June Uprising in Lithuania

Last updated
June Uprising
Part of the Operation Barbarossa
German advances from June to August 1941
DateJune 22–29, 1941
Result Soviets driven out
Provisional Government of Lithuania established

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union

Flag of Lithuania.svg Nationalist Lithuania (Provisional Government of Lithuania)
12–15 divisions [1] 20 000–30 000 [2]
Casualties and losses
5,000 [3] 600 [2]

The June Uprising (Lithuanian : birželio sukilimas) was a brief period in the history of Lithuania between the first Soviet occupation and the Nazi occupation in late June 1941. Approximately one year earlier, on June 15, 1940, the Red Army invaded Lithuania and the unpopular [4] Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was soon established. Political repression and terror were used to silence its critics and suppress any resistance. When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, a diverse segment of the Lithuanian population rose up against the Soviet regime, declared renewed independence, and formed the short-lived Provisional Government. Two large Lithuanian cities, Kaunas and Vilnius, fell into the hands of the rebels before the arrival of the Wehrmacht. Within a week, the German Army took control of the whole of Lithuania. The Lithuanians greeted the Germans as liberators from the repressive Soviet rule and hoped that the Germans would re-establish their independence or at least allow some degree of autonomy (similar to the Slovak Republic). [5] No such support came from the Nazis, who steadily replaced Lithuanian institutions with their own administration. The Reichskommissariat Ostland was established at the end of July 1941. Deprived of any real power, the Provisional Government disbanded itself on August 5.

Lithuanian language Language spoken in Lithuania

Lithuanian is an Eastern Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region. It is the language of Lithuanians and the official language of Lithuania as well as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.8 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 200 thousand abroad.

History of Lithuania occurrences and people in Lithuania throughout history

The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD. Lithuanians, one of the Baltic peoples, later conquered neighboring lands and established the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy was a successful and lasting warrior state. It remained fiercely independent and was one of the last areas of Europe to adopt Christianity. A formidable power, it became the largest state in Europe in the 15th century through the conquest of large groups of East Slavs who resided in Ruthenia. In 1385, the Grand Duchy formed a dynastic union with Poland through the Union of Krewo. Later, the Union of Lublin (1569) created the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that lasted until 1795, when the last of the Partitions of Poland erased both Lithuania and Poland from the political map. Afterward, the Lithuanians lived under the rule of the Russian Empire until the 20th century.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.


Background and preparations

In 1918, Lithuania achieved independence in the aftermath of the First World War and the Russian revolution and secured its statehood during the Lithuanian Wars of Independence. Initially prior to World War II, Lithuania declared neutrality and its Seimas passed the neutrality laws. [6] Though, on the eve of World War II, as the geopolitical situation in the region started to change, Lithuania was forced to accept the ultimatums of the neighboring countries. [7] On 17 March 1938, Poland delivered an ultimatum calling for diplomatic relations. Although practically it meant Poland's "refusal" of Vilnius, Lithuania had also sought to restore relations with its neighbor, and accepted the ultimatum. On 20 March 1939, Lithuania was handed an ultimatum by Nazi Germany. A request was made to transfer the Klaipėda Region to Nazi Germany. Two days later, without seeing the way out, the Lithuanian government signed the agreement. [8]

The Lithuanian Wars of Independence, also known as the Freedom Struggles, refer to three wars Lithuania fought defending its independence at the end of World War I: with Bolshevik forces, Bermontians, and Poland. The wars delayed international recognition of independent Lithuania and the formation of civil institutions.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Neutral powers during World War II

The neutral powers were countries that remained neutral during World War II. Some of these countries had large colonies abroad or had great economic power. Spain had just been through its civil war, which ended on 1 April 1939 —a war that involved several countries that subsequently participated in World War II.

Just after the beginning of the World War II, on September 2, 1939, Lithuanian Consulate was opened in Vilnius. The consulate was the first in the world to grant Visas For Life for the Jews and also saved many Polish war refugees. By doing so, Lithuania continued to actively protect its Jewish citizens from the Holocaust. Back in 1934 it sent an official note to Nazi Germany warning not to take action against the Jews who resided in the country that were citizens of Lithuania. [9] [10]

Jews Ancient nation and ethnoreligious group from the Levant

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Poles West Slavic nation native to Poland

The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.

Lithuanian delegation before departing to Moscow, where they later were tactically forced to sign the Soviet-Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty Lithuanian delegation 1939-10-07.jpg
Lithuanian delegation before departing to Moscow, where they later were tactically forced to sign the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty

Another large neighbor — the Soviet Union also began preparing for the occupation of the Lithuania's territory. [11] On 7 October 1939 the Lithuanian delegation departed to Moscow where they later had to sign the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty due to the unfavorable situation. The treaty resulted in five Soviet military bases with 20,000 troops established across Lithuania in exchange for the Lithuania's historical capital Vilnius. According to the Lithuanian Minister of National Defence Kazys Musteikis, Lithuanian Minister of Foreign Affairs Juozas Urbšys initially told that Lithuanians refuses Vilnius Region as well as the Russian garrisons, however then nervous Joseph Stalin replied that "No matter if you take Vilnius or not, the Russian garrisons will enter Lithuania anyway". [12] He also informed Juozas Urbšys about the Soviet–German secret protocols and showed maps of the spheres of influence. [13] Two of the military bases with thousands of Soviet soldiers were established close to Kaunas in Prienai and Gaižiūnai. [14] Despite regaining the beloved historical capital, the Presidency and the Government remained in Kaunas. [15]

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Moscow Capital of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty

The Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty was a bilateral treaty signed between the Soviet Union and Lithuania on October 10, 1939. According to provisions outlined in the treaty, Lithuania would acquire about one fifth of the Vilnius Region, including Lithuania's historical capital, Vilnius, and in exchange would allow five Soviet military bases with 20,000 troops to be established across Lithuania. In essence the treaty with Lithuania was very similar to the treaties that the Soviet Union signed with Estonia on September 28, and with Latvia on October 5. According to official Soviet sources, the Soviet military was strengthening the defenses of a weak nation against possible attacks by Nazi Germany. The treaty provided that Lithuania's sovereignty would not be affected. However, in reality the treaty opened the door for the first Soviet occupation of Lithuania and was described by The New York Times as "virtual sacrifice of independence."

