Julius Streicher

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Julius Streicher
Steicher (cropped).jpg
Streicher in 1945
Gauleiter of Franconia
In office
1929 16 February 1940
Leader Adolf Hitler
Preceded byNone
Succeeded by Hans Zimmermann
(Acting, 1940)
Karl Holz
(acting from 1942, permanent from 1944)
Personal details
Born(1885-02-12)12 February 1885
Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
Died16 October 1946(1946-10-16) (aged 61)
Nuremberg, Bavaria,
U.S. Zone of Occupation,
Allied-occupied Germany
Political party Nazi Party
Spouse(s)
Kunigunde Roth
(m. 1913;died 1943)

Adele Tappe(m. 1945)
ChildrenLothar
Elmar
ProfessionPublisher of propaganda

Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent member of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, or NSDAP). He was the founder and publisher of the semi-pornographic and virulently anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer , which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz (translated into English as The Toadstool or The Poisonous Mushroom [1] ), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which warned about the supposed dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. The publishing firm was financially very successful and made Streicher a multi-millionaire. [2]

Nazi Party Fascist political party in Germany (1920-1945)

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920.

Pornography explicit portrayal of sexual acts and intercourse on media

Pornography is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal. Pornography may be presented in a variety of media, including books, magazines, postcards, photographs, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, writing, film, video, and video games. The term applies to the depiction of the act rather than the act itself, and so does not include live exhibitions like sex shows and striptease. The primary subjects of present-day pornographic depictions are pornographic models, who pose for still photographs, and pornographic actors or "porn stars", who perform in pornographic films. If dramatic skills are not involved, a performer in pornographic media may also be called a model.

<i>Der Stürmer</i> newspaper

Der Stürmer was a weekly German tabloid-format newspaper published by Julius Streicher, the Gauleiter of Franconia, from 1923 to the end of World War II, with brief suspensions in publication due to legal difficulties. It was a significant part of Nazi propaganda, and was vehemently anti-Semitic. The paper was not an official publication of the Nazi party, but was published privately by Streicher. For this reason, the paper did not display the Nazi party swastika in its logo. The paper was a very lucrative business for Streicher, and made him a multi-millionaire.

Contents

After falling out with Hermann Göring in 1939, Streicher was declared unfit for leadership by a Nazi Party Court and stripped of his party posts, although he continued to publish Der Stürmer, which was not an official publication of the Nazi Party. [3]

Hermann Göring Nazi German politician and military leader

Hermann Wilhelm Göring was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. A veteran World War I fighter pilot ace, he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite. He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen.

At the end of the war, Streicher was convicted of crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg trials and was executed. [4]

Nuremberg trials series of military trials at the end of World War II

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.

Hanging suspension of a person by a ligature

Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it formerly also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain "hanging". Hanging has been a common method of capital punishment since medieval times, and is the primary execution method in numerous countries and regions. The first known account of execution by hanging was in Homer's Odyssey. In this specialised meaning of the common word hang, the past and past participle is hanged instead of hung.

Early life

Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, in the Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and his wife Anna (née Weiss). He worked as an elementary school teacher, as his father had. In 1913, Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a baker's daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons, Lothar (born 1915) and Elmar (born 1918). [5]

Fleinhausen is a village of the municipality of Dinkelscherben in the western part of the Bavarian district of Augsburg in Germany.

Kingdom of Bavaria kingdom in Central Europe between 1806–1918, from January 1871 part of the German Empire

The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph. The crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Most of Bavaria's present-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and Würzburg. With the unification of Germany into the German Empire in 1871, the kingdom became a federal state of the new Empire and was second in size, power, and wealth only to the leading state, the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1918, Bavaria became a republic, and the kingdom was thus succeeded by the current Free State of Bavaria.

Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. For his outstanding combat performance during the First World War, he was awarded the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class, as well as earning a battlefield commission as an officer (lieutenant), despite having several reported instances of poor behaviour in his military record, [6] and at a time when officers were primarily from aristocratic families. Following the end of World War I, Streicher was demobilised and returned to Nuremberg. [7] Upon his return, Streicher took up another teaching position there but something unknown happened in 1919, which turned him into a "radical anti-Semite." [8]

German Army (German Empire) 1871-1919 land warfare branch of the German military

The Imperial German Army was the unified ground and air force of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Iron Cross military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1870–1918) and Nazi Germany

The Iron Cross is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945). It was established by King Frederick William III of Prussia in March 1813 backdated to the birthday of his late wife Queen Louise on 10 March 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars. Louise was the first person to receive this decoration (posthumously). The recommissioned Iron Cross was also awarded during the Franco-Prussian War, World War I, and World War II . The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples of this were civilian test pilots Hanna Reitsch who was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class and 1st Class and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg, who was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class, for their actions as pilots during World War II.

Early politics

Streicher was heavily influenced by the endemic anti-Semitism of pre-war Germany, especially that of Theodor Fritsch. [9] In February 1919, Streicher became active in the anti-Semitic Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund (German Nationalist Protection and Defense Federation), one of the various radical-nationalist organizations that sprang up in the wake of the failed German Communist revolution of 1918. [10] Such groups fostered the view that Jews and Bolsheviks were synonymous, and that they were traitors trying to subject Germany to Communist rule. [11] [12] In 1920 Streicher turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei (German-Socialist Party), a group whose platform was close to that of the Nazi Party, or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (National Socialist German Workers' Party or NSDAP). The German Socialist Party (Deutsch-Sozialistische Partei, DSP) was created in May 1919 as an initiative of Rudolf von Sebottendorf as a child of the Thule Society, [13] [14] and its program was based on the ideas of the mechanical engineer Alfred Brunner (1881–1936) [15] [lower-alpha 1] Leading members of the DSP were Hans Georg Müller, Max Sesselmann and Friedrich Wiesel, the first two editors of the Münchner Beobachter. Julius Streicher founded his local branch in 1919 in Nuremberg. [16] The DSP was officially inaugurated in 1919 in Hanover. [14]

Theodor Fritsch German politician

Theodor Fritsch, was a German publisher and journalist. His antisemitic writings did much to influence popular German opinion against Jews in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His writings also appeared under the pen names Thomas Frey, Fritz Thor, and Ferdinand Roderich-Stoltheim.

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. It has also been characterized as a political ideology which serves as an organizing principle and unites disparate groups which are opposed to liberalism.

German Revolution of 1918–19 Revolution in 1918–1919 in Germany

The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.

By the end of 1919, the DSP had branches in Düsseldorf, Kiel, Frankfurt am Main, Dresden, Nuremberg and Munich. [15] Streicher sought to move the German Socialists in a more virulently anti-Semitic direction – an effort which aroused enough opposition that he left the group and brought his now-substantial following to yet another organisation in 1921, the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft (German Working Community), which hoped to unite the various anti-Semitic völkisch movements. [17] Meanwhile, Streicher's rhetoric against the Jews continued to intensify to such a degree that the leadership of the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft thought he was dangerous and criticized him for his obsessive "hatred of the Jews and foreign races." [18]

Nazism

In 1921 Streicher joined the Nazi Party, [4] bringing with him enough members of the German-Socialist Party to almost double the size of the Nazi Party overnight. [19] [20] [21] He would later claim that because his political work brought him into contact with German Jews, he "must therefore have been fated to become later on, a writer and speaker on racial politics". [22] [lower-alpha 2] He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he later said left him transformed. When asked about that moment, Streicher stated:

It was on a winter's day in 1922. I sat unknown in the large hall of the Bürgerbräuhaus...suspense was in the air. Everyone seemed tense with excitement, with anticipation. Then suddenly a shout. "Hitler is coming!" Thousands of men and women jumped to their feet as if propelled by a mysterious power...they shouted, "Heil Hitler! Heil Hitler!"...And then he stood on the podium...Then I knew that in this Adolf Hitler was someone extraordinary...Here was one who could wrest out of the German spirit and the German heart the power to break the chains of slavery. Yes! Yes! This man spoke as a messenger from heaven at a time when the gates of hell were opening to pull down everything. And when he finally finished, and while the crowd raised the roof with the singing of the "Deutschland" song, I rushed to the stage. [24]

