Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

Last updated

Justice and Development Party

Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi
AbbreviationAK PARTİ (official) [1]
AKP (unofficial) [2]
Leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
General Secretary Fatih Şahin
Parliamentary Leader Naci Bostancı
Spokesperson Ömer Çelik
Founder Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Founded14 August 2001;19 years ago (2001-08-14)
Split from Virtue Party
HeadquartersSöğütözü Caddesi No 6
Çankaya, Ankara
Youth wing AK Youth
Membership (2021)Decrease2.svg 10.984.312 [3]
Ideology Conservative democracy [4] [5] Historical:
Liberal conservatism [23] [24]
Conservative liberalism [25] [26] [27]
Economic liberalism [28] [29]
Pro-Europeanism
Political position Right-wing [30] [31] to far-right [32]
National affiliation People's Alliance
European affiliation Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (2013–2018)
Colours  Orange
  Blue
Grand
National Assembly
288 / 600
Metropolitan
municipalities
15 / 30
District
municipalities
742 / 1,351
Provincial
councillors
757 / 1,251
Municipal
Assemblies
10,173 / 20,498
Website
www.akparti.org.tr

The Justice and Development Party (Turkish : Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, AKP), abbreviated officially "AK Parti" in Turkish as an acronym, is a conservative populist political party in Turkey. As of 2021 the party is the largest in Turkey and has been in power almost continuously since 2003, with its leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, prime minister or president during most of this time, and still president as of 2021. The party suffered a setback in the 2019 local elections, losing Istanbul and Ankara and other large cities, in addition to losses attributed to the Turkish economic crisis, accusations of authoritarianism, as well as alleged government inaction on the Syrian refugee crisis. [33] [34]

Contents

Founded in 2001, the party has a strong base of support among orthodox Muslims and arose from the conservative tradition of Turkey's Ottoman past and its Islamic identity, [35] though the party strongly denies it is Islamist. [36] The party originally worked with the Islamic Gülen movement, [37] positioned itself as a pro-Western, pro-American, [38] pro-liberal market economy, supporting Turkish membership in the European Union. [39] (As of 2021, the US is threatening sanctions against the AKP government for its purchase of Russian missiles. [40] AKP broke with the Gülen movement after the 2013 corruption investigations of officials in the AKP, [41] [42] and the Gülen movement is now classified as a terrorist organization in Turkey.) [43]

The party has been credited by many with passing a series of reforms from 2002 to 2011 that increased accessibility to healthcare and housing, distributed food subsidies, increased funding for students, improved infrastructure in poorer districts, privatized state-owned businesses, increased civilian oversight of the powerful military, overcame economic crises and oversaw high rates of growth of GDP and per capita income. [44]

The AKP government has also lifted bans on religious and conservative dress (e.g. hijab) in universities and public institutions, helped Islamic schools, brought about tighter regulations on abortion and higher taxes on alcohol consumption. This has brought allegations that it is covertly undermining Turkish constitutional secular principles (the Turkish constitution forbids sharia in the legal code or religious political parties, and courts have banned several parties for violating secular principles) and led to two unsuccessful court cases attempting to close the party in 2002 and 2008. [45]

More recently, in 2013, nationwide protests broke out against the alleged authoritarianism of the AKP government, the party's EU accession negotiations have stalled, [46] the AKP government has been accused of crony capitalism, [47] and criticized its plans to centralized power in the Turkish state, [48] and restrictions on civil liberties such as temporarily blocking access to Twitter and YouTube in March 2014. [49]

As of 2021, the Justice and Development Party is the fifth largest political party in the world by membership and is the largest political party outside of China, India, or the United States.

History

Founded in 2001, by members of a number of existing conservative Islamic parties, the original and current party leader is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the incumbent President of Turkey.