Presidential Palace in Kaunas, where the last meeting of the independent Government of Lithuania took place on the night of 14 June 1940 Historical Presidential Palace in Kaunas (2017).jpg
Presidential Palace in Kaunas, where the last meeting of the independent Government of Lithuania took place on the night of 14 June 1940

The next step made by the USSR was accusations of the abduction of the Red Army soldiers in Lithuania. Although the Lithuanian government denied such allegations, the tensions became heightened on both sides. [16] On 14 June 1940, the USSR issued an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding to replace the government and allow Red Army's units to enter the territory of Lithuania without any prior agreements, which would mean the occupation of the country. [17] On 14 June 1940 just before midnight, the last meeting of the Lithuanian Government was held in the Presidential Palace, in Kaunas. During it, the Soviet's ultimatum was debated. [18] President Antanas Smetona categorically declined to accept most of the ultimatum demands, argued for military resistance and was supported by Kazys Musteikis, Konstantinas Šakenis  [ lt ], Kazimieras Jokantas  [ lt ], however the Commander of the Armed Forces Vincas Vitkauskas, Divisional general Stasys Raštikis, Kazys Bizauskas, Antanas Merkys and most of the Lithuanian Government members decided that it would be impossible, especially due to the previously stationed Soviet soldiers, and accepted the ultimatum. [19] On that night, the Soviet forces executed Lithuanian border guard Aleksandras Barauskas  [ lt ] near the Byelorussian SSR border. [20] In the morning, the Lithuanian Government resigned while the president left the country to avoid the fate of the Soviet's puppet and hoping to form the Government in exile. [21] Soon the Red Army flooded Lithuania through the Belarus–Lithuania border with more than 200,000 soldiers and took control of the most important cities, including Kaunas where the heads of state resided. The Lithuanian Armed Forces were ordered not to resist and the Lithuanian Air Force remained on the ground. [22] [23] At the time, the Lithuanian Armed Forces had 26,084 soldiers (of which 1,728 officers) and 2,031 civil servants. [24] While the Lithuanian Riflemen's Union, subordinate to the army commander, had over 62,000 members of which about 70% were farmers and agricultural workers. [25]

1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania

The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to Lithuania before midnight of June 14, 1940. The Soviets, using a formal pretext, demanded to allow an unspecified number of Soviet soldiers to enter the Lithuanian territory and to form a new pro-Soviet government. The ultimatum and subsequent incorporation of Lithuania into the Soviet Union stemmed from the division of Eastern Europe into the German and Russian spheres of influence in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939. Lithuania, along with Latvia and Estonia, fell into the Russian sphere. According to the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty of October 1939, Lithuania agreed to allow some 20,000 of Soviets troops to be stationed at several bases within Lithuania in exchange for a portion of the Vilnius Region. Further Soviet actions to establish its dominance in its sphere of influence were delayed by the Winter War with Finland and resumed in spring 1940 when Germany was making rapid advances in western Europe. Despite the threat to the independence, Lithuanian authorities did little to plan for contingencies and were unprepared for the ultimatum.

Historical Presidential Palace, Kaunas

The Historical Presidential Palace is a Neo-baroque building in the Old Town of Kaunas, Lithuania that served as the Presidential Palace during the interwar years. Today, the palace is a branch of the M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum.

Antanas Smetona First President of Lithuania from 4 April 1919 until 19 June 1920

Antanas Smetona was one of the most important Lithuanian political figures between World War I and World War II. He served as the first President of Lithuania from 4 April 1919 to 19 June 1920. He again served as the last President of the country from 19 December 1926 to 15 June 1940, before its occupation by the Soviet Union. He was also one of the most prominent ideologists of nationalism in Lithuania.

After the occupation, the Soviets had immediately taken brutal actions against the high-ranking officials of the state. Both targets of the ultimatum: the Minister of the Interior Kazys Skučas and the Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania Augustinas Povilaitis were transported to Moscow and later executed. Antanas Gustaitis, Kazys Bizauskas, Vytautas Petrulis, Kazimieras Jokantas  [ lt ], Jonas Masiliūnas  [ lt ], Antanas Tamošaitis  [ lt ] also faced the fate of execution, while President Aleksandras Stulginskis, Juozas Urbšys, Leonas Bistras, Antanas Merkys, Pranas Dovydaitis, Petras Klimas, Donatas Malinauskas and thousands of others were deported. [21] Stasys Raštikis, persuaded by his wife, secretly crossed the German border. After realizing it, NKVD started terror against Raštikis' family. His wife was separated from their 1-year-old daughter and brutally interrogated at Kaunas Prison, and his father Bernardas Raštikis, three daughters, two brothers and sister were deported to Siberia. [26] Soldiers, officers, senior officers and generals of the Lithuanian Army and LRU members, who were seen as a threat to the occupants, were quickly arrested, interrogated and released to the reserve, deported to the concentration camps or executed, trying to avoid this many joined the Lithuanian partisans forces. The army itself was firstly renamed to the Lithuanian People's Army, however later it was reorganized to the 29th Rifle Corps of the Soviet Union. [25]

Ministry of the Interior (Lithuania) ministry in Lithuania

The Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania is charged with the oversight of public safety, border protection, migration control, emergency response, public administration and governance, the civil service, and local and regional development initiatives. Its operations are authorized by the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, decrees issued by the President and Prime Minister, and laws passed by the Seimas (Parliament).

Kazys Skučas Lithuanian politician and general

Kazys Skučas was a Lithuanian politician and General of the Lithuanian Army. Skučas was the last Minister of the Interior of independent Lithuania. He was a target of anti-Lithuanian Soviet propaganda in the days leading to the 1940 Soviet ultimatum and occupation of Lithuania. Right after the Red Army invaded Lithuania on 15 June 1940, Skučas was directed to leave the country by the then-President Antanas Smetona but was arrested at the border several days later by the then acting Lithuanian President Antanas Merkys and handed over to the Russians, transported to Moscow, and executed in 1941.

Augustinas Povilaitis Lithuanian Army officer

Augustinas Povilaitis was a captain of the Lithuanian Army and Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania. Together with Minister of the Interior Kazys Skučas, Povilaitis was a target of anti-Lithuanian Soviet propaganda in the days leading to the 1940 Soviet ultimatum and occupation of Lithuania. Directly after the Red Army invaded Lithuania on 15 June 1940, Povilaitis was arrested and transported to Moscow; he was executed in 1941. In 2006 he was awarded the Order of the Cross of Vytis.

