Justanids

Last updated
Justanids

جستانیان
791–11th-century
Capital Rudbar
Common languages Persian
Deylami
Religion
Zoroastrianism (791–805)
Zaydi Islam (805–11th-century)
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
 791–805
Justan I (first)
 972–1004
Khusrau Shah (last)
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
791
  Ismaili conquest
11th-century
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tabaristan-EN.svg Daylamites
Nizari Ismaili state Blank.png

The Justanids or Jostanids (Persian : جستانیان) were the rulers of a part of Daylam (the mountainous district of Gilan [1] ) from 791 to the late 11th-century. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Daylam city

Daylam, also known in the plural form Daylaman, was the name of a mountainous region of inland Gilan, Iran. It was so named for its inhabitants, known as the Daylamites.

Contents

History

The Justanids appear as "Kings of Daylam" at the end of the 8th century. Their centre was in the Rudbar of Alamut, running into the valley of the Shahrood. Two centuries later, this had become the main centre of the historical Nizari Ismailis or Assassins (Hashshashin) as they are known in the west. They appear in Islamic history as part of what Vladimir Minorsky has called "the Iranian intermezzo". [3] This is where indigenous Daylamite and Kurdish principalities take power in north west Persia after two to three hundred years of Arab rule. The Daylamite upsurge eventually culminated into the Buyid dynasty.

Alamut region in Iran

The Alamut geographic region is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills, curvatures, forms, are significant themes in nature's composition of this area. Two big citadels of Ismailis, Lambsar and Alamut castles, are in this area. Hassan-i Sabbah and his Assassins controlled the area for many years.

In music, an intermezzo, in the most general sense, is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities, such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work. In music history, the term has had several different usages, which fit into two general categories: the opera intermezzo and the instrumental intermezzo.

After Marzuban ibn Justan converted to Islam in 805, the ancient family of Justan's became connected to the Zaydi Alids of the Daylam region. The Justanids adopted the Zaydi form of Shi'ism. In the 10th century, they became eclipsed by the Daylamite dynasty of Sallarids in Tarom (modern Iranian province of Zanjan). Nevertheless, the Justanids were tied into marriage with the Sallarids and preserved their seat Rudbar in the highlands of Daylam. They also became allies with the Buyids. In the 11th century, they might have recognized the Suzerainty of the Ghaznavids. With the influx of the Seljuqs, they recognized the Suzerainty of the Seljuqs. But shortly after, they fade away from history.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad.

Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam

Zaidiyyah or Zaidism is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to the Ibadhi and Mutazila schools. Zaidiyyah emerged in the eighth century out of Shi'a Islam. Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of their fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain. Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi and make up about 50% of Muslims in Yemen, with the vast majority of Shia Muslims in the country being Zaydi.

Zanjan Province Province in Region 3, Iran

Zanjan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Located in Iranian Azerbaijan with a largely Azerbaijani population. it is part of Iran's Regions 3. Its capital is Zanjan city. Zanjan province, with an area of 36,400 km², has a mostly rural population of 1,015,734 (2011). The province lies 330 km northwest of Tehran, connected to it by a freeway. Zanjan is the happiest province in Iran.

Justanid rulers

Khurshid was a Justanid king who ruled briefly over Daylam in 865. He was the son and successor of Vahsudan of Daylam. Right after his accession, because of his opposition against his Alid overlord, he was deposed by the Alid Hasan ibn Zayd, who then made Khurshid's brother Justan III the new ruler of the Justanid dynasty.

Justan III was the sixth king of the Justanid dynasty, ruling from 865 to 919. He was the brother and successor of Khurshid of Dailam.

Khusrau Firuz was a Justanid king who ruled briefly in 919. He was the brother and successor of Ali of Dailam. Before becoming the ruler of the Justanids, Khusrau Firuz aided his brother Ali in murdering their brother Justan III. Ali then crowned himself as the new ruler of the Justanids, but was shortly killed by the Sallarid ruler Muhammad bin Musafir, who was Justan's son-in-law. Khusrau Firuz then succeeded him as the ruler of the Justanids, but was also killed by Muhammad bin Musafir. Khusrau Firuz was then succeeded by his son Siyahchashm.

Family tree

 
 
 
 
Justan I
r. 791–805
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marzuban
r. 805–855
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Justan II
r. 855–856
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vahsudan
r. 856–865
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Justan III
r. 865-919
 
 
 
 
 
Khusrau Firuz
r. 919
 
Ali
r. 919
 
Khurshid
r. 865
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unknown
 
Kharasuya
 
Siyahchashm
r. 919–928
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unnamed prince
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Justan IV
r. 928–947
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manadhar
r. 947–972
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khusrau Shah
r. 972–1004
 
Fuladh
 
Unnamed princess
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ibn Fuladh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Related Research Articles

Buyid dynasty Iranian dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids, also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.