Formation

The AKP was established by a wide range of politicians of various political parties and a number of new politicians in 2001. The core of the party was formed from the reformist faction of the Islamist Virtue Party, including people such as Abdullah Gül and Bülent Arınç, while a second founding group consisted of members of the social conservative Motherland Party who had been close to Turgut Özal, such as Cemil Çiçek and Abdülkadir Aksu. Some members of the True Path Party, such as Hüseyin Çelik and Köksal Toptan, joined the AKP. Some members, such as Kürşad Tüzmen had nationalist or Ertuğrul Günay, had center-left backgrounds while representatives of the nascent 'Muslim left' current were largely excluded. [50] In addition. a large number of people joined a political party for the first time, such as Ali Babacan, Selma Aliye Kavaf, Egemen Bağış and Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu.

Closure cases

Controversies over whether the party remains committed to secular principles enshrined in the Turkish constitution have dominated Turkish politics since 2002. Turkey's constitution established the country as a secular state and prohibits any political parties that promote Islamism or shariah law.

Since coming to power, the party has brought about tighter regulations on abortion and higher taxes on alcohol consumption, leading to allegations that it is covertly undermining Turkish secularism. Some activists, commentators, opponents and government officials have accused the party of Islamism. The Justice and Development Party has faced two "closure cases" (attempts to officially ban the party, usually for Islamist practices) in 2002 and 2008.

Just 10 days before the national elections of 2002, Turkey's chief prosecutor, Sabih Kanadoğlu, asked the Turkish constitutional court to close the Justice and Development Party, which was leading in the polls at that time. The chief prosecutor charged the Justice and Development Party with abusing the law and justice. He based his case on the fact that the party's leader had been banned from political life for reading an Islamist poem, and thus the party had no standing in elections. The European Commission had previously criticized Turkey for banning the party's leader from participating in elections. [51]

The Republic Protests took place in 2007 in support of the Kemalist reforms, particularly state secularism and democracy, against the perceived Islamization of Turkey under the ruling Justice and Development Party. Protect Your Republic Protest - 1 (2007-04-14).jpg
The Republic Protests took place in 2007 in support of the Kemalist reforms, particularly state secularism and democracy, against the perceived Islamization of Turkey under the ruling Justice and Development Party.

The party again faced a closure trial in 2008 brought about by the lifting of a long-standing university ban on headscarves. [45] At an international press conference in Spain, Erdoğan answered a question of a journalist by saying, "What if the headscarf is a symbol? Even if it were a political symbol, does that give [one the] right to ban it? Could you bring prohibitions to symbols?" These statements led to a joint proposal of the Justice and Development Party and the far-right Nationalist Movement Party for changing the constitution and the law to lift a ban on women wearing headscarves at state universities. Soon afterwards, Turkey's chief prosecutor, Abdurrahman Yalçınkaya, asked the Constitutional Court of Turkey to close down the party on charges of violating the separation of religion and state in Turkey. [52] The closure request failed by only one vote, as only 6 of the 11 judges ruled in favor, with 7 required; however, 10 out of 11 judges agreed that the Justice and Development Party had become "a center for anti-secular activities", leading to a loss of 50% of the state funding for the party. [53]

Merger with People's Voice Party

In September 2012, two-year-old conservative-oriented People's Voice Party (HAS Parti) dissolved itself and joined the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) with a majority of its delegates' votes. [54] In July 2012, following long-held speculation that former HSP leader Numan Kurtulmuş was on Prime Minister Erdoğan's mind as his possible successor as party head, Erdoğan personally proposed to Kurtulmuş the idea of merging the parties under the umbrella of the AKP.

Elections

The party has won pluralities in the six most recent legislative elections, those of 2002, 2007, 2011, June 2015, November 2015, and 2018. The party held a majority of seats for 13 years, but lost it in June 2015, only to regain it in the snap election of November 2015 but then lose it again in 2018. Its past electoral success has been mirrored in the three local elections held since the party's establishment, coming first in 2004, 2009 and 2014 respectively. However, the party lost most of Turkey's biggest cities including Istanbul and Ankara in 2019 local elections, which has been attributed to the Turkish economic crisis, accusations of authoritarianism, as well as alleged government inaction on the Syrian refugee crisis. [33] [34]