Soviet political leader (without military shoulder straps) and the marionette People's Seimas member (with red rose in his jacket lapel) announces to the Lithuanian People's Army non-commissioned officers that "soon you will become members of the Red Army" in Kaunas, 1940 Communists with the Lithuanian Army soldiers.jpg
Soviet political leader (without military shoulder straps) and the marionette People's Seimas member (with red rose in his jacket lapel) announces to the Lithuanian People's Army non-commissioned officers that "soon you will become members of the Red Army" in Kaunas, 1940

Sovietization was started right away. New power banned opposition, its press, and organizations and also restricted ties with foreign countries. Shortly, on 17 June 1940 the puppet People's Government of Lithuania was formed, which consistently destroyed Lithuanian society, political institutions and opened the way for the Communist Party to establish itself. In order to establish the legitimacy of the government and design the plans of Lithuania's "legal accession to the USSR", on July 1, the Seimas of Lithuania was released and the forced elections with falsified results to the People's Seimas were organized, which were won by the Lithuanian Labor People's Union and Justas Paleckis was chosen as the illegal Prime Minister and President of Lithuania. The new government obeyed the occupiers' proposal to "ask" the Soviet authorities to have Lithuania admitted to the Soviet Union. [27] The Lithuanian nation was unable to resist the implementation of Sovietization, including nationalization, nor prevent the mass arrests of political activists and others dubbed "enemies of the people". Nor could they prevent the closing of all cultural, religious and political organizations. The economic situation steadily worsened and the standard of living decreased. A year later, just a week before the uprising, some 17,000 Lithuanians, mainly the intelligentsia, were taken with their entire families and deported to Siberia, where many perished due to inhumane living conditions (see the June deportation). It was the single major event that incited popular support for the uprising. That tragedy initially also garnered a positive predisposition toward the German invasion. People who escaped the deportations or arrests spontaneously organized themselves into armed groups, hid in the forests, and waited for a wider uprising. [28]

The ultimate goal of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF), formed in the fall of 1940, was to re-establish Lithuania's independence. Commanded by Kazys Škirpa in Berlin, the LAF sought to unify Lithuanian resistance, and organize and conserve resources for the planned uprising against the Soviets. [29] It acted as an umbrella organization [30] and many groups used the name of LAF even though they were not connected with the LAF in Berlin. [31] The LAF established its military–political headquarters in Vilnius and organizational headquarters in Kaunas. [29] The communication and coordination between these centers in Berlin, Kaunas, and Vilnius was rather poor. The headquarters in Vilnius suffered heavily from Soviet arrests, especially in early June 1941, and became largely defunct. [32] Most of those arrested activists were executed in December 1941, in Russia.

In March 1941, the LAF in Berlin published a memorandum, titled Brangūs vergaujantieji broliai (Dear Enslaved Brothers), with instructions on how to prepare for the war between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. [33] The rebels were asked to secure strategic objects (prisons, railroads, bridges, communication hubs, factories, etc.), guarding them from potential sabotage by the retreating Red Army, while Central Headquarters would organize a Provisional Government and declare independence. [34] In April, a list of the members of the Provisional Government, which would declare Lithuanian independence, was compiled. [35] The Prime Minister's post was reserved for Škirpa, four ministers were from Vilnius, six from Kaunas, and one from Berlin. The members represented a wide spectrum of pre-war political parties and, as such, claimed to represent a majority of the Lithuanian people. [36] It has been suggested that not all of the designated Ministers knew about their proposed appointments in the Provisional Government. [37] On June 14, the Nazi authorities in Berlin insisted that Škirpa and his activists not form any government or make any public declarations without their prior approval. [37] Škirpa agreed to this, but he had very little control over the activists in Lithuania itself.

June Revolt

German advances and Soviet retreat

Soviet POWs escorted by German soldiers in Vilnius, June-July 1941 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-006-2230-08, Litauen, Wilna, Russische Kriegsgefangene.jpg
Soviet POWs escorted by German soldiers in Vilnius, June–July 1941

At 3:15 am on June 22, the territory of the Lithuanian SSR was invaded by two advancing German army groups: Army Group North, which took over western and northern Lithuania, and Army Group Centre, which took over most of the Vilnius Region. The Germans amassed some 40 divisions, 700,000 troops, 1,500 tanks, and 1,200 airplanes for the attack on the Lithuanian SSR. [38] The Soviets had about 25 divisions, 400,000 troops, 1,500 tanks, and 1,344 airplanes in the Baltic Military District. [39] 7 rifle and 6 motorized divisions from the 8th and 11th Armies were located within the Lithuanian territory. [38]

The first attacks were carried out by Luftwaffe against airports, airfields, and Lithuanian cities (Kėdainiai, Raseiniai, Karmėlava, Panevėžys, Jurbarkas, Ukmergė, Šiauliai, and others). These attacks claimed the lives of some 4,000 civilians. [39] Most of the Soviet aircraft were destroyed on the ground (322 airplanes were lost in air versus 1,489 destroyed on ground). [39] The Germans rapidly advanced forward encountering only sporadic resistance from the Soviets near Kaltinėnai, Raseiniai, Šiauliai and assistance from the Lithuanians. In the Battle of Raseiniai, the Soviets attempted to mount a counterattack, reinforced by tanks, but suffered heavy losses. [40] Within a week, the Germans sustained 3,362 casualties, but controlled the entirety of Lithuania. [1] Soviet losses were heavy and not known precisely; the estimates put them at 12–15 divisions. [1] The Red Army also lost numerous aircraft, tanks, artillery, and other equipment. [41]

Despite the generally friendly Lithuanian attitude, the Germans carried out several punitive executions. For example, 42 civilians from Ablinga village were murdered in response to German deaths. [42] After two German guards in Alytus were shot by unknown perpetrators, the Nazis shot 42 Lithuanian rebels. [43] The terror in Alytus continued to the next day: the Germans selected men, age 15–50, and executed them in groups of 20–25. [33] More atrocities were carried out by the retreating Red Army. About 4,000 political and criminal prisoners, arrested during the first Soviet occupation, were to be transported to Russia. [44] NKVD organized prisoner massacres in Rainiai, Pravieniškės, Panevėžys. A total of 40 locations of mass killings have been identified in Lithuania. [45] Many others were killed en route to Soviet prisons. The largest such massacre took place near Chervyen in present-day Belarus. A list of NKVD victims in Lithuania, compiled during the Nazi occupation, includes 769 people that did not participate in the uprising. [46]

Lithuanian revolt

In Kaunas

After the occupation, the Lithuanian Diplomatic Service did not recognized the new occupants authority and started the diplomatic liberation campaign of Lithuania. [47] In 1941, Kazys Škirpa, Leonas Prapuolenis, Juozas Ambrazevičius and their supporters, including the former Commander of the Lithuanian Army General Stasys Raštikis, whose wife was separated from their 1-year-old daughter and brutally interrogated by the Soviets at Kaunas Prison, and his father Bernardas Raštikis, three daughters, two brothers and sister were deported to Siberia, began organizing an uprising. [48] [49]

