Jus soli

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Countries by jus soli
Unconditional or near-unconditional
jus soli for persons born in the country
Jus soli with restrictions
Jus soli abolished Jus soli world.svg
Countries by jus soli
  Unconditional or near-unconditionaljus soli for persons born in the country
  Jus soli with restrictions
  Jus soli abolished

Jus soli (English: /ʌsˈsl/ ; Latin pronunciation:  [juːs ˈsɔ.liː] ), meaning "right of the soil", [1] commonly referred to as birthright citizenship in the United States, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship. [2]

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state. Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. What these rights and duties are varies from state to state.

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

Contents

Jus soli was part of the English common law, in contrast to jus sanguinis , which derives from the Roman law that influenced the civil-law systems of continental Europe. [3] [4] Jus soli is the predominant rule in the Americas, but it is rare elsewhere. [5] [6] Since the Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland was enacted in 2004, no European country grants citizenship based on unconditional or near-unconditional jus soli. [7] [8]

Common law Law developed by judges

In law, common law is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of “common law” is that it arises as precedent. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, and synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. If, however, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, and legislative statutes are either silent or ambiguous on the question, judges have the authority and duty to resolve the issue. The court states an opinion that gives reasons for the decision, and those reasons agglomerate with past decisions as precedent to bind future judges and litigants. Common law, as the body of law made by judges, stands in contrast to and on equal footing with statutes which are adopted through the legislative process, and regulations which are promulgated by the executive branch. Stare decisis, the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems.

Jus sanguinis is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is determined or acquired by the nationality of one or both parents. Children at birth may automatically be citizens of a particular state if either or both of their parents have citizenship of that state or national identities of ethnic, cultural, or other origins. Citizenship can also apply to children whose parents belong to a diaspora and were not themselves citizens of the state conferring citizenship. This principle contrasts with jus soli.

Roman law Legal system of Ancient Rome (c. 449 BC - AD 529)

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables, to the Corpus Juris Civilis ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. The historical importance of Roman law is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in many legal systems influenced by it, including common law.

Almost all states in Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania grant citizenship at birth based upon the principle of jus sanguinis (right of blood), in which citizenship is inherited through parents rather than birthplace, or a restricted version of jus soli in which citizenship by birthplace is automatic only for the children of certain immigrants.

Jus soli in many cases helps prevent statelessness. [9] Countries that have acceded to the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness are obligated to grant nationality to persons born in their territory who would otherwise become stateless persons. [10] [lower-alpha 1] The American Convention on Human Rights similarly provides that "Every person has the right to the nationality of the state in whose territory he was born if he does not have the right to any other nationality." [9]

In international law, a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law". Some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border. On 13 November, 2018, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warned there are about 12 million stateless people in the world.

Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness is a 1961 United Nations multilateral treaty whereby sovereign states agree to reduce the incidence of statelessness. The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

American Convention on Human Rights

The American Convention on Human Rights, also known as the Pact of San José, is an international human rights instrument. It was adopted by many countries in the Western Hemisphere in San José, Costa Rica, on 22 November 1969. It came into force after the eleventh instrument of ratification was deposited on 18 July 1978.

National laws

Lex soli is a law used in practice to regulate who and under what circumstances an individual can assert the right of jus soli. Most states provide a specific lex soli—in application of the respective jus soli—and it is the most common means of acquiring nationality. However, a frequent exception to lex soli is imposed when a child is born to a parent in the diplomatic or consular service of another state on a mission to the state in question. [11] [12]

Unrestricted jus soli

Antigua and Barbuda Country in the Caribbean

Antigua and Barbuda is a country in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The permanent population numbers about 95,900, with 97% being resident on Antigua. The capital and largest port and city is St. John's on Antigua, with Codrington being the largest town on Barbuda. Lying near each other, Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator.

Argentine nationality law

Argentine nationality law has a dual system accepting Jus soli and Jus sanguinis.

Belize country in Central America

Belize is an independent and sovereign country located on the north eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala. It has an area of 22,970 square kilometres (8,867 sq mi) and a population of 387,879 (2017). Its mainland is about 180 mi (290 km) long and 68 mi (110 km) wide. It has the lowest population and population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year (2015) is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere.