Nearly religiously converted by this speech, Streicher believed from this point forward that, "it was his destiny to serve Hitler". [25]

In May 1923 Streicher founded the sensationalist popular newspaper Der Stürmer (The Stormer, or, loosely, The Attacker). [26] From the outset, the chief aim of the paper was to promulgate anti-Semitic propaganda; the first issue had an excerpt that stated, "As long as the Jew is in the German household, we will be Jewish slaves. Therefore he must go". [27] Historian Richard J. Evans describes the newspaper:

[Der Stürmer] rapidly established itself as the place where screaming headlines introduced the most rabid attacks on Jews, full of sexual innuendo, racist caricatures, made-up accusations of ritual murder and titillating, semi-pornographic stories of Jewish men seducing innocent German girls. [19]

In November 1923, Streicher participated in Hitler’s first effort to seize power, the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Streicher marched with Hitler in the front row of the would-be revolutionaries. As a result of his participation in the attempted Putsch, Streicher was suspended from teaching school. [28] His loyalty to the cause earned him Hitler's lifelong trust and protection; in the years that followed, Streicher would be one of the dictator's few true intimates. [29] Streicher and Rudolf Hess were the only Nazis mentioned in Mein Kampf ; [21] in the book Hitler praised him for subordinating the German Socialist Party to the Nazi Party, a move Hitler believed was essential to the success of the National Socialists. [30] When Hitler was released from his sentence at Landsberg am Lech on 20 December 1924 for his role in the Putsch, Streicher was one of the few remaining followers waiting for him at his Munich apartment. [31]

Hitler who would value loyalty and faithfulness very highly throughout his life remained loyal to Streicher even when he landed in trouble with the Nazi hierarchy. Although Hitler would allow suppression of Der Stürmer at times when it was politically important for the Nazis to be seen as respectable, and although he would admit that Streicher was not a very good administrator, he never withdrew his personal loyalty. [9]

As a reward for Streicher's dedication, when the Nazi Party was again legalized and re-organized in 1925, Streicher was appointed Gauleiter (regional leader) of the Bavarian region of Franconia, which included his home town of Nuremberg. [32] In the early years of the party’s rise, Gauleiter were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, as the Nazi Party grew, so did their power. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime, Gauleiters such as Streicher would wield immense power and authority, both over party matters and civil ones.

Streicher was also elected to the Bavarian "Landtag" or legislature, [32] a position which gave him a margin of parliamentary immunity – a safety net that would help him resist efforts to silence his racist message. [29]

Rise of Der Stürmer

Beginning in 1924, Streicher used Der Stürmer as a mouthpiece not only for general antisemitic attacks, but for calculated smear campaigns against specific Jews, such as the Nuremberg city official Julius Fleischmann, who worked for Streicher's nemesis, mayor Hermann Luppe. Der Stürmer accused Fleischmann of stealing socks from his quartermaster during combat in World War I. Fleischmann sued Streicher and disproved the allegations in court, where Streicher was fined 900 marks but the detailed testimony exposed less-than-glorious details of Fleischmann's record, and his reputation was badly damaged. It was proof that Streicher's unofficial motto for his tactics was correct: "Something always sticks." [29] [lower-alpha 3] Der Stürmer's infamous official slogan, Die Juden sind unser Unglück (the Jews are our misfortune), was deemed non-actionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence. [29]

Public reading of Der Sturmer, Worms, 1933 Bundesarchiv Bild 133-075, Worms, Antisemitische Presse, "Sturmerkasten".jpg
Public reading of Der Stürmer, Worms, 1933

Streicher's opponents complained to authorities that Der Stürmer violated a statute against religious offense with his constant promulgation of the "blood libel" – the medieval accusation that Jews killed Christian children to use their blood to make matzoh. Streicher argued that his accusations were based on race, not religion, and that his communications were political speech, and therefore protected by the German constitution. [29]