2002 general elections

The AKP won a sweeping victory in the 2002 elections, which saw every party previously represented in the Grand National Assembly ejected from the chamber. In the process, it won a two-thirds majority of seats, becoming the first Turkish party in 11 years to win an outright majority. Erdoğan, as the leader of the biggest party in parliament, would have been normally given the task to form a cabinet. However, according to the Turkish Constitution Article 109 the Prime Ministers had to be also a representative of the Turkish Parliament. Erdoğan, who was banned from holding any political office after a 1994 incident in which he read a poem deemed pro-Islamist by judges, was therefore not. As a result, Gül became prime minister. It survived the crisis over the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite a massive back bench rebellion where over a hundred AKP MPs joined those of the opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) in parliament to prevent the government from allowing the United States to launch a Northern offensive in Iraq from Turkish territory. Later, Erdoğan's ban was lifted with the help of the CHP and Erdoğan became prime minister by being elected to the parliament after a by-election in Siirt.

Party leader Erdogan on a poster thanking the people for the election results AK Party poster after the parliamentary elections in 2007.jpg
Party leader Erdoğan on a poster thanking the people for the election results

The AKP has undertaken structural reforms, and during its rule Turkey has seen rapid growth and an end to its three decade long period of high inflation rates. Inflation had fallen to 8.8% by 2004.

Influential business publications such as The Economist consider the AKP's government the most successful in Turkey in decades. [55]

2004 local elections

In the local elections of 2004, the AKP won 42% of the votes, making inroads against the secular Republican People's Party (CHP) on the South and West Coasts, and against the Social Democratic People's Party, which is supported by some Kurds in the South-East of Turkey.

In January 2005, the AKP was admitted as an observer member in the European People's Party (EPP). However, it left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (AECR) in 2013.

2007 elections

Voter base by monthly household income. AKP is the largest party in group 1, 2, 3 and 4, while CHP is the largest in group 5, the richest 20% of Turkey. Secmenin gelir duzeyine gore oy dagilimi.PNG
Voter base by monthly household income. AKP is the largest party in group 1, 2, 3 and 4, while CHP is the largest in group 5, the richest 20% of Turkey.

On 14 April 2007, an estimated 300,000 people marched in Ankara to protest the possible candidacy of Erdoğan in the 2007 presidential election, afraid that if elected as president, he would alter the secular nature of the Turkish state. [56] Erdoğan announced on 24 April 2007 that the party had decided to nominate Abdullah Gül as the AKP candidate in the presidential election. [57] The protests continued over the next several weeks, with over one million reported at an 29 April rally in Istanbul, [58] [59] tens of thousands reported at separate protests on 4 May in Manisa and Çanakkale, [60] and one million in İzmir on 13 May. [61]

Early parliamentary elections were called after the failure of the parties in parliament to agree on the next Turkish president. The opposition parties boycotted the parliamentary vote and deadlocked the election process. At the same time, Erdoğan claimed the failure to elect a president was a failure of the Turkish political system and proposed to modify the constitution.

The AKP achieved a significant victory in the rescheduled 22 July 2007 elections with 46.6% of the vote, translating into control of 341 of the 550 available parliamentary seats. Although the AKP received significantly more votes in 2007 than in 2002, the number of parliamentary seats they controlled decreased due to the rules of the Turkish electoral system. However, they retained a comfortable ruling majority. [39]

Nationally, the elections of 2007 saw a major advance for the AKP, with the party outpolling the pro-Kurdish Democratic Society Party in traditional Kurdish strongholds such as Van and Mardin, as well as outpolling the secular-left CHP in traditionally secular areas such as Antalya and Artvin. Overall, the AKP secured a plurality of votes in 68 of Turkey's 81 provinces, with its strongest vote of 71% coming from Bingöl. Its weakest vote, a mere 12%, came from Tunceli, the only Turkish province where the Alevi form a majority. [62] Abdullah Gül was elected as the President in late August with 339 votes in the third round – the first at which a simple majority is required – after deadlock in the first two rounds, in which a two-thirds majority was needed.