LAF activists leads the arrested Commissar of the Red Army in Kaunas LAF fighters leads the arrested Commissar of the Red Army.jpg
LAF activists leads the arrested Commissar of the Red Army in Kaunas
LAF activists inspects the deprived T-38 tank from the Red Army in Kaunas LAF rebels inspects the deprived Soviet T-38 tank.jpg
LAF activists inspects the deprived T-38 tank from the Red Army in Kaunas
Lithuanian activists in Kaunas on June 25, 1941 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1984-102-25A, Kaunas, Litauische Aktivisten.jpg
Lithuanian activists in Kaunas on June 25, 1941

The uprising began in early morning of June 22, 1941, the first day of the war. The main forces of the LAF were concentrated in Kaunas. At 10 am LAF held a meeting in Žaliakalnis, dividing the responsibilities. It was decided that the main goal is not to fight with the Russians, but to secure the city from inside (secure organizations, institutions, enterprises) and declare independence. [50] By the evening of June 22, the Lithuanians controlled the Presidential Palace, post office, telephone and telegraph, radio station and radiophone. [50] Control of the telephone allowed Lithuanians to disconnect all known communist numbers and talk to each other without passwords or codes. [51] The radio station was sabotaged by the Russians, therefore repair works were carried out during the night from June 22 to 23. Spare parts were delivered by medical students, driving an ambulance. [52] Despite fears of inadequate Lithuanian forces guarding the radio, in the morning of June 23, Leonas Prapuolenis read the declaration of Lithuanian independence and the list of members of the Provisional Government. The broadcast was repeated several times in Lithuanian, German, and French. [52] At 9:28 AM Tautiška giesmė , the national anthem of Lithuania, was played on the radio in Kaunas. Many people listened to the Lithuanian national anthem then with tears in their eyes. [53] Multiple Red Army divisions stationed in the Lithuania's territory, including the brutal 1st Motor Rifle Division NKVD responsible for the June deportation, and the marionette Lithuanian SSR regime commanders were forced to flee into the Latvian SSR through the Daugava river. Commander of the Red Army's 188th Rifle Division colonel Piotr Ivanov reported to the 11th Army Staff that during the retreat of his division through Kaunas "local counterrevolutionaries from the shelters purposefully and severely fired to the Red Army, the flocks suffered heavy losses of soldiers and military equipment". [54] [55]

In the morning of June 23, 1941, the rebels raided a Soviet armory in Šančiai, [56] Panemunė, and Vilijampolė. [57] Now armed, Lithuanians spread throughout the city. The Vilijampolė Bridge across the Neris River received special attention from the rebels as they expected the Germans to enter the city using this bridge. [51] When the Lithuanians got to the bridge, it was already wired with explosives. 40 Soviet troops and three armored vehicles protected the bridge and waited for the right moment to detonate. [58] When the Soviets retreated a bit after facing Lithuanian fire, Juozas Savulionis ran to the middle of the bridge, cut the wires, and thus saved it from destruction. On his way back Savulionis was shot and killed by Soviet fire, becoming one of the first victims of the uprising. [58]

The bridges across the Neman River were prematurely destroyed by the retreating Soviets. This forced units of the Red Army in Suvalkija to bypass Kaunas and possibly saved the rebels in the city. The Metalas Factory became the headquarters of the Šančiai rebels, who attempted to stop Russian soldiers from crossing the Neman River by boats or building a pontoon bridge. During these fights about 100 rebels were killed, 100 Soviet troops (including several officers) were taken prisoner, [56] and a large booty of equipment (including three tanks but no one knew how to operate them) was captured. [59] Other groups secured police stations, shops, warehouses, attempted to re-establish general order in the city. The rebels hastily organized their own police and freed some 2,000 political prisoners. [59] They also organized publication of daily Į laisvę (Towards Freedom).

On June 24, 1941, tank units of the Red Army in Jonava were ordered to retake Kaunas. The rebels radioed the Germans for assistance. The units were bombed by Luftwaffe and did not reach the city. It was the first coordinated Lithuanian–German action. [60] The first German scouts, lieutenant Flohret and four privates, entered Kaunas on June 24 and found it in friendly hands. [61] A day later the main forces marched into the city without obstruction and almost in a parade fashion. [62] On June 26, German military command ordered to disband and disarm the rebel groups. [63] Two days later Lithuanian guards and patrols were also relieved of their duties.

According to self-registration in July, there were about 6,000 rebels, [64] spontaneously organized into 26 groups in Kaunas. [65] The largest groups numbered 200–250 men. Total Lithuanian casualties in Kaunas are estimated at 200 dead and 150 wounded. [64]

In Vilnius

In Vilnius, LAF had been dismantled by Soviet arrests just before the war and Lithuanians formed only a small minority of the city's population. [3] Therefore, the uprising was smaller in scale and started on June 23. The rebels took over the post office, radio station, and other institutions, and hoisted the Lithuanian flag over the Gediminas' Tower. It was relatively easy to take control of Vilnius as most units of the Red Army were located outside the city and retreated rather quickly. [61] The first German units entered the city on June 24. The 7th Panzer Division, commanded by Hans Freiherr von Funck, expected that the Red Army would resist in Vilnius and made plans to bombard the city. [1]

There were about 7,000–8,000 of ethnic Lithuanians in the 29th Rifle Corps, formed after the dissolution of the Lithuanian Army in 1940. [66] Majority of them deserted and started gathering in Vilnius from June 24. The 184th Rifle Division, dislocated near Varėna, was one of the first to face the advancing Germans. [67] Taking advantage of chaos among the Russian officers, Lithuanians managed to separate from the main corps with only few losses and gathered in Vilnius. Only 745 soldiers of the 184th Rifle Division reached Russia. [42] The 179th Rifle Division was ordered to retreat from PabradėŠvenčionėliai towards Pskov. [67] On June 27, the division crossed the Lithuanian border and Lithuanian soldiers mutinied. At least 120 Lithuanians were killed in various shoot outs while attempting to desert. About 1,500 to 2,000 soldiers (out of 6,000) of the 179th Rifle Division reached Nevel. [42] Lithuanians hoped that these deserters would form the core of the new Lithuanian Army; however, the troops were organized into Police Battalions and employed by the Germans for their needs, including perpetration of the Holocaust. [42]