Streicher orchestrated his early campaigns against Jews to make the most extreme possible claims, short of violating a law that might get the paper shut down. He insisted in the pages of his newspaper that the Jews had caused the worldwide Depression, and were responsible for the crippling unemployment and inflation which afflicted Germany during the 1920s. He claimed that Jews were white-slavers responsible for Germany's prostitution rings. Real unsolved killings in Germany, especially of children or women, were often confidently explained in the pages of Der Stürmer as cases of "Jewish ritual murder." [33]

One of Streicher's constant themes was the sexual violation of ethnically German women by Jews, a subject which he used to publish semi-pornographic tracts and images detailing degrading sexual acts. [34] [35] The fascination with the pornographic aspects of the propaganda in Der Stürmer was an important feature for many anti-Semites. [36] With the help of his notorious cartoonist Phillip "Fips" Rupprecht, Streicher published image after image of Jewish stereotypes and sexually-charged encounters. [37] His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil is widely considered to have played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans – creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust. [38] [39] [lower-alpha 4] To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler's protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favorite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as "Stürmerkasten". The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 600,000 in 1935. [40] One of the possible solutions to the Jewish problem Streicher mentioned within the pages of Der Stürmer was shipping all of them to Madagascar. [41]

Streicher in power

In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave the Gauleiters enormous power, Streicher organised a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken , and boasted that every Jew had been removed from Hersbruck. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were "King of Nuremberg" and the "Beast of Franconia." Because of his role as Gauleiter of Franconia, he also gained the nickname of Frankenführer . [42] [21]

The Great Synagogue of Nuremberg (fr) was built in 1874, and was ordered destroyed in 1938 by Julius Streicher - supposedly because he disapproved of its architecture - as part of what came to be known as Kristallnacht Nuremberg-great-synagogue crop.jpg
The Great Synagogue of Nuremberg (fr) was built in 1874, and was ordered destroyed in 1938 by Julius Streicher supposedly because he disapproved of its architecture as part of what came to be known as Kristallnacht

Streicher later claimed that he was only "indirectly responsible" for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted. Perhaps epitomizing the "profound anti-intellectualism" of the Nazi Party, Streicher once opined that, "If the brains of all university professors were put at one end of the scale, and the brains of the Führer at the other, which end do you think would tip?" [43]

Streicher was ordered to take part in the establishment of the Institute for the Study and Elimination of Jewish Influence on German Church Life, that was to be organized together with the German Christians, the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, the Reich Ministry of Education and the Reich Ministry of the Churches. A surgical operation prevented Streicher from being able to fully participate and engage in this endeavor. [44] This anti-Semitic standpoint concerning the Bible can be traced back to the earliest time of the Nazi movement, e.g., Dietrich Eckart's (Hitler's early mentor) book Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: A Dialogue Between Adolf Hitler and Me, where it was claimed that "Jewish forgeries" had been added to the New Testament. [45]

In 1938, Streicher ordered the Great Synagogue of Nuremberg destroyed as part of his contribution to Kristallnacht . Streicher later claimed that his decision was based on his disapproval of its architectural design, which in his opinion "disfigured the beautiful German townscape." [46]

Fall from power

John Gunther described Streicher as "the worst of the anti-Semites", [47] and his excesses brought condemnation even from other Nazis. Streicher's behaviour was viewed as so irresponsible that he was embarrassing the party leadership; [48] chief among his enemies in Hitler's hierarchy was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who loathed him and later claimed that he forbade his own staff to read Der Stürmer. [49]

