Julius Vogel

Last updated


Sir Julius Vogel

Julius Vogel, ca 1870s.jpg
8th Premier of New Zealand
In office
8 April 1873 6 July 1875
Monarch Victoria
Governor James Fergusson
George Phipps
Preceded by William Fox
Succeeded by Daniel Pollen
In office
15 February 1876 1 September 1876
Monarch Victoria
Governor George Phipps
Preceded by Daniel Pollen
Succeeded by Harry Atkinson
Personal details
Born(1835-02-24)24 February 1835
London, UK
Died12 March 1899(1899-03-12) (aged 64)
Molesey, Surrey, UK
Resting place Willesden Jewish Cemetery, London, UK
Political partyNone
Spouse(s)Mary Clayton (m. 1867)
Children4 [1]
Relatives William Clayton (father-in-law)
Signature Julius Vogel Signature.jpg

Sir Julius Vogel KCMG (24 February 1835 – 12 March 1899) was the eighth Premier of New Zealand. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works. He was the first Jewish prime minister of New Zealand. Historian Warwick R. Armstrong assesses Vogel's strengths and weaknesses:

Contents

Vogel's politics were like his nature, imaginative – and occasionally brilliant – but reckless and speculative. He was an excellent policymaker but he needed a strong leader to restrain him....Yet Vogel had vision. He saw New Zealand as a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population. [2]

Early life

Born in London, Vogel received his early education at University College School in University College, Gower St London. He later studied chemistry and metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines (later part of Imperial College London). He emigrated to Victoria, Australia in 1852, being editor of several newspapers on the goldfields, including the Inglewood Advertiser and the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser. [3] After an unsuccessful attempt to enter the Victorian Parliament in the Avoca district in August 1861 (he lost to James Macpherson Grant and Benjamin George Davies), [3] [4] he moved to Otago in October 1861, where he became a journalist for the Otago Witness . In November 1861, he founded the Otago Daily Times and became its first editor. [1] In 1863 James Grant was charged with criminal libel against Vogel in an election pamphlet but was found not guilty by a jury. [5] [6]

University College School school in Camden, UK

University College School, generally known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Frognal, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution's progressive and secular views.

Chemistry scientific discipline

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.

Metallurgy domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metals

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. The science of metallurgy is subdivided into chemical metallurgy and physical metallurgy.

On 19 March 1867, Vogel got married in Dunedin to his neighbour Mary Clayton, the daughter of architect William Henry Clayton. They had three sons and one daughter.

Political career

Vogel first became involved in politics in 1862, winning election to the provincial council of Otago. [3] Four years later became the head of the provincial government, a post which he held until 1869. [3]

Otago Province former province of New Zealand

The Otago Province was a province of New Zealand until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. The capital of the province was Dunedin. Southland Province split from Otago in 1861, but became part of the province again in 1870.

Member of Parliament

New Zealand Parliament
YearsTermElectorateParty
1863 1866 3rd Dunedin and Suburbs North Independent
1866 1870 4th Goldfields Independent
1871 1875 5th Auckland East Independent
1876 6th Wanganui Independent
1884 1887 9th Christchurch North Independent
1887 1889 10th Christchurch North Independent

In 1863 he was unsuccessful in the 1863 by-election for Dunedin and Suburbs South. Later in an 1863 by-election he was elected a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives for the Dunedin and Suburbs North electorate. [7]

The 1863 Dunedin and Suburbs South by-election was a by-election held on 20 June 1876 in the Dunedin and Suburbs South electorate during the 3rd New Zealand Parliament. It was then a two-member electorate; the other member being William Hunter Reynolds.

The Dunedin and Suburbs North by-election 1863 was a by-election held on 3 September 1863 in the Dunedin and Suburbs North electorate during the 3rd New Zealand Parliament.

Dunedin and Suburbs North was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand from 1863 to 1866. It was a multi-member electorate.

In the 1866 election, he was defeated by William Murison in the Waikouaiti electorate on Wednesday, 28 February. [8] [9] It is unclear why Vogel stood in Waikouaiti as two days earlier, he had been returned unopposed at the nomination for the Goldfields electorate. [7] [10] On retiring from the provincial government in 1869, he joined the William Fox ministry as colonial treasurer, [3] afterward becoming successively postmaster-general, commissioner of customs, and telegraph commissioner.

In 1870, as Colonial Treasurer he introduced his "grand go-ahead policy" or great Public Works policy to revitalise and develop the country by borrowing overseas to build railways, roads and telegraph lines and to attract immigrants.

The Fox ministry having been forced to resign, Vogel carried a vote of no confidence in their successors, and in October 1872, returned to power as leader in the Lower House, colonial treasurer and postmaster-general. He represented several electorates throughout the colony: Dunedin and Suburbs North 1863–1866, Goldfields in Otago 1866–1870, Auckland East 1871–1875, Wanganui 1876 (resigned) and Christchurch North 1884–1889 (resigned).