Elsewhere and summary

The uprising spread to other cities, towns, and villages. Level of the rebel activities varied greatly across Lithuania and the uprising was less organized, more spontaneous and chaotic. [3] Men joined the uprising even though they never heard of the LAF or organized resistance in Kaunas. In most areas the rebels followed the pattern set in Kaunas and Vilnius: take control of local institutions (most importantly, the police) and secure other strategic objects. The rebels also arrested Soviet activists, freed political prisoners, and hoisted the Lithuanian flags. [66] Lack of guns and ammunition was felt almost everywhere; the main way to obtain guns was to disarm surrendered Soviet troops. [68] Most active rebels were in the districts of Švenčionys, Mažeikiai, Panevėžys, and Utena. [2] In some areas, like Šiauliai, there were no noticeable rebel activities. [2] Once Germans entered a settlement they would disarm the rebels. However, some local institutions (police, various committees) de facto established by the rebels were later legalized de jure. [69]

During the Soviet era, the rebels were persecuted and the uprising was censored out of the history books. Memoirs and studies published mainly by Lithuanian-Americans inflated the total number of the Lithuanians activists to 90,000 or 113,000 and casualties to 2,000 or 6,000. [2] After Lithuania regained independence in 1990 and new documents became available, historians have revised the estimates to 16,000–20,000 active participants and 600 casualties. [2] Most of the rebels were young men, between 18 and 25 years old. [61] Soviet losses are estimated at 5,000 men. [3]

Independence and Provisional Government

Session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania under the chairmanship by Juozas Ambrazevicius in Kaunas, Lithuania Session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania.jpg
Session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania under the chairmanship by Juozas Ambrazevičius in Kaunas, Lithuania

On June 23, 1941 at 9:28 AM Tautiška giesmė , the national anthem of Lithuania, was played on the radio in Kaunas. Many people listened to the Lithuanian national anthem then with tears in their eyes. [70] LAF member Leonas Prapuolenis read independence declaration Atstatoma laisva Lietuva (Free Lithuania is Restored) – "Young Lithuania with enthusiasm promises to add up to the Europe organization on the new bases. Lithuanian nation horribly tortured by bolshevik's terror braces creating its future on the ethnic unity and social justice". [71] Prapuolenis announced the members of the Provisional Government and also asked the people to guard public and private property, the workers to organize protection of factories, public institutions, and other important objects, and policemen to patrol their territories preserving the general public order. The message was repeated several times in Lithuanian, German, and French.

The first meeting of the Provisional Government took place on June 24. LAF activist Juozas Ambrazevičius replaced Kazys Škirpa, who was under house arrest in Berlin, as the Prime Minister. The new government attempted to take full control of the country, establish the proclaimed independence, and start a de-sovietization campaign. During its six-week existence over 100 laws, some prepared in advance, were issued, dealing with de-nationalization of land, enterprises, and real estate, restoration of local administrative units, formation of police, and other issues. The government did not have power in the Vilnius Region, under control of a different army group. [72] Hoping to survive the government cooperated fully with the Nazi authorities. [62]

Participants of the last session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania, who signed a protest for the Germans actions of suspending the Lithuanian Government powers Last session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania.jpg
Participants of the last session of the Provisional Government of Lithuania, who signed a protest for the Germans actions of suspending the Lithuanian Government powers

The Provisional Government of Lithuania strongly opposed the Holocaust carried out by the Nazis and its main goal was to protect the citizens and declare the Independence of Lithuania. It also tried to rescue the situation and protest, the meant Lithuanian Minister of National Defence General Stasys Raštikis (former Commander of the Lithuanian Army) even met personally with the Nazi Germany Generals to discuss the situation. [73] He approached the Kaunas War Field Commandant General Oswald Pohl and the Military Command Representative General Karl von Roques by trying to plead the Jews, however they replied that the Gestapo is handling these issues and that they cannot help. Furthermore, in the beginning of the occupation, Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Lithuania Juozas Ambrazevičius convened the meeting in which the ministers participated together with the former President Kazys Grinius, Bishop Vincentas Brizgys and others. During the meeting, the Nazis were condemned for their actions with Jews and it was decided to help them. Although, the participants of the meeting understood that the help will be very limited, because already in the beginning of the Nazi occupation it was announced that the Jews are crossed out from the competence of Lithuanian institutions. [74]

The Germans did not recognize the new government, but also did not take any actions to dissolve it by force (unlike the government of Stepan Bandera in Ukraine). At first German military administration tolerated activities of the government as it did not attempt to take control of civilian institutions. [69] The Reichskommissariat Ostland, German Civil Administration ( Zivilverwaltung ) was established on July 17. [75] Instead of using brute force, the Civil Administration slowly removed the government's powers (for example, did not allow to print its decrees in newspapers or broadcast radio announcements) and supplanted its institutions, forcing the Provisional Government to either self-disband or to become a puppet institution. [62] Willing to cooperate if that meant recognition and some semblance to autonomy, the government did not agree to become an instrument of German occupation. [62] The government self-disbanded on August 5 after signing a protest for the Germans actions of suspending the Lithuanian government powers. Members of the Provisional Government then in corpore went to the Garden of the Vytautas the Great War Museum, where they laid wreath near the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the presence of a numerous audience. Sicherheitsdienst confiscated the pictures of the wreath-laying ceremony, thinking that it could be dangerous for the German occupation policy in Lithuania. [76]

Aftermath and controversies

Funeral of the June Uprising casualties in Kaunas on June 26, 1941 Funeral of the June Uprising casualties in Kaunas.jpg
Funeral of the June Uprising casualties in Kaunas on June 26, 1941

Usurpation of the public life continued after the demise of the Provisional Government. The Lithuanian Activist Front was banned in September 1941 and some of its leaders transported to concentration camps. In December the last legal party of Lithuania, pro-Nazi Lithuanian Nationalist Party, was also banned. [75] Most of the laws adopted by the Provisional Government remained paper declarations. However a couple laws that concerned items of no immediate interest of the Germans, including local administration and education, had somewhat lasting effect. [77] The government left developed local administration, staffed with Lithuanians. That allowed some passive resistance when German orders from top could be blocked by the bottom. For example, Lithuanians resisted recruitment to a Waffen-SS division, quotas for forced labor in Germany, or Germanization of Lithuanian schools. [78]