2007 constitutional referendum

A rally of the Justice and Development Party in 2007 Ak parti miting.jpg
A rally of the Justice and Development Party in 2007

After the opposition parties deadlocked the 2007 presidential election by boycotting the parliament, the ruling AKP proposed a constitutional reform package. The reform package was first vetoed by President Sezer. Then he applied to the Turkish constitutional court about the reform package, because the president is unable to veto amendments for the second time. The court did not find any problems in the package and 69% of the voters supported the constitutional changes.

The reforms consisted of:

  • electing the president by popular vote instead of by parliament;
  • reducing the presidential term from seven years to five;
  • allowing the president to stand for re-election for a second term;
  • holding general elections every four years instead of five;
  • reducing the quorum of lawmakers needed for parliamentary decisions from 367 to 184.

2009 local elections

The Turkish local elections of 2009 took place during the financial crisis of 2007–2010. After the success of the AKP in the 2007 general elections, the party saw a decline in the local elections of 2009. In these elections the AKP received 39% of the vote, 3% less than in the local elections of 2004. Still, the AKP remained the dominating party in Turkey. The second party CHP received 23% of the vote and the third party MHP received 16% of the vote. The AKP won in Turkey's largest cities: Ankara and Istanbul. [63]

2010 constitutional referendum

Reforming the Constitution was one of the main pledges of the AKP during the 2007 election campaign. The main opposition party CHP was not interested in altering the Constitution on a big scale, making it impossible to form a Constitutional Commission (Anayasa Uzlaşma Komisyonu). [64] The amendments lacked the two-thirds majority needed to instantly become law, but secured 336 votes in the 550 seat parliament – enough to put the proposals to a referendum. The reform package included a number of issues: such as the right of individuals to appeal to the highest court, the creation of the ombudsman's office, the possibility to negotiate a nationwide labour contract, positive exceptions for female citizens, the ability of civilian courts to convict members of the military, the right of civil servants to go on strike, a privacy law, and the structure of the Constitutional Court. The referendum was agreed by a majority of 58%.

2014 elections

In the presidential election of 2014, the AKP's long time leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was elected president. In the party's first extraordinary congress, former foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu was unanimously elected unopposed as party leader and took over as Prime Minister on 28 August 2014. Davutoğlu stepped down as Prime Minister on 4 May 2016 following policy disagreements with President Erdoğan. Presidential aide Cemil Ertem said to Turkish TV that the country and its economy would stabilize further "when a prime minister more closely aligned with President Erdoğan takes office". [65]

2015 general election

In the general election held on 7 June, the AKP gained 40.87% of the vote and 258 seats in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi, TBMM). Though it still remains the biggest party in Turkey, the AKP lost its status as the majority party and the power to form a single-party government. Until then it had held this majority without interruption for 13 years since it had come to power in 2002. Also, in this election, the AKP was pushing to gain 330 seats in the Grand National Assembly so that it could put a series of constitutional changes to a referendum, one of them was to switch Turkey from the current parliamentary government to an American-style executive presidency government. This pursuit met with a series of oppositions and criticism from the opposition parties and their supporters, fearing the measure would give more unchecked power to the current President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has drawn fierce criticisms both from home and abroad for his active role in the election, abandoning the traditional presidential role of maintaining a more neutral and impartial position in elections by his predecessors in the office. The result of the Kurdish issues-centered Peoples' Democratic Party, HDP, breaking through the 10% threshold to achieve 13.12% out of the total votes cast and gaining 80 seats in the Grand National Assembly in the election, which caused the AKP to lose its parliamentary majority.

2019 local elections

In the 2019 local elections, the ruling party AKP lost control of Istanbul and Ankara for the first time in 15 years, as well as 5 of Turkey's 6 largest cities. The loss has been widely attributed to AKP's mismanagement of the Turkish economic crisis, rising authoritarianism as well as alleged government inaction on the Syrian refugee crisis. [33] [34] Soon after the elections, the Turkish government ordered a re-election in Istanbul. The decision led to a downfall on AKP's popularity and it lost the elections again in June with an even greater margin. [66] [67] [68] [69] The result was seen as a huge blow to Erdoğan, who had once said that if his party 'lost Istanbul, we would lose Turkey.' [70] The opposition's landslide was characterized as the 'beginning of the end' for Erdoğan, [71] [72] [73] with international commentators calling the re-run a huge government miscalculation that can lead to a potential İmamoğlu candidacy in the next scheduled presidential election. [71] [73] It is suspected that the scale of the government's defeat could provoke a cabinet reshuffle and early general elections, currently scheduled for June 2023. [74] [75]