Despite his special relationship with Hitler, after 1938 Streicher's position began to unravel. He was accused of keeping Jewish property seized after Kristallnacht in November 1938; he was charged with spreading untrue stories about Göring – such as alleging that Göring's daughter Edda was conceived by artificial insemination; and he was confronted with his excessive personal behaviour, including unconcealed adultery, several furious verbal attacks on other Gauleiters and striding through the streets of Nuremberg cracking a bullwhip. [50] [lower-alpha 5] In February 1940 he was stripped of his party offices and withdrew from the public eye, although he was permitted to continue publishing Der Stürmer. Hitler remained committed to Streicher, whom he considered a loyal friend, despite his unsavory reputation. [51]

Streicher's wife, Kunigunde Streicher, died in 1943 after 30 years of marriage. [52]

When Germany surrendered to the Allied armies in May 1945, Streicher said later, he decided to commit suicide. Instead, he married his former secretary, Adele Tappe. [53] Days later, on 23 May 1945, Streicher was captured in the town of Waidring, Austria, by a group of American officers led by Major Henry Plitt. [54] [lower-alpha 6]

Trial and execution

Julius Streicher in custody Julius Streicher 72-920 crop.jpg
Julius Streicher in custody

During his trial, Streicher claimed that he had been mistreated by Allied soldiers after his capture. [57] When the German version of the Wechsler-Bellevue IQ test was administrated by Gustave Gilbert, Streicher had the lowest IQ among the defendants. Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations, yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors' judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal – which sat in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority. He complained throughout the process that all his judges were Jews. [58]

Most of the evidence against Streicher came from his numerous speeches and articles over the years. [59] In essence, prosecutors contended that Streicher's articles and speeches were so incendiary that he was an accessory to murder, and therefore as culpable as those who actually ordered the mass extermination of Jews. They further argued that he kept up his anti-Semitic propaganda even after he was aware that Jews were being slaughtered. [60]

Streicher was acquitted of crimes against peace, but found guilty of crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death on 1 October 1946. The judgment against him read, in part:

For his 25 years of speaking, writing and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as 'Jew-Baiter Number One.' In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution. ... Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity. [4]

The body of Julius Streicher after being hanged, 16 October 1946 Dead Julius Streicher.jpg
The body of Julius Streicher after being hanged, 16 October 1946

During his trial, Streicher displayed for the last time the flair for courtroom theatrics that had made him famous in the 1920s. He answered questions from his own defence attorney with diatribes against Jews, the Allies, and the court itself, and was frequently silenced by the court officers. Streicher was largely shunned by all of the other Nuremberg defendants. He also peppered his testimony with references to passages of Jewish texts he had so often carefully selected and inserted into the pages of Der Stürmer. [61]

Streicher was hanged at Nuremberg Prison in the early hours of 16 October 1946, along with the nine other condemned defendants from the first Nuremberg trial. Göring, Streicher's nemesis, committed suicide only hours earlier. Streicher's was the most melodramatic of the hangings carried out that night. At the bottom of the scaffold he cried out "Heil Hitler!". When he mounted the platform, he delivered his last sneering reference to Jewish scripture, snapping "Purimfest!" [62] [lower-alpha 7] Streicher's final declaration before the hood went over his head was, "The Bolsheviks will hang you one day!" [64] Joseph Kingsbury-Smith, a journalist for the International News Service who covered the executions, [65] said in his filed report that after the hood descended over Streicher's head, he also apparently said "Adele, meine liebe Frau!" ("Adele, my dear wife!"). [66]

8 October 1946 newsreel of Nuremberg Trials sentencing

The consensus among eyewitnesses was that Streicher's hanging did not proceed as planned, and that he did not receive the quick death from spinal severing typical of the other executions at Nuremberg. Kingsbury-Smith reported that Streicher "went down kicking," which may have dislodged the hangman's knot from its ideal position. Smith stated that Streicher could be heard groaning under the scaffold after he dropped through the trap-door, and that the executioner intervened under the gallows, which was screened by wood panels and a black curtain, to finish the job. [67] U.S. Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods, who was the main executioner, not only insisted he had performed all executions correctly, but stated he was very proud of his work. [68]

Streicher's body, along with those of the other nine executed men and the corpse of Hermann Göring, was cremated at Ostfriedhof (Munich) and the ashes were scattered. [69]

Personal life

Streicher was a poet, whose work was described as "quite attractive", and he painted watercolours as a hobby. He had a strong sexual appetite, which occasionally got him into trouble with the Nazi hierarchy. [9]

Streicher was played by Alexander Granach in the 1944 American film The Hitler Gang , by Theo Marcuse in the 1962 American film Hitler , by Rolf Hoppe in the 1997 German film Comedian Harmonists , and by Sam Stone in the 2000 Canadian/American docudrama Nuremberg .