Restricted jus soli

There is a trend in some countries toward restricting lex soli by requiring that at least one of the child's parents be a citizen, national or legal permanent resident of the state in question at time of the child's birth. [42] Modification of jus soli has been criticized as contributing to economic inequality, the perpetuation of unfree labour from a helot underclass [42] and statelessness. Jus soli has been restricted in the following countries:

Abolition of jus soli

Some countries that formerly observed jus soli have moved to abolish it entirely, conferring citizenship on children born in the country only if at least one of the parents is a citizen of that country.

See also

Notes

  1. Parties to the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness are also obligated to grant nationality to persons who are born aboard ships flagged in the country or an aircraft registered in the country who would otherwise become stateless. [9]

Related Research Articles

Naturalization process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country

Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but typically include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws, taking and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, and may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.

"Anchor baby" is a term used to refer to a child born to a non-citizen mother in a country that has birthright citizenship which will therefore help the mother and other family members gain legal residency. In the U.S., the term is generally used as a derogatory reference to the supposed role of the child, who automatically qualifies as an American citizen under jus soli and the rights guaranteed in the 14th Amendment. The term is also often used in the context of the debate over illegal immigration to the United States. A similar term, "passport baby", has been used in Canada for children born through so-called "maternity" or "birth tourism".

Nationality law is the law in each country and in each jurisdiction within each country which defines the rights and obligations of citizenship within the jurisdiction and the manner in which citizenship is acquired as well as how citizenship may be lost. A person who is not a citizen of the country is generally regarded as a foreigner, also referred to as an alien. A person who has no recognised nationality or citizenship is regarded as stateless.

Italian nationality law

Italian nationality law is the law of Italy governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Italian citizenship. Like many continental European countries it is largely based on jus sanguinis. It also incorporates many elements that are seen as favourable to the Italian diaspora. The Italian Parliament's 1992 update of Italian nationality law is Law no. 91, and came into force on 15 August 1992. Presidential decrees and ministerial directives, including several issued by the Ministry of the Interior, instruct the civil service how to apply Italy's citizenship-related laws.

Irish nationality law

Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution. A person may be an Irish citizen through birth, descent, marriage to an Irish citizen or through naturalisation. The law grants citizenship to individuals born in Northern Ireland under the same conditions as those born in the Republic of Ireland.

German nationality law

German nationality law is the law governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of German citizenship. The law is based on a mixture of the principles of jus sanguinis and jus soli. In other words, one usually acquires German citizenship if a parent is a German citizen, irrespective of place of birth, or by birth in Germany to parents with foreign nationality if certain requirements are fulfilled. Naturalisation is also possible for foreign nationals after six to eight years of legal residence in Germany.

French nationality law law of being a French national

French nationality law is historically based on the principles of jus soli, according to Ernest Renan's definition, in opposition to the German definition of nationality, jus sanguinis, formalised by Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

Chinese nationality law Nationality law of the Peoples Republic of China

Chinese nationality law regulates the acquisition, transmission, and loss of Chinese nationality. The law is based on the principle of jus sanguinis, meaning that individuals born to a Chinese national parent usually acquire Chinese nationality at birth.

Czech nationality law citizenship

The citizenship law of the Czech Republic is based on the principles of jus sanguinis or "right by blood". In other words, descent from a Czech parent is the primary method of acquiring Czech citizenship. Birth on Czech territory without a Czech parent is in itself insufficient for the conferral of Czech citizenship. Every Czech citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The law came into effect on 1 January 1993, the date of the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and has been amended in 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Since 1 January 2014, multiple citizenship under Czech law is allowed.

Slovenian nationality law

Slovenian nationality law is based primarily on the principles of Jus sanguinis, in that descent from a Slovenian parent is the primary basis for acquisition of Slovenian citizenship. However, although children born to foreign parents in Slovenia do not acquire Slovenian citizenship on the basis of birthplace, place of birth is relevant for determining whether the child of Slovenian parents acquires citizenship.

Birth tourism

Birth tourism is the practice of traveling to another country for the purpose of giving birth in that country. The main reason for birth tourism is to obtain citizenship for the child in a country with birthright citizenship. Such a child is sometimes derogatorily called an "anchor baby" if their citizenship is intended to help their parents obtain permanent residency in the country. Other reasons for birth tourism include access to public schooling, healthcare, sponsorship for the parents in the future, or even circumvention of China's two-child policy. Popular destinations include the United States and Canada. Another target for birth tourism is Hong Kong, where some mainland Chinese citizens travel to give birth to gain right of abode for their children.