Despite the failure to establish independence and meager long-term results, the uprising was an important event. As Kazys Škirpa summarized in his memoirs, the uprising demonstrated the determination of the Lithuanian people to have their own independent state and dispelled the myth that Lithuania joined the Soviet Union voluntarily in June 1940. [79] The uprising also contributed to unusually rapid German advances against Russia: Pskov was reached in 17 days. [36] The events of June 1941 also caused some controversies. At the time, Lithuanian diplomats abroad, including former president Antanas Smetona and Stasys Lozoraitis, described the uprising as "Nazi-inspired". [79] These statements might have been in an attempt to persuade United States, Great Britain, and other western powers that Lithuania was not an ally of the Nazis. [80] Its military unit, the Tautinio Darbo Apsaugos Batalionas, was soon employed by the Einsatzkommando and Rollkommando Hamann in the mass executions of Lithuanian Jews in the Seventh fort of the Kaunas Fortress and in the provinces. [81] Jewish survivors and authors accuse members of the LAF, especially in Kaunas but also in other towns, of indiscriminate and gruesome excesses against Jewish residents, often before the Nazis arrived to take control, most notably characterized by the Kaunas pogrom. [82]

In 1973, the Committee of the United States Congress made unambiguous conclusions that there is no Prime Minister Juozas Ambrazevičius' guilty in the Holocaust in Lithuania. [83] [84] It is also known that in the summer of 1944 Ambrazevičius left for Germany, and in 1948 for the United States, where he edited a Catholic daily, Darbininkas, and continued his work in the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania in exile. He published a number of leaflets illustrating German and Soviet crimes in Lithuania and the Lithuanian resistance, for example, In the Name of the Lithuanian People (1946) and Appeal to the United Nations on Genocide (1951). In 1964 he published a book Alone, all alone about the Lithuanian armed resistance. The Kremlin actively opposed his activities. In the 1970s he became a subject of interest for the Soviet media and American hunters of Nazi colloborators, who accused him of having worked for the Third Reich. In reply, he published an extensive dossier of his World War II activities. [85]

During the 2012 reburial ceremony of the Juozas Ambrazevičius remains in Kaunas, adviser to Lithuanian Prime Minister Andrius Kubilius also noted that a 1975 investigation by US Immigration found no evidence of Brazaitis being involved in anti-Semitic or pro-Nazi activities. [86]

Related Research Articles

Kaunas City in Lithuania

Kaunas is the second-largest city in Lithuania after Vilnius and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life. Kaunas was the biggest city and the centre of a county in the Duchy of Trakai of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Trakai Palatinate since 1413. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate from 1843 to 1915.

Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic republic of the Soviet Union

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, also known as Soviet Lithuania or Lithuania, was one of the constituent republics of the USSR between 1940–1941 and 1944–1990. After 1946, its territory and borders mirrored those of today's Republic of Lithuania, with the exception of minor adjustments of the border with Belarus.

Lithuanian Activist Front or LAF was a short-lived resistance organization established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union. The goal of the organization was to liberate Lithuania and re-establish its independence. It planned and executed the June Uprising and established the short-lived Provisional Government of Lithuania. The Government self-disbanded and LAF was banned by Nazi authorities in September 1941. LAF remains controversial due to the part of its members anti-Semitic and anti-Polish views, however the Provisional Government that was formed by LAF and other high-ranking Lithuanian officials related with LAF, including President Kazys Grinius and Bishop Vincentas Brizgys, actively tried to protest against the Nazis' Holocaust activity and protect the Jewish population at their power, which was very limited after the German occupation of Lithuania during World War II.

The Lithuanian Security Police (LSP), also known as Saugumas, was a local police force that operated in German-occupied Lithuania from 1941 to 1944, in collaboration with the occupational authorities. Collaborating with the Nazi Sipo and SD, the unit was directly subordinate to the German Kripo. The LSP took part in perpetrating the Holocaust in Lithuania, persecuting Polish resistance and communist underground.

Provisional Government of Lithuania

The Provisional Government of Lithuania was a temporary government aiming for independent Lithuania during the last days of the Soviet occupation and the first weeks of German Nazi occupation in 1941.

Juozas Ambrazevičius Lithuanian historian

Juozas Ambrazevičius or Juozas Brazaitis, was a Lithuanian literary historian, better known for his political career and nationalistic views. He was the acting Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of Lithuania from June 23, 1941 to August 5, 1941.

The issue of Polish and Lithuanian relations during World War II is a controversial one, and some modern Lithuanian and Polish historians still differ in their interpretations of the related events, many of which are related to the Lithuanian collaboration with Nazi Germany and the operations of Polish resistance organization of Armia Krajowa on territories inhabited by Lithuanians and Poles. In recent years a number of common academic conferences have started to bridge the gap between Lithuanian and Polish interpretations, but significant differences still remain.

Stasys Raštikis Lithuanian military officer

Stasys Raštikis was a Lithuanian military officer, ultimately obtaining the rank of divisional general. He was the commander of the Lithuanian Army from September 21, 1934 to April 23, 1940.

Kaunas pogrom

The Kaunas pogrom was a massacre of Jews living in Kaunas, Lithuania that took place on June 25–29, 1941 – the first days of the Operation Barbarossa and of Nazi occupation of Lithuania. The most infamous incident occurred in the Lietūkis garage, where several dozen Jewish men were publicly tortured and executed on June 27, most of them killed by a single club-wielding assailant nicknamed the "Death Dealer." After June, systematic executions took place at various forts of the Kaunas Fortress, especially the Seventh and Ninth Fort.

Kazys Škirpa Lithuanian army officer and diplomat

Kazys Škirpa was a Lithuanian military officer and diplomat. He is best known as the founder of the Lithuanian Activist Front (LAF) and his involvement in the attempt to establish Lithuanian independence in June 1941.

German occupation of Lithuania during World War II The occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany during World War II

The occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany lasted from the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 to the end of the Battle of Memel on January 28, 1945. At first the Germans were welcomed as liberators from the repressive Soviet regime which occupied Lithuania prior to the German arrival. In hopes of re-establishing independence or regaining some autonomy, Lithuanians organized their Provisional Government. Soon the Lithuanian attitudes towards the Germans changed into passive resistance.

The Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania or VLIK was an organization seeking independence of Lithuania. It was established on November 25, 1943, during the Nazi occupation. After World War II it moved abroad and continued its operations in Germany and the United States. VLIK claimed to be the legal representative of the Lithuanian parliament and government, but did not enjoy international recognition. It was dissolved in 1990 when Lithuania declared its independence.

Gaižiūnai Village in Aukštaitija, Lithuania

Gaižiūnai is a village in Jonava district municipality, Lithuania. It is situated on the Taurosta River, tributary of Neris, about 3 km (1.9 mi) southeast of Jonava and 25 km (16 mi) northeast of Kaunas. The railroad from Šiauliai forks into Kaunas and Vilnius near the village. Gaižiūnai is also known as a military base.

