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Sir Julius Vogel
|8th Premier of New Zealand|
8 April 1873 –6 July 1875
|Governor|| James Fergusson |
|Preceded by||William Fox|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Pollen|
15 February 1876 –1 September 1876
|Preceded by||Daniel Pollen|
|Succeeded by||Harry Atkinson|
|Born||24 February 1835|
|Died||12 March 1899 64) (aged|
Molesey, Surrey, UK
|Resting place||Willesden Jewish Cemetery, London, UK|
|Spouse(s)||Mary Clayton (m. 1867)|
|Relatives||William Clayton (father-in-law)|
Sir Julius Vogel KCMG (24 February 1835 – 12 March 1899) was the eighth Premier of New Zealand. His administration is best remembered for the issuing of bonds to fund railway construction and other public works. He was the first Jewish prime minister of New Zealand. Historian Warwick R. Armstrong assesses Vogel's strengths and weaknesses:
Vogel's politics were like his nature, imaginative – and occasionally brilliant – but reckless and speculative. He was an excellent policymaker but he needed a strong leader to restrain him....Yet Vogel had vision. He saw New Zealand as a potential 'Britain of the South Seas', strong both in agriculture and in industry, and inhabited by a large and flourishing population.
Born in London, Vogel received his early education at University College School in University College, Gower St London. He later studied chemistry and metallurgy at the Royal School of Mines (later part of Imperial College London). He emigrated to Victoria, Australia in 1852, being editor of several newspapers on the goldfields, including the Inglewood Advertiser and the Maryborough and Dunolly Advertiser.After an unsuccessful attempt to enter the Victorian Parliament in the Avoca district in August 1861 (he lost to James Macpherson Grant and Benjamin George Davies), he moved to Otago in October 1861, where he became a journalist for the Otago Witness . In November 1861, he founded the Otago Daily Times and became its first editor. In 1863 James Grant was charged with criminal libel against Vogel in an election pamphlet but was found not guilty by a jury.
University College School, generally known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Frognal, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institution's progressive and secular views.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. The science of metallurgy is subdivided into chemical metallurgy and physical metallurgy.
On 19 March 1867, Vogel got married in Dunedin to his neighbour Mary Clayton, the daughter of architect William Henry Clayton. They had three sons and one daughter.
Vogel first became involved in politics in 1862, winning election to the provincial council of Otago.Four years later became the head of the provincial government, a post which he held until 1869.
The Otago Province was a province of New Zealand until the abolition of provincial government in 1876. The capital of the province was Dunedin. Southland Province split from Otago in 1861, but became part of the province again in 1870.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1863 –1866||3rd||Dunedin and Suburbs North||Independent|
|1871 –1875||5th||Auckland East||Independent|
|1884 –1887||9th||Christchurch North||Independent|
|1887 –1889||10th||Christchurch North||Independent|
In 1863 he was unsuccessful in the 1863 by-election for Dunedin and Suburbs South. Later in an 1863 by-election he was elected a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives for the Dunedin and Suburbs North electorate.
The 1863 Dunedin and Suburbs South by-election was a by-election held on 20 June 1876 in the Dunedin and Suburbs South electorate during the 3rd New Zealand Parliament. It was then a two-member electorate; the other member being William Hunter Reynolds.
The Dunedin and Suburbs North by-election 1863 was a by-election held on 3 September 1863 in the Dunedin and Suburbs North electorate during the 3rd New Zealand Parliament.
Dunedin and Suburbs North was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in Otago, New Zealand from 1863 to 1866. It was a multi-member electorate.
In the 1866 election, he was defeated by William Murison in the Waikouaiti electorate on Wednesday, 28 February.It is unclear why Vogel stood in Waikouaiti as two days earlier, he had been returned unopposed at the nomination for the Goldfields electorate. On retiring from the provincial government in 1869, he joined the William Fox ministry as colonial treasurer, afterward becoming successively postmaster-general, commissioner of customs, and telegraph commissioner.
In 1870, as Colonial Treasurer he introduced his "grand go-ahead policy" or great Public Works policy to revitalise and develop the country by borrowing overseas to build railways, roads and telegraph lines and to attract immigrants.
