituary: Julie London". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  59. Owen 2017, p. 223.
  60. Errico, Marcus (October 18, 2000). "Emergency! Star Julie London Dies". E! News. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  61. Martin, Douglas (October 19, 2000). "Julie London, Sultry Singer and Actress of 50's, Dies at 74". The New York Times . Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  62. "A small voice to make a big stir: Julie London gets back to movies". Life . 18 February 1957. pp. 74–78.
  63. "Julie London". The Times. October 19, 2000. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
  64. For the original niche, see Julie London at Find a Grave . See: Julie London at Find a Grave.
  65. Cohn, Joey (February 5, 2013). "The Mix: 50 Great Jazz Vocals". National Public Radio. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  66. Dodero, Camille (December 3, 2015). "Billboard Women in Music 'Trailblazer' Lana Del Rey: 'There's Not Such a Narrow Lane for 'Pop". Billboard. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  67. Friedwald 2008, p. 300.
  68. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Owen 2017, p. 249.
  69. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Owen 2017, p. 250.
  70. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Owen 2017, p. 251.
  71. Owen 2017, p. 179.

Bibliography