The Lithuanian Freedom Army was a Lithuanian underground organization established by Kazys Veverskis, a student at Vilnius University, on December 13, 1941. Its goal were to re-establish independent Lithuania via political and military means. During the Nazi Germany occupation it opposed German policies, but did not begin armed resistance. The armed struggle began in mid-1944 when Red Army reached the Lithuanian borders after the Minsk Offensive. The LLA became the first wave of the Lithuanian partisans, armed anti-Soviet guerrilla fighters. It attempted to become the central command of the armed struggle. However, the organization was liquidated by the Soviet security forces by April 1946. The remnants of the organization were absorbed by other partisans. The guerrilla war continued until 1953.

The Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions were paramilitary units (battalions) formed during the occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. Similar units, known as Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen, were organized in other German-occupied territories of Eastern Europe. In Lithuania, the first battalions originated from units formed during the anti-Soviet Uprising of June 1941. Lithuanian activists hoped that these units would become the basis for the reestablished Lithuanian Army. Instead, these units were absorbed into the German military apparatus and aided German forces: guarded strategic objects, engaged in anti-partisan operations, participated in the Holocaust. The 12th and the 13th battalions, tracing their roots from the Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas (TDA), were particularly active in the executions of the Jews and were responsible for estimated 78,000 Jewish deaths in Lithuania and Belarus. While the battalions were often deployed outside Lithuania, they generally did not participate in combat. In total, 26 battalions were formed and approximately 13,000 men served in them. In July–September, 1944, the remaining units were combined into two Lithuanian Volunteer Infantry Regiments.

Vincas Vitkauskas politician

Vincas Vitkauskas was a Lithuanian general. He became commander of the Lithuanian Army after the resignation of Stasys Raštikis in January 1940. In this capacity, Vitkauskas opposed armed resistance to the Soviet occupation in June 1940 and subsequently collaborated with the new Soviet regime.

Rapolas Skipitis Lithuanian jurist

Rapolas Skipitis was a Lithuanian attorney and politician. In 1920–1922, he was Minister of the Interior and was later elected to the Second and Third Seimas. After the 1926 coup d'état, he chaired the Lithuanian Riflemen's Union (1927–1928), Society for the Support of Lithuanians Abroad (1932–1940), and several other Lithuanian organizations. He also edited several newspapers, including Ūkininko balsas (1925–1928), Trimitas (1927–1928), Namų savininkas and Pasaulio lietuvis (1937–1940). At the start of World War II, he retreated to Germany and joined the Lithuanian Activist Front. He was reserved the seat of Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Government of Lithuania. After the war, he settled in Chicago where he was active in Lithuanian American cultural life.

Juozas Purickis

Juozas Purickis was a prominent diplomat and journalist in interwar Lithuania and served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs from June 1920 to December 1921.

Jonas Noreika

Jonas Noreika, also known by his post-war nom de guerre Generolas Vėtra, was a Lithuanian army officer, anti-Soviet rebel, Nazi prisoner, and anti-Soviet partisan.