The subject of birth aboard aircraft and ships is one with a long history in public international law. The law on the subject is complex, because various states apply differing principles of nationality, namely jus soli and jus sanguinis, to varying degrees and with varying qualifications.

Paraguayan nationality law

Paraguayan nationality law is based on the principle of Jus soli. The nationality law is based on the Chapter 3 of the Paraguayan Constitution of 1992.

Luxembourgish nationality law is ruled by the Constitution of Luxembourg. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a member state of the European Union and, therefore, its citizens are also EU citizens.

Bangladeshi nationality law

The nationality law of Bangladesh governs the issues of citizenship and nationality of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The law regulates the nationality and citizenship status of all people who live in Bangladesh as well as all people who are of Bangladeshi descent. It allows the children of expatriates, foreigners as well as residents in Bangladesh to examine their citizenship status and if necessary, apply for and obtain citizenship of Bangladesh.

Azerbaijani nationality law

Azerbaijani nationality law is a nationality law which determines who is a citizen of Azerbaijan.

Thai nationality law

Thai nationality law includes principles of both jus sanguinis and jus soli. Thailand's first Nationality Act was passed in 1913. The most recent law dates to 2008.

Albanian nationality law

Albanian nationality law is based on a mixture of the principles of Jus sanguinis and Jus soli. In other words, both place of birth and Albanian parentage are relevant for determining whether a person is an Albanian citizen. It is regulated by the "Law on Albanian Citizenship". In some circumstances citizenship is granted to children born in Albania to non-Albanian parents. This is not the case where parents are temporary or short-term visitors. As suggested by the UN and Council of Europe, all efforts are made in order to avoid statelessness.