Tughril Protector of Genghis Khan

Tughril Beg also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063. Tughril united the Turkic warriors of the Great Eurasian Steppes into a confederacy of tribes, who traced their ancestry to a single ancestor named Seljuq, and led them in conquest of eastern Iran. He would later establish the Seljuq Sultanate after conquering Persia and retaking the Abbasid capital of Baghdad from the Buyid dynasty in 1055. Tughril relegated the Abbasid Caliphs to state figureheads and took command of the caliphate's armies in military offensives against the Byzantine Empire and the Fatimid Caliphate in an effort to expand his empire's borders and unite the Islamic world.

Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids. In the 9th–14th centuries, the northern Iranian regions of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan, sandwiched between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz range, came under the rule of a number of Alid dynasties, espousing the Zaydi branch of Shia Islam.

Mardavij Ziyarid ruler

Mardavij, was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935.

Sallarid dynasty

The Sallarid dynasty, was an Iranian Muslim dynasty ruled in Tarom, Samiran, Daylam, Gilan and subsequently Azerbaijan, Arran, some districts in Eastern Armenia in the 2nd half of the 10th century. They constitute the period in history that has been named the Iranian Intermezzo, a period that saw the rise of native Iranian dynasties during the 9th to the 11th centuries.

Muhammad bin Musafir was the Sallarid ruler of Tarum in modern northwest Iran and Iranian Azerbaijan (949). He was the son of Musafir, whose name appears to have been an Arabicized form of his Persian name Asfar/Asvar. Muhammad's original name seems to have been Sallar or Salar ; 'Sallar' would later become a title used by his successors.

Daylamites

The Daylamites or Dailamites were an Iranian people inhabiting the Daylam—the mountainous regions of northern Iran on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea, now comprising the southeastern half of Gilan Province. The Daylamites were employed as soldiers during the Sasanian Empire and in the subsequent Caliphates.

Hasan ibn Zayd

Al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd, also known as al-Da‘ī al-kabīr, was an Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan.

Hasan al-Utrush

Abu Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Ashraf ibn ‘Alī Zayn al-‘Ābidīn, better known as al-Ḥasan al-Uṭrūsh, was an Alid Shia missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid rule. He ruled Tabaristan until his death under the regnal name of al-Nāṣir li'l-Ḥaqq, and became known as al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr to distinguish him from his descendants who bore the same surname. He is still known and recognized as Imam among the Zaydis of Yemen.

Wahsudan ibn Muhammad was the Sallarid ruler of Daylam (941/2–967). He was the son of Muhammad bin Musafir, the ruler of Tarum.

Justan I ibn Marzuban was the Sallarid ruler of Azerbaijan (957–960). He was the son and successor of Marzuban ibn Muhammad.

Fuladh ibn Manadhar, was a Justanid prince, who served as a high-ranking military officer of the Buyid dynasty.

Khusrau Shah Justanid king

Khusrau Shah was the king of the Justanids from 972 to ca. 1004. He was the son and successor of Manadhar.

Siyahchashm, also known by his laqab of Mahdi, was ruler of the Justanids from 919 to 928. He was the son and successor of Khusrau Firuz.

Musafir ibn Ibrahim II was the last Sallarid ruler of Dailam (1050–1062). He was the son of Ibrahim II ibn Marzuban II, and brother of his predecessor Justan II ibn Ibrahim II. Not much is known about him. In 1062, the Seljuq ruler Tughril marched towards Musafir's capital Tarom, where he made Musafir acknowledge his authority and pay him 100,000 dinars in tribute. Shortly afterwards, the Ismailis seized Tarom and killed Musafir, putting an end to the Sallarid dynasty.

Ibrahim I ibn Marzuban I was the Sallarid ruler of Dvin (957–979) and later Azerbaijan. He was the son and successor of Marzuban ibn Muhammad.

Asfar ibn Shiruya was an Iranian military leader of Gilaki origin, active in northern Iran in the early 10th century. He played a major role in the succession disputes of the Alids of Tabaristan, and managed to establish himself as the ruler of Tabaristan and northern Jibal briefly from 928 to 930.

References

  1. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/jostanids
  2. Madelung 1975, p. 224.
  3. Minorsky, Vladimir (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. New York: Taylor’s Foreign Press.

Sources

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.