  1. 1 2 3 4 Anušauskas (2005), p. 164
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Anušauskas (2005), p. 171
  3. 1 2 3 4 Brandišauskas, Valentinas (2002). "1941 m. sukilimas ir nepriklausomybės viltys". Gimtoji istorija. Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Elektroninės leidybos namai. ISBN   9986-9216-9-4. Archived from the original on 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2009-07-04.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. Литва в период германской оккупации 1941 – 1944 г. (in Russian). runivers.ru. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
  5. Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947. McFarland. p. 164. ISBN   9780786403714.
  6. Liekis, Šarūnas (2010). 1939: The Year that Changed Everything in Lithuania's History. New York: Rodopi. pp. 119–122. ISBN   9042027622.
  7. J. Lee Ready (1995). World War Two: Nation by Nation. London: Cassell. p. 191. ISBN   1-85409-290-1.
  8. Vareikis, Vygantas. "Politiniai ir kariniai Klaipėdos krašto praradimo aspektai 1938-1939 metais" (PDF). Klaipėda University . Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  9. Praleika, Aidanas. "Pirmoji pasaulyje „gyvybės vizas" žydams išdavė Lietuva, bet pasaulis to nežino". LZinios.lt. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  10. Verkelytė-Fedaravičienė, Birutė (4 June 2015). "Birutė Verkelytė-Fedaravičienė: Patriarchą užpylėm rankom". alkas.lt (in Lithuanian). alkas.lt. Retrieved 8 July 2018. Man dėstęs istorikas rašė, kad Lenkija amžinai bus dėkinga Lietuvai už tai, kad nepuolė Lenkijos, kai galėjo, taip pat už tai, kad tūkstančiai žmonių be paso praėjo Lietuvos-Lenkijos sieną. Džiaugiuosi, jog prie šių žmonių išgelbėjimo nuo karo siaubo prisidėjo ir Lietuvos konsulato Vilniuje darbas, kuriame dalyvavau. Lietuvos konsulate Vilniuje dirbdavome nuo ryto iki paryčių. Prasidėjus karui Lenkijoje žmonės vis ėjo ir ėjo, norėdami patekti į Lietuvą, pabėgti nuo atsiritančio per Lenkiją karo fronto. Generalinis konsulas Antanas Trimakas buvo be galo doras ir sąžiningas žmogus, paskirtas į Vilnių prasidėjus lenkų veržimuisi į Lietuvą.
  11. Ineta Žiemele, ed. (2002). Baltic Yearbook of International Law (2001). 1. p. 2. ISBN   978-90-411-1736-6.
  12. Gureckas, Algimantas. "Ar Lietuva galėjo išsigelbėti 1939–1940 metais?". lrytas.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  13. Urbšys, Juozas (Summer 1989). "Lithuania and the Soviet Union 1939–1940: the Fateful Year". Lituanus. 2 (34). ISSN   0024-5089.
  14. Łossowski, Piotr (2002). "The Lithuanian–Soviet Treaty of October 1939". Acta Poloniae Historica (86): 98–101. ISSN   0001-6829.
  15. Cibulskis, Gediminas. "Lietuvos sostinės atgavimo kaina". 15min.lt. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  16. Richard J. Krickus (June 1997). "Democratization in Lithuania". In K. Dawisha and B. Parrott (ed.). The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe. p. 293. ISBN   978-0-521-59938-2.
  17. Prit Buttar. Between Giants. ISBN   9781780961637.
  18. "Šimtmečio belaukiant: Reikšmingiausi Pirmosios Lietuvos Respublikos (1918–1940 m.) įvykiai". IstorinePrezidentura.lt. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  19. Musteikis, Kazys (1989). Prisiminimų fragmentai (PDF). Vilnius: Mintis. pp. 56–57. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  20. Juozevičiūtė, Vilma; Trimonienė, Rūta. "Aleksandras Barauskas" (PDF). Genocid.lt. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  21. 1 2 Ašmenskas, Viktoras. "Didžiosios tautos aukos". Partizanai.org. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  22. Senn, Alfred Erich (2007). Lithuania 1940: Revolution from Above. Rodopi. p. 99. ISBN   978-90-420-2225-6.
  23. Šeinius, Ignas. "Kaip raudonarmiečiai įžengė į Lietuvą: apverktinai atrodę kariai ir lygiame kelyje gedę tankai". DELFI. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  24. Antanas Račis, ed. (2008). "Reguliariosios pajėgos". Lietuva (in Lithuanian). I. Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute. p. 335. ISBN   978-5-420-01639-8.
  25. 1 2 Knezys, Stasys. "Lietuvos kariuomenės naikinimas (1940 m. birželio 15 d.–1941 m.)". Genocid.lt. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  26. Starinskas, Kęstutis. "Lemtingi metai generolo Raštikio dienoraščiuose". LZinios.lt. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
  27. "Lietuvos okupacija (1940 m. birželio 15 d.)". LRS.lt. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  28. Anušauskas (2005), pp. 157–158
  29. 1 2 Anušauskas (2005), p. 157
  30. Bubnys (1998), p. 26
  31. Bubnys (1998), p. 27
  32. Bubnys (1998), p. 32
  33. 1 2 Anušauskas (2005), p. 167
  34. Anušauskas (2005), p. 168
  35. Bubnys (1998), p. 29
  36. 1 2 Misiunas (1993), p. 46
  37. 1 2 Jegelevičius, Sigitas (2004-06-11). "1941 m. Lietuvos laikinosios vyriausybės atsiradimo aplinkybės". Voruta (in Lithuanian). 11 (557). ISSN   1392-0677.
  38. 1 2 Anušauskas (2005), p. 161
  39. 1 2 3 Anušauskas (2005), p. 162
  40. Anušauskas (2005), p. 163
  41. Anušauskas (2005), p. 165
  42. 1 2 3 4 Anušauskas (2005), p. 166
  43. Anušauskas (2005), pp. 166–167
  44. Anušauskas (2005), p. 141
  45. Anušauskas (2005), p. 142
  46. Bubnys (1998), pp. 45–46
  47. "Lietuvos okupacija (1940 m. birželio 15 d.)". LRS.lt. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  48. Blaževičius, Kazys. "Už laisvę". www.xxiamzius.lt. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  49. Starinskas, Kęstutis. "Lemtingi metai generolo Raštikio dienoraščiuose". LZinios.lt. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
  50. 1 2 Bubnys (1998), p. 34
  51. 1 2 Narutis, Pilypas (June 1971). "1941 birželio sukilimas Kaune". Aidai (in Lithuanian): 255–258. ISSN   0002-208X.
  52. 1 2 Bubnys (1998), p. 35
  53. "The History of Lithuania's National Anthem". DRAUGAS NEWS. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  54. "1941 metų Joninės. Šlovės savaitė: kaip lietuviai laimėjo hibridinį karą prieš Kremlių « Lietuvos Žurnalistų draugija". Lietuvos žurnalistų draugija. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  55. Aleksandravičius, Arnoldas. "1941 metų Joninės. Šlovės savaitė: kaip lietuviai laimėjo hibridinį karą prieš Kremlių". Lietuvos kariuomenės kūrėjų savanorių sąjunga (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  56. 1 2 Bubnys (1998), p. 36
  57. Gerutis (1984), p. 324
  58. 1 2 Dobkevičius, Kazimieras (2006-11-22). "Dzūkija ir dzūkai Lietuvos istorijos verpetuose". XXI amžius (in Lithuanian). 87 (1487).
  59. 1 2 Gerutis (1984), p. 325
  60. Gerutis (1984), pp. 325–326
  61. 1 2 3 Bubnys (1998), p. 40
  62. 1 2 3 4 Misiunas (1993), p. 47
  63. Bubnys (1998), p. 38
  64. 1 2 Bubnys (1998), p. 39
  65. Anušauskas (2005), p. 169
  66. 1 2 Bubnys (1998), p. 43
  67. 1 2 Gerutis (1984), p. 326
  68. Anušauskas (2005), p. 170
  69. 1 2 Anušauskas (2005), p. 176
  70. "The History of Lithuania's National Anthem". DRAUGAS NEWS. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  71. "Seimo Kronika", 23(162) pp. 5–7.
  72. Anušauskas (2005), p. 175
  73. "Kuo reikšmingas 1941 m. birželio 22-28 d. sukilimas?". LLKS.lt. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  74. Jančys, Artūras. "Birželio sukilėliai: didvyriai ir žudikai viename asmenyje?". lrytas.lt (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  75. 1 2 Anušauskas (2005), p. 177
  76. Škirpa, Kazys (1973). Sukilimas Lietuvos suverenumui atstatyti. Highland Blvd., Brooklyn, N. Y., 11207: Franciscan Fathers Press. p. 502.
  77. Misiunas (1993), p. 48
  78. Anušauskas (2005), p. 192
  79. 1 2 J. G. (June 1975). "1941 m. sukilimo istorija". Aidai : 287. ISSN   0002-208X.
  80. Zemlickas, Gediminas (2000-03-09). "Apie Birželio sukilimą ir Lietuvos laikinąją vyriausybę". Mokslo Lietuva (in Lithuanian). 5 (207). ISSN   1392-7191. Archived from the original on 2006-05-18.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  81. Knezys, Stasys (2000). "Kauno karo komendantūros Tautinio darbo batalionas 1941 m." Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 7 (1). ISSN   1392-3463.
  82. Greenbaum, Masha (1995). The Jews of Lithuania: A History of a Remarkable Community 1316–1945 (9th ed.). Israel: Gefen Books. p. 307. ISBN   965-229-132-3.
  83. Sinica, Vytautas. "Istorijos perrašymas: būtina skubiai pasmerkti Vincą Kudirką". LZinios.lt. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  84. Lukšas, Aras (2009). J. Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis—Vienų Vienas (J. Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis—Purely alone).
  85. Roszkowski, Wojciech; Kofman, Jan (2016). Biographical Dictionary of Central and Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 1925. ISBN   9781317475934.
  86. "Lithuania reburial of WWII leader angers Jewish groups". bbc.com. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.