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Philipp Rupprecht was a German cartoonist best known for his anti-Semitic caricatures in the Nazi publication Der Stürmer, under the pen-name Fips.

<i>Untermensch</i> German word meaning "subhuman"; used by Nazi Germany

Untermensch is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians. The term was also applied to Blacks, and persons of color. Jewish people were to be exterminated in the Holocaust, along with Romani people, and the physically and mentally disabled. According to the Generalplan Ost, the Slavic population of East-Central Europe was to be reduced in part through mass murder in the Holocaust, with a majority expelled to Asia and used as slave labor in the Reich. These concepts were an important part of the Nazi racial policy.

Karl Holz (Nazi) Nazi leader

Karl Holz was the NSDAP Gauleiter of Gau Franconia and an SA Gruppenführer.

Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks. Similarly, the conspiracy theory of Jewish Communism implies that Jews have dominated the Communist movements in the world, and is related to The Zionist Occupation Government conspiracy theory (ZOG), which asserts that Jews control world politics.

Ernst Hiemer was a German writer, who worked closely with Julius Streicher, the founder of the anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer. Hiemer's three main books were all published in the Second World War and had anti-Semitic themes.

Trau keinem Fuchs auf grüner Heid und keinem Jud auf seinem Eid is a children’s book written and published in 1936 during the Third Reich in Germany. The children’s book was written by Elvira Bauer, a kindergarten teacher and Nazi supporter, and was illustrated by Philipp Rupprecht, a publisher to the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer. The book was the first of three children’s books to be published by Julius Streicher, who was later executed for war crimes. The book teaches children, according to the Nazi Party in Germany, what a Jew is and what they look like. Children's books like Trau keinem Fuchs auf grüner Heid und keinem Jud auf seinem Eid were used to educate the youth of Nazi Germany in being a citizen of the Third Reich.

The Nazi party used cartoons and caricatures as a main part of their propaganda regime and as an effective way to send out their message and spread their opinions across Germany. The use of caricatures was a popular method within the party when pursuing their campaign against America, in particular President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

References

Informational notes

  1. This system included socialist ideas, such as the takeover of the financial sector by the state and the cutting-back of the "interest-based economy".
  2. According to Streicher, his dislike of Jews stemmed from an incident when he was but five-years-old, during which he witnessed his mother weeping after claiming to have been cheated by the Jewish owner of a fabric shop. [23]
  3. The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor.
  4. Streicher also combed the pages of the Talmud and the Old Testament in search of passages potentially depicting Judaism as harsh or cruel. In 1929, this close study of Jewish scripture helped convict Streicher in a case known as "The Great Nuremberg Ritual Murder Trial." His familiarity with Jewish text was proof to the court that his attacks were religious in nature; Streicher was found guilty and imprisoned for two months. In Germany, press reaction to the trial was highly critical of Streicher; but the Gauleiter was greeted after his conviction by hundreds of cheering supporters, and within months Nazi Party membership surged to its highest levels yet. [29]
  5. Streicher's characteristic behaviour is portrayed on screen in the 1944 Hollywood film, The Hitler Gang .
  6. At first Streicher claimed to be a painter named "Joseph Sailer," but, misunderstanding Plitt's poor German, he came to believe the latter already knew who he was, and quickly admitted his identity. [55] [56]
  7. The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the escape by the Jews from extermination at the hands of Haman, an ancient Persian government official. At the end of the Purim story, Haman is hanged, as are his ten sons. [63]

