Jun-ichi Nishizawa

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Jun-ichi Nishizawa
西澤 潤一
BornSeptember 12, 1926
DiedOctober 21, 2018(2018-10-21) (aged 92)
Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
NationalityFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
Alma materTohoku University
Awards IEEE Edison Medal (2000)
Order of Culture
Scientific career
Institutions Tohoku University
Iwate Prefectural University
Tokyo Metropolitan University
Sophia University
Layers of a PIN diode. (+ -)
The PIN photodiode was invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa in 1950. Pin-Diode.svg
Layers of a PIN diode. (+ -)
The PIN photodiode was invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa in 1950.

Jun-ichi Nishizawa (西澤 潤一, Nishizawa Jun'ichi, September 12, 1926 October 21, 2018) [1] was a Japanese engineer and inventor. He is known for his electronic inventions since the 1950s, including the PIN diode, static induction transistor, static induction thyristor, semiconductor laser, SIT/SITh, and fiber-optic communication. His inventions contributed to the development of internet technology and the information age. [2]

Contents

He was a professor at Sophia University. He is considered the "Father of Japanese Microelectronics".

Biography

Nishizawa was born in Sendai, Japan, on September 12, 1926. He earned a B.S. in 1948, and a Doctor of Engineering degree in 1960, from Tohoku University.

In 1953, he joined the Research Institute of Electrical Communication at Tohoku University. He became a professor there and was appointed director to two research institutes. From 1990 to 1996, Nishizawa served as the President of Tohoku University.

He became the president of Iwate Prefectural University in 1998.

Research

In 1950, the static induction transistor was invented by Jun-ichi Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe. [3] The PIN photodiode was also invented by Nishizawa and his colleagues in 1950. [4]

In 1952, he invented the avalanche photodiode. [5] He then invented a solid-state maser in 1955, [5] followed by his invention of the semiconductor laser in 1957. [5] [6]

While working at Tohoku University, he proposed fiber-optic communication, the use of optical fibers for optical communication, in 1963. [7] Nishizawa other invented technologies in the 1960s that contributed to the development of optical fiber communications, such as the graded-index optical fiber as a channel for transmitting light from semiconductor lasers. [8] [9] He patented the graded-index optical fiber in 1964. [6]

In 1971, he invented the static induction thyristor. [5] [10]

Recognition

Nishizawa was a Life Fellow of the IEEE. He is a Fellow of several other institutions, including the Physical Society, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Polish Academy of Sciences. Nishizawa was decorated with Order of Culture by the emperor of Japan in 1989. [11] He also received the Japan Academy Prize (1974), [11] IEEE Jack A. Morton Award (1983), [12] the Honda Prize and the Laudise Prize of the International Organization for Crystal Growth (1989). [13] IEEE conferred the Edison Medal on him in 2000, [14] and introduced the IEEE Jun-ichi Nishizawa Medal in 2002. [15] He has more than a thousand patents registered under his name. [1]

Related Research Articles

Photodiode Converts light into current

A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. Photodiodes usually have a slower response time as their surface area increases. The common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode.

Information Age Historical period

The Information Age is a historical period that began in the mid-20th century, characterized by a rapid epochal shift from the traditional industry established by the Industrial Revolution to an economy primarily based upon information technology. The onset of the Information Age can be associated with the development of transistor technology, particularly the MOSFET, which became the fundamental building block of digital electronics and revolutionized modern technology.

Laser diode

A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which a diode pumped directly with electrical current can create lasing conditions at the diode's junction. Laser diodes can directly convert electrical energy into light. Driven by voltage, the doped p-n-transition allows for recombination of an electron with a hole. Due to the drop of the electron from a higher energy level to a lower one, radiation, in the form of an emitted photon is generated. This is spontaneous emission. Stimulated emission can be produced when the process is continued and further generate light with the same phase, coherence and wavelength.

Photonics Branch of physics related to the technical applications of light

Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and sensing. Though covering all light's technical applications over the whole spectrum, most photonic applications are in the range of visible and near-infrared light. The term photonics developed as an outgrowth of the first practical semiconductor light emitters invented in the early 1960s and optical fibers developed in the 1970s.