References

  1. jus soli, definition from merriam-webster.com.
  2. Vincent, Andrew (2002). Nationalism and Particularity. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Ayelet Shachar, The Birthright Lottery: Citizenship and Global Inequality (Harvard University Press, 2009), p. 120.
  4. Rey Koslowski, Migrants and Citizens: Demographic Change in the European State System (Cornell University Press, 2000), p. 77.
  5. Rotunda, Ronald D. (16 September 2010). "Birthright citizenship benefits the country". Chicago Tribune.
  6. Smith, Morgan (16 August 2010). "Repeal Birthright Citizenship – and Then What?". Texas Tribune.
  7. Gilbertson, Greta (1 January 2006). "Citizenship in a Globalized World". Migration Policy Institute.
  8. Vink, M.; de Groot, G. R. (2010). Birthright Citizenship: Trends and Regulations in Europe. Comparative Report RSCAS/EUDO-CIT-Comp. 2010/8 (PDF). Florence: EUDO Citizenship Observatory. p. 35.
  9. 1 2 3 Lung-chu Chen, An Introduction to Contemporary International Law: A Policy-Oriented Perspective (Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 223.
  10. Ivan Shearer & Brian Opeskin, "Nationality and Statelessness" Foundations of International Migration Law (eds. Brian Opeskin, Richard Perruchoud & Jillyanne Redpath-Cross: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 99.
  11. Guimezanes, Nicole. "What Laws for Naturalisation?" The OECD Observer. Paris: June/July 1994., Iss. 188; pg. 24, 3 pgs (Cites legislation for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States)
  12. Ivan Shearer & Brian Opeskin, "Nationality and Statelessness" Foundations of International Migration Law (eds. Brian Opeskin, Richard Perruchoud & Jillyanne Redpath-Cross: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 99: "a well-established exception in customary international law is that a child born to parents who are foreign diplomats does not automatically acquire the nationality of a host State that applies jus soli."
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Katherine Culliton-Gonzalez, Born in the Americas: Birthright Citizenship and Human Rights, Harvard Human Rights Journal (2012), Vol. 25, pp. 135–36.
  14. Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda: CHAPTER VIII CITIZENSHIP | PERSONS WHO AUTOMATICALLY BECOME CITIZENS AFTER COMMENCEMENT OF THIS CONSTITUTION | Section 113 The following persons shall become citizens at the date of their birth on or after 1st November 1981– a. every person born in Antigua and Barbuda: Provided that a person shall not become a citizen by virtue of this paragraph if at the time of his birth- i. neither of his parents is a citizen and either of them possess such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to the envoy of a foreign sovereign power accredited to Antigua and Barbuda; or ii. either of his parents is a citizen of a country with which Her Majesty is at war and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by that country.
  15. Constitution of Barbados: CHAPTER II CITIZENSHIP Persons born in Barbados after 29 November 1966: Section 4: Every person born in Barbados after 29th November 1966 shall become a citizen of Barbados at the date of his birth: Provided that a person shall not become a citizen of Barbados by virtue of this section if at the time of his birth – a. his father possesses such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a foreign sovereign state accredited to Her Majesty in right of Her Government in Barbados and neither of his parents is a citizen of Barbados; or b. his father is an enemy alien and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by the enemy.
  16. "It is the Department's view that the legislation should be amended to stipulate that (as in the United Kingdom and the Bahamas) children born in Barbados will not be deemed to be citizens of Barbados, unless at least one parent at the time of the birth, has permanent status in Barbados. In addition persons born in Barbados should not be deemed to be citizens where the parents are residing illegally in Barbados" (PDF). Foreign.gov.bb. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  17. Constitution of Belize: PART III Citizenship, section 24 "24. Every person born in Belize on or after Independence Day shall become a citizen of Belize at the date of his birth: Provided that a person shall not become a citizen of Belize by virtue of this section if at the time of his birth- his father or mother is a citizen of a country with which Belize is at war and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by that country"
  18. Article 12a of the Federal Constitution (translated) says that Brazilians include, "a) those born in the Federative Republic of Brazil, even if of foreign parents, provided they are not in the service of your country". "Neoconstitucionalismo – Análise histórica". JusBrasil. a) os nascidos na República Federativa do Brasil, ainda que de pais estrangeiros, desde que estes não estejam a serviço de seu paí
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  21. CODE DE LA NATIONALITE – ORDONNANCE No. 33/PG.-INT. – DU 14 AOUT 1962 – PORTANT CODE DE LA NATIONALITE TCHADIENNE "de la nationalité d'origine – CHAPITRE II – Art. 12 – Sont Tchadiens: Les enfants nés au Tchad de parents étrangers; toutefois, ils peuvent, si les deux ascendants ont la même nationalité, opter pour cette nationalité; ce droit d'option ne peut s'exercer que si la législation du pays dont les ascendants sont nationaux le permet." (Translation: "Chadian citizens include: Children born in Chad of foreign parents; however if both parents have the same nationality, they (the children) can opt for the parents' nationality, if the legislation of their parents' country permits it.")
  22. 1 2 Manby, B. (2012). Citizenship Law in Africa: A Comparative Study. Open Society Foundations. p. 36. ISBN   978-1-936133-29-1 . Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  23. CODE DE LA NATIONALITE – ORDONNANCE No. 33/PG.-INT. – DU 14 AOUT 1962 – PORTANT CODE DE LA NATIONALITE TCHADIENNE "de la nationalité d'origine – CHAPITRE II – Art. 13 – L'option prévue aux articles 11 et 12 s'exerce à l'âge de dix-huit ans révolus. Toutefois, lorsque cette option est motivée par une reconnaissance postérieure à la majorité, l'intéressé doit l'exercer dans le délai d'un an qui suit la reconnaissance." (Translation: "The options presented in articles 11 and 12 deploy themselves at 18 years of age. However, if an individual recognizes their ability to follow these options after majority has been reached, a delay of 1 year must take place from the recognition before the options can be pursued.")