Vogel successfully contested the 1884 election in Christchurch North against John Crewes. [11]

Vogel was the first Member of Parliament to be named in New Zealand. [12] He was named on 15 November 1887 by the Speaker of the House Maurice O'Rorke for saying that his fellow Member Robert Thompson was 'want of manners' in a debate about Vogel's use of constabulary for household purposes - a charge he denied. [13]

Premier of New Zealand

Vogel and his ministry (1873) New Zealand Ministry by Samuel Calvert - Illustrated Australian News (1873).jpg
Vogel and his ministry (1873)

Vogel was premier from 1873 to 1875 and again in 1876. From 1876 to 1881, he was agent-general for New Zealand in London, and, in 1884, he was again a member of the government of the colony. During his political career, Vogel worked generally successfully for reconciliation with the Māori people. In 1887, he introduced the first women's suffrage Bill to Parliament, but suffrage was not granted until 1893. He was knighted in 1875. He finally gave up the colonial office in 1887; from which date he lived in England and was the Agent-General for New Zealand.

Vogel is best remembered for his "Great Public Works" scheme of the 1870s. Before 1870, New Zealand was a country largely dominated by provincial interests and pork-barrel politics. After Vogel, as colonial treasurer, proposed borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, New Zealand developed a significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communication, all administered by central government.

Vogel is also noteworthy as one of the few practising Jewish prime ministers outside Israel. Since Vogel, two other New Zealanders of Jewish descent have held the premiership: Francis Bell, an Anglican who briefly became prime minister in May 1925; and John Key, New Zealand's prime minister between 2008 and 2016 who was not religious despite attending synagogue as a child on occasion. [14] Benjamin Disraeli, of Jewish descent but Anglican, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom contemporaneously to Vogel's premiership.

Life after politics

Vogel has a reputation as the first New Zealander to write a science-fiction novel: Anno Domini 2000, or, Woman's Destiny , published in 1889. It anticipated a utopian world where women held many positions of authority. New Zealand went on to become the first country to give women the vote, and, from 1997 to 2008, continuously had a female Prime Minister, while for a short period (2005–2006) women simultaneously held all five highest government positions (Monarch, Governor-General, Prime Minister, Speaker of the House and Chief Justice).[ citation needed ]

In honour of this book, the Sir Julius Vogel Awards for New Zealand speculative fiction take their name from him. [15]

On his death at East Molesey in 1899, Vogel was interred in Willesden Jewish Cemetery in London. [16]

Namesakes

Several things bear his name today:

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Dalziel, Raewyn. "Vogel, Julius". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 23 September 2010.
  2. Warwick Robert Armstrong, "VOGEL, Sir Julius, K.C.M.G." An Encyclopedia of New Zealand 1966 (1966)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Mennell, Philip (1892). "Vogel, Hon. Sir Julius"  . The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co via Wikisource.
  4. Kennedy, B. E. "Vogel, Sir Julius (1835–1899)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  5. "Supreme Court – Criminal Session". Otago Witness. 30 September 1863.
  6. "Tuesday, 29th September". Otago Witness. 2 October 1863.
  7. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 242.
  8. Wilson 1985, p. 222.
  9. "Waikouaiti Election". Otago Witness (744). 3 March 1866. p. 8. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  10. "Nomination of Candidates". Lake Wakatip Mail (297). 3 March 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  11. Chalklen, Mollie. "John Crewes". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography . Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  12. "Chapter 11 The Chamber, Buildings and Grounds - New Zealand Parliament". www.parliament.nz. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  13. Hansard. 58. New Zealand Parliament. p. 379.
  14. The New Zealand Herald, 26 July 2008, page B3.
  15. "Curiosities: Anno Domini 2000; or Woman's Destiny by Julius Vogel" by Lucy Sussex, Fantasy and Science Fiction, December 2008, page 162.
  16. "Historic cemetery to get £2m heritage facelift". The Jewish Chronicle . 5 November 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016.

Related Research Articles

Harry Atkinson Prime Minister of New Zealand

Sir Harry Albert Atkinson served as the tenth Premier of New Zealand on four separate occasions in the late 19th century, and was Colonial Treasurer for a total of ten years. He was responsible for guiding the country during a time of economic depression, and was known as a cautious and prudent manager of government finances, though distrusted for some radical policies such as his 1882 National Insurance (welfare) scheme and leasehold land schemes. He also participated in the formation of voluntary military units to fight in the New Zealand Wars, and was noted for his strong belief in the need for seizure of Māori land.

Robert Stout New Zealand politician

Sir Robert Stout was a New Zealand politician who was the 13th Premier of New Zealand on two occasions in the late 19th century, and later Chief Justice of New Zealand. He was the only person to hold both these offices. He was noted for his support of liberal causes such as women's suffrage, and for his strong belief that philosophy and theory should always triumph over political expediency.