The static induction thyristor is a thyristor with a buried gate structure in which the gate electrodes are placed in n-base region. Since they are normally on-state, gate electrodes must be negatively or anode biased to hold off-state. It has low noise, low distortion, high audio frequency power capability. The turn-on and turn-off times are very short, typically 0.25 microseconds.

VMOS

A VMOS transistor is a type of MOSFET. VMOS is also used for describing the V-groove shape vertically cut into the substrate material. VMOS is an acronym for "vertical metal oxide semiconductor", or "V-groove MOS".

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Fiber-optic communication Method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber

Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of infrared light through an optical fiber. The light is a form of carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference is required. This type of communication can transmit voice, video, and telemetry through local area networks or across long distances.

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Static induction transistor (SIT) is a high power, high frequency transistor device. It is a vertical structure device with short multichannel. Being a vertical device, the SIT structure offers advantages in obtaining higher breakdown voltages than a field-effect transistor (FET). For the SIT, it is not limited by the surface breakdown between gate and drain, and can operate at a very high current and voltage. This device is also known as a V-FET, and can be found in some of the more upmarket amplifiers from Sony back in the late 1970's.

James R. Biard American electrical engineer

James R. "Bob" Biard is an American electrical engineer and inventor who holds 73 U.S. patents. Some of his more significant patents include the first infrared light-emitting diode (LED), the optical isolator, Schottky clamped logic circuits, silicon Metal Oxide Semiconductor Read Only Memory, a low bulk leakage current avalanche photodetector, and fiber-optic data links. He has been on the staff of Texas A&M University as an Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering since 1980.

In 2002, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) added a new award to its already existing program of awards. Each year, one or more nominees are honored with a medal in the name of Jun-ichi Nishizawa, considered to be the father of Japanese microelectronics. Nishizawa was professor, director of two research institutes and the 17th president at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, and contributed important innovations in the fields of optical communications and semiconductor devices, such as laser and PIN diodes and static induction thyristors for electric power applications.

Yasuharu Suematsu Japanese scientist

Yasuharu Suematsu is researcher and educator in optical communication technology by invention of the Dynamic Single Mode Semiconductor Lasers for actuation and following development of large capacity and long distance optical fiber communications.

Kenju Otsuka is a Japanese engineer and physicist concerned with lasers and quantum electronics.

This is the history of science and technology in Japan.

References

  1. 1 2 "Former Tohoku U. president Junichi Nishizawa, known as 'Mr. Semiconductor,' dies at 92". The Mainichi . October 26, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  2. The Third Industrial Revolution Occurred in Sendai, Soh-VEHE International Patent Office, Japan Patent Attorneys Association
  3. McCluskey, F. Patrick; Podlesak, Thomas; Grzybowski, Richard, eds. (1996). High Temperature Electronics (illustrated ed.). CRC Press. p. 82. ISBN   9780849396236.
  4. Dummer, G. W. A. (2013). Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day (3rd, revised ed.). Elsevier. p. 137. ISBN   9781483145211.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Jun-ichi Nishizawa: Engineer, Sophia University Special Professor (interview), Japan Quality Review, 2011.
  6. 1 2 The Third Industrial Revolution Occurred in Sendai, Soh-VEHE International Patent Office, Japan Patent Attorneys Association
  7. Nishizawa, Jun-ichi & Suto, Ken (2004). "Terahertz wave generation and light amplification using Raman effect". In Bhat, K. N. & DasGupta, Amitava (eds.). Physics of semiconductor devices. New Delhi, India: Narosa Publishing House. p. 27. ISBN   81-7319-567-6.
  8. "Optical Fiber". Sendai New. Archived from the original on September 29, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
  9. Kowalenko, Kathy (June 1, 2003). "New Medal Honors Japanese Microelectrics Industry Leader". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009.[ verification needed ]
  10. Dummer, G. W. A. (2013). Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from Its Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day (3rd, revised ed.). Elsevier. p. 231. ISBN   9781483145211.
  11. 1 2 "Prize Winners" (PDF). Tohoku University.
  12. "IEEE Jack A. Morton Award Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  13. "Prizes". International Organization for Crystal Growth. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  14. "IEEE Edison Medal Recipients" (PDF). IEEE.
  15. "IEEE Jun-ichi Nishizawa Medal". IEEE. Retrieved January 15, 2019.