The Fox ministry having been forced to resign, Vogel carried a vote of no confidence in their successors, and in October 1872, returned to power as leader in the Lower House, colonial treasurer and postmaster-general. He represented several electorates throughout the colony: Dunedin and Suburbs North 1863–1866, Goldfields in Otago 1866–1870, Auckland East 1871–1875, Wanganui 1876 (resigned) and Christchurch North 1884–1889 (resigned).
Vogel successfully contested the 1884 election in Christchurch North against John Crewes.
Vogel was the first Member of Parliament to be named in New Zealand.He was named on 15 November 1887 by the Speaker of the House Maurice O'Rorke for saying that his fellow Member Robert Thompson was 'want of manners' in a debate about Vogel's use of constabulary for household purposes - a charge he denied.
Vogel was premier from 1873 to 1875 and again in 1876. From 1876 to 1881, he was agent-general for New Zealand in London, and, in 1884, he was again a member of the government of the colony. During his political career, Vogel worked generally successfully for reconciliation with the Māori people. In 1887, he introduced the first women's suffrage Bill to Parliament, but suffrage was not granted until 1893. He was knighted in 1875. He finally gave up the colonial office in 1887; from which date he lived in England and was the Agent-General for New Zealand.
Vogel is best remembered for his "Great Public Works" scheme of the 1870s. Before 1870, New Zealand was a country largely dominated by provincial interests and pork-barrel politics. After Vogel, as colonial treasurer, proposed borrowing the massive sum of 10 million pounds, New Zealand developed a significant infrastructure of roads, railways and communication, all administered by central government.
Vogel is also noteworthy as one of the few practising Jewish prime ministers outside Israel. Since Vogel, two other New Zealanders of Jewish descent have held the premiership: Francis Bell, an Anglican who briefly became prime minister in May 1925; and John Key, New Zealand's prime minister between 2008 and 2016 who was not religious despite attending synagogue as a child on occasion.Benjamin Disraeli, of Jewish descent but Anglican, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom contemporaneously to Vogel's premiership.
Vogel has a reputation as the first New Zealander to write a science-fiction novel: Anno Domini 2000, or, Woman's Destiny , published in 1889. It anticipated a utopian world where women held many positions of authority. New Zealand went on to become the first country to give women the vote, and, from 1997 to 2008, continuously had a female Prime Minister, while for a short period (2005–2006) women simultaneously held all five highest government positions (Monarch, Governor-General, Prime Minister, Speaker of the House and Chief Justice).[ citation needed ]
In honour of this book, the Sir Julius Vogel Awards for New Zealand speculative fiction take their name from him.
On his death at East Molesey in 1899, Vogel was interred in Willesden Jewish Cemetery in London.
Several things bear his name today:
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Waikouaiti was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, from 1866 to 1908.
William Hunter Reynolds was a 19th-century businessman and Member of Parliament in Dunedin, Otago region, New Zealand. He was a cabinet minister.
The Gold Fields District electorate was a 19th-century parliamentary electorate in the Otago region, New Zealand. It was created in 1862, with the first elections in the following year, and it returned two members. It was one of eventually three special interest constituencies created to meet the needs of gold miners. All three of these electorates were abolished in 1870. A unique feature of the Gold Fields District was that it was superimposed over other electorates, and voting was open to those who had held a mining license for some time. As such, suffrage was more relaxed than elsewhere in New Zealand, as voting was otherwise tied to property ownership. Another feature unique to the gold mining electorates was that no electoral rolls were prepared, but voting could be done upon showing a complying miner's license.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Julius Vogel .|
| Premier of New Zealand |
| Postmaster-General |
| Electric Telegraph Commissioner |
| Telegraph Commissioner |
|New title|| Commissioner of Telegraphs |
| Agent-General of New Zealand in the United Kingdom |
|New Zealand Parliament|
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Dunedin and Suburbs North |
Served alongside: John Richardson
| Member of Parliament for Whanganui |
Served alongside: John Bryce
| Member of Parliament for Christchurch North |
Edward Wingfield Humphreys