  24. Constitution of the Republic of Chile, chap. II, art. 10, par. 1 (Spanish text; English version without recent changes) Article 10.- Chileans are: 1.- Persons born in the territory of Chile, with the exception of those children of foreigners who are in Chile serving their government, as well as those children of transient foreigners. However, all may opt for the Chilean nationality.
  25. The Constitution of Costa Rica: Title II ARTICLE 13: The following are Costa Ricans by birth: ...2. A child born abroad to a born Costa Rican father or mother, who is registered as such in the Civil Register by the will of the Costa Rican parent during its minority, or by his own will up to the age of twenty-five..."
  26. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Dominica Chapter VII Citizenship 98 "Every person born in Dominica after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Dominica at the date of his birth: Provided that a person shall not become a citizen of Dominica by virtue of this section if at the time of his birth- a) neither of his parents is a citizen of Dominica and his father possesses such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to the enjoyment of a foreign sovereign power accredited to Dominica; or b) his father is a citizen of a country with which Dominica is at war and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by that country."
  27. Fiji Constitution: chapter 3, Section 10 Citizenship by birth: Every child born in Fiji on or after the date of commencement of this Constitution becomes a citizen at the date of birth unless, at the date of birth: (a) a parent of the child has the diplomatic immunity accorded to envoys of foreign sovereign powers accredited to Fiji; and (b) neither parent is a citizen.
  28. Constitution of Jamaica Chapter II Citizenship 3B.-(1): Every person born in Jamaica shall become a citizen of Jamaica – a. on the sixth day of August 1962, in the case of a person born before that date; b. on the date of his birth, in the case of a person born on or after the sixth day of August 1962.
  29. The Constitution of Lesotho, chap. IV, sec. 38 | CHAPTER IV CITIZENSHIP: 38. Persons born in Lesotho after the coming into operation of the Constitution
  30. CONSTITUCIÓN POLÍTICA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS MEXICANOS – Constitución publicada en el Diario Oficial de la federación el 5 de febrero de 1917 – TEXTO VIGENTE – Última reforma publicada DOF 07-07-2014 Capítulo II De los Mexicanos – Artículo 30. La nacionalidad mexicana se adquiere por nacimiento o por naturalización A) Son mexicanos por nacimiento: I. Los que nazcan en territorio de la República, sea cual fuere la nacionalidad de sus padres. (Translation: "Mexicans by birth are: I. Those born in the territory of the Republic, regardless of the nationality of their parents")
  31. Faryal Nazir, Section 3.1.1 in Report on Citizenship Law: Pakistan, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute (December 2016): "Jus soli or citizenship by birth is recognized in the Act (Section 3 and 4). At the time of commencement of the Act, a person born in Pakistan could claim nationality if he was residing in Pakistan. Every person born in Pakistan after the commencement of this Act is deemed to be citizen of Pakistan by birth. The law denies citizenship to a person born in the country, if his father enjoys diplomatic immunity in Pakistan or if his father was an enemy or alien in Pakistan. Therefore, the children born to aliens in Pakistan are not accorded the privilege of citizenship."
  32. UN Refugee Agency: Pakistan Citizenship Act, 1951 Section 4. Citizenship by birth: Every person born in Pakistan after the commencement of this Act shall be a citizen of Pakistan by birth.
  33. CONSTITUCIÓN POLÍTICA DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ DE 1972, REFORMADA POR LOS ACTOS REFORMATORIOS DE 1978, Y POR EL ACTO CONSTITUCIONAL DE 1983 – TITULO II: NACIONALIDAD Y EXTRANJERIA: ARTICULO 8. La nacionalidad panameña se adquiere por el nacimiento, por la naturalización o por disposición constitucional – ARTICULO 9: "Son Panameños por nacimientos: 1) Los nacidos en el territorio nacional | (translation) Panamanians by Birth: 1) Those born in the national territory"
  34. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Tanzania Citizenship Act, 1995". Refworld. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  35. s:Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago/Chapter 2
  36. Constitution of Tuvalu Part III Section 45. Citizenship by birth: (1) Subject to subsections (3) and (4), a person born in Tuvalu on or after the date on which this Constitution took effect is a citizen of Tuvalu by birth." Note: section 3 pertains to children of foreign diplomats and section 4 pertains to children of belligerents at times of war
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  40. Uruguay: Whether a person who obtained Uruguan citizenship because her father was a citizen of Uruguay, can bring a dependent child to Uruguay; the status of the child in Uruguay, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (9 September 2010): "With respect to natural citizens, Uruguay's Constitution states: '[a]ll men and women born at any place within the territory of the Republic are natural citizens. Children of Uruguayan fathers or mothers are also natural citizens, wherever they may have been born, provided that they take up residence in the country and register themselves in the Civil Register.' (Uruguay 1996, Art. 74)"
  41. Constitution of Venezuela (English translation) Chapter II, Nationality and Citizenship, Section One: Nationality, Article 32: Are Venezuelans* by birth: (1) Any person who was born within the territory of the Republic.
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  54. "Article 1 A child of foreigner parents born in Greece acquires the right to Greek nationality under the following preconditions: a) He/she has enrolled in the first grade of elementary school and is still attending Greek school at the time the application-declaration of paragraph 2 is being lodged. b) One of their parents has been living legally and continuously for at least five (5) years in the country before the child was born. In case the child was born before this five year period had been completed, then the necessary period of legal and continuous residence of the parents is extended to ten (10) years." See, Law 4332 of 2015
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