Citations

  1. "Der Giftpilz". German Propaganda Archive - Calvin College .
  2. Zelnhefer, Siegfried. "Der Stürmer. Deutsches Wochenblatt zum Kampf um die Wahrheit". Historisches Lexikon Bayerns - Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (in German).
  3. "Julius Streicher: Biography". Holocaust Encyclopedia - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum .
  4. 1 2 3 "Judgement : Streicher". Avalon ProjectYale Law School . Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  5. Bytwerk 2001, p. 5.
  6. Snyder 1976, p. 336.
  7. Bytwerk 2001, p. 6.
  8. Bytwerk 2001, p. 8.
  9. 1 2 3 Evans 2003, p. 189.
  10. Bracher 1970, pp. 81–2.
  11. Longerich 2010, pp. 12–3.
  12. Kershaw 2000, pp. 137–8.
  13. Kershaw 2000, pp. 138–9.
  14. 1 2 Bracher 1970, p. 93.
  15. 1 2 Kershaw 2000, p. 138.
  16. Franz-Willing 1962, p. 89.
  17. Bytwerk 2001, pp. 12–4.
  18. Rees 2017, p. 22.
  19. 1 2 Evans 2003, p. 188.
  20. Rees 2017, p. 23.
  21. 1 2 3 Gunther 1940, p. 76.
  22. Friedman 1998, p. 300.
  23. Rees 2017, p. 21.
  24. Dolibois 2000, p. 114.
  25. Rees 2017, pp. 22–3.
  26. Bytwerk 2001, pp. 51–2.
  27. Bytwerk 2001, p. 52.
  28. Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 921.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Showalter, Dennis E. (1997). "Jews, Nazis, and the Law: The Case of Julius Streicher". Museum of Tolerance Online - Simon Wiesenthal Center . Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  30. Bullock 1962, p. 124.
  31. Fest 1974, p. 219.
  32. 1 2 Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 922.
  33. Snyder 1989, pp. 47–51.
  34. Bytwerk 2001, pp. 143–150.
  35. Wistrich 2001, p. 42.
  36. Welch 2002, p. 75.
  37. Koonz 2005, pp. 232–3.
  38. Fischer 1995, pp. 135–6.
  39. Welch 2002, p. 76–7.
  40. Snyder 1989, p. 50.
  41. Kershaw 2001, p. 320.
  42. Nadler 1969, p. 5.
  43. Wall 1997, p. 98.
  44. Kater, Mommsen & Papen 1999, p. 151.
  45. Steigmann-Gall 2003, pp. 17–24.
  46. Kershaw 2001, p. 132.
  47. Gunther 1940, p. 61.
  48. Snyder 1989, pp. 52–3.
  49. Maser 2000, p. 282.
  50. Snyder 1989, pp. 47, 50–3.
  51. Wistrich 1995, pp. 251–2.
  52. Davidson 1997, p. 43.
  53. Davidson 1997, p. 44.
  54. Tofahrn 2008, p. 163.
  55. "Henry Plitt Interview". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  56. "U.S. Jewish Major Who Captured Streicher Anxious to Combat Nazi Slurs on Jewish Heroism". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 25 May 1945. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  57. Bytwerk 2001, p. 42.
  58. Snyder 1989, pp. 54–6.
  59. Snyder 1989, pp. 56–7.
  60. Snyder 1989, p. 57.
  61. Conot 2000, pp. 381–9.
  62. Wistrich 1995, p. 252.
  63. Ephraim Rubin (28 October 1946). "Purim 1946? Not Exactly". Newsweek . Online text in TalkReason.
  64. Conot 2000, p. 506.
  65. "J. Kingsbury-Smith; Honored Journalist". Los Angeles Times. 6 February 1999. Obituaries. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  66. Radlmeier 2001, pp. 345–6.
  67. Kingsbury Smith (16 October 1946). "The Execution of Nazi War Criminals". International News Service. Online text by University of Missouri, Kansas City.
  68. Duff 1999, p. 130.
  69. Manvell & Fraenkel 2011, p. 393.

Bibliography