Dillon Bell New Zealand politician

Sir Francis Dillon Bell was a New Zealand politician of the late 19th century. He served as New Zealand's third Minister of Finance, and later as its third Speaker of the House. The town of Bell Block near New Plymouth – on land Bell bought from the Puketapu iwi in 1849 – is named after him, as is Bell Street, Whanganui. Bell's son, Francis Henry Dillon Bell, became the first New Zealand born Prime Minister in 1925.

William Larnach New Zealand politician

William James Mudie Larnach was a New Zealand businessman and politician. He is known for building Larnach Castle and for his suicide.

John Richardson (New Zealand politician) New Zealand politician, born 1810

Sir John Larkins Cheese Richardson was a 19th-century New Zealand politician, and a cabinet minister.

Thomas Dick (politician) New Zealand politician

Thomas Dick was a 19th-century New Zealand politician. Originally a merchant, he worked in London and then represented his firm on Saint Helena for seven years. From there, he was sent to Dunedin as the company's representative; he emigrated with an extended family. He soon became involved in politics and was Superintendent of Otago Province from 1865 until 1867. Over a period of 24 years, he represented various Dunedin electorates in Parliament and was Colonial Secretary (1880–1884), Minister of Justice from 1881 to 1882, and Minister of Education from 1881 to 1884. A deeply religious man, he was involved in many church affairs. He was one of the founders of Hanover Street Baptist Church; the building is now classified as Category I by Heritage New Zealand.

Waikouaiti was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, from 1866 to 1908.

William Hunter Reynolds New Zealand politician

William Hunter Reynolds was a 19th-century businessman and Member of Parliament in Dunedin, Otago region, New Zealand. He was a cabinet minister.

The Gold Fields District electorate was a 19th-century parliamentary electorate in the Otago region, New Zealand. It was created in 1862, with the first elections in the following year, and it returned two members. It was one of eventually three special interest constituencies created to meet the needs of gold miners. All three of these electorates were abolished in 1870. A unique feature of the Gold Fields District was that it was superimposed over other electorates, and voting was open to those who had held a mining license for some time. As such, suffrage was more relaxed than elsewhere in New Zealand, as voting was otherwise tied to property ownership. Another feature unique to the gold mining electorates was that no electoral rolls were prepared, but voting could be done upon showing a complying miner's license.

Dunedin or the City of Dunedin or the Town of Dunedin was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand. It was one of the original electorates created in 1853 and existed, with two breaks, until 1905. It was the only New Zealand electorate that was created as a single-member, two-member and three member electorate.

Dunedin and Suburbs South was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand from 1862 to 1866. From 1863 it was a multi-member electorate.

James Paterson was a 19th-century Member of Parliament in Otago, New Zealand. He was a cabinet minister, and on the Legislative Council.

The third New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 in 43 electorates to elect 53 MPs. Two electorates were added to this during this term, Gold Fields District and a new Dunedin electorate created by splitting the existing City of Dunedin into Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South, increasing the number of MPs to 57. During the term of this Parliament, six Ministries were in power.

William Dick Murison was a 19th-century Member of Parliament and a cricketer from Otago, New Zealand.

Sir George McLean was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from the Otago region in New Zealand.

Frederick Moss New Zealand politician

Frederick Joseph Moss was a 19th-century Member of Parliament from Auckland, New Zealand.

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 authorised the General Assembly to establish new electoral districts and to alter the boundaries of, or abolish, existing districts whenever this was deemed necessary. The rapid growth of New Zealand's European population in the early years of representative government meant changes to electoral districts were implemented frequently, both at general elections, and on four occasions as supplementary elections within the lifetime of a parliament.

References

Further reading

Government offices
Preceded by
William Fox
Premier of New Zealand
1873–1875
1876
Succeeded by
Daniel Pollen
Preceded by
Daniel Pollen
Succeeded by
Harry Atkinson
Political offices
Preceded by
Edward Stafford
Postmaster-General
1869–1872
1872–1876
1884
1884–1887
Succeeded by
Oswald Curtis
Preceded by
Oswald Curtis
Succeeded by
George McLean
Preceded by
Richard Oliver
Succeeded by
William Russell
Preceded by
William Russell
Succeeded by
Harry Atkinson
Preceded by
John Hall
Electric Telegraph Commissioner
1869–1872
Position abolished
Preceded by
Oswald Curtis
Telegraph Commissioner
1873–1875
New title Commissioner of Telegraphs
1875–1876
1884
1884–1887
Succeeded by
George McLean
Preceded by
Richard Oliver
Succeeded by
William Russell
Preceded by
William Russell
Succeeded by
Harry Atkinson
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Isaac Featherston
Agent-General of New Zealand in the United Kingdom
1876–1880
Succeeded by
Dillon Bell
New Zealand Parliament
New constituency Member of Parliament for Dunedin and Suburbs North
1863–1866
Served alongside: John Richardson
Electorate abolished
Preceded by
John Bryce
Member of Parliament for Whanganui
1876
Served alongside: John Bryce
Succeeded by
William Fox
Preceded by
Henry Thomson
Member of Parliament for Christchurch North
1884–1889
Succeeded by
Edward Wingfield Humphreys