The AKP throughout 2020 and 2021 lost almost all support from Kurds, largely due to Erdogan's policy on the PKK and increasing Turkish nationalism, The AKP has attempted to regain support by implementing various centralized polices. [76]

Ideology and policies

Although the party is described as an Islamist party in some media, party officials reject those claims. [77] According to former minister Hüseyin Çelik, "In the Western press, when the AKP administration – the ruling party of the Turkish Republic – is being named, unfortunately most of the time 'Islamic,' 'Islamist,' 'mildly Islamist,' 'Islamic-oriented,' 'Islamic-based' or 'with an Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used. These characterizations do not reflect the truth, and they sadden us." Çelik added, "The AKP is a conservative democratic party. The AKP's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues." [78] Also in a separate speech made in 2005, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan stated, "We are not an Islamic party, and we also refuse labels such as Muslim-democrat." Erdoğan went on to say that the AKP's agenda is limited to "conservative democracy". [79]

On the other hand, according to at least one observer (Mustafa Akyol), under the AKP government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, starting in 2007, "hundreds of secularist officers and their civilian allies" were jailed, and by 2012 the "old secularist guard" in positions of authority was replaced by members/supporters of the AKP and the Islamic Gülen movement. [80] On 25 April 2016, the Turkish Parliament Speaker İsmail Kahraman told a conference of Islamic scholars and writers in Istanbul that "secularism would not have a place in a new constitution”, as Turkey is “a Muslim country and so we should have a religious constitution". (One of the duties of Parliament Speaker is to pen a new draft constitution for Turkey.) [81]

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan promotes the Islamization in Turkey, which allows women to choose to wear hijabs in public. Recep Tayyip Erdogan.jpg
President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan promotes the Islamization in Turkey, which allows women to choose to wear hijabs in public.

In recent years, the ideology of the party has shifted more towards Turkish nationalism, [82] [83] causing liberals such as Ali Babacan and some conservatives such as Ahmet Davutoğlu and Abdullah Gül to leave the party. [84]

The party's foreign policy has also been widely described as Neo-Ottomanist, [85] an ideology that promotes renewed Turkish political engagement in the former territories of its predecessor state, the Ottoman Empire. However, the party's leadership has also rejected this label. [86] The party's relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood has drawn allegations of Islamism. [36]

The AKP favors a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated for a presidential system of government and significantly reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013. [48]

The party was an observer in the center-right European People's Party between 2005 and 2013 and a member of the Eurosceptic Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (ACRE) from 2013 [87] to 2018. [88]

European affiliation

In 2005, the party was granted observer membership in the European People's Party (EPP).

In November 2013, the party left the EPP to join the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists (now European Conservatives and Reformists Party) instead. [89] This move was attributed to the AKP's disappointment to not to be granted full membership in the EPP, while it was admitted as a full member of the AECR. [90] It drew criticism in both national and European discourses, as the driving force of Turkey's aspirations to become a member of the European Union decided to join a largely eurosceptic alliance, abandoning the more influential pro-European EPP, feeding suspicions that AKP wants to join a watered down, not a closely integrated EU. [91] The AKP withdrew from AECR in 2018.

Legislation and positions

From 2002 to 2011 the party passed series of reforms to increase accessibility to healthcare and housing, distribute food subsidies, increased funding for students, improved infrastructure in poorer districts, and improved rights for religious and ethnic minorities. AKP is also widely accredited for overcoming the 2001 economic crisis in Turkey by following International Monetary Fund guidelines, as well as successfully weathering the 2008 financial crisis. From 2002 to 2011 the Turkish economy grew on average by 7.5 percent annually, thanks to lower inflation and interest rates. The government under AKP also backed extensive privatization programs. The average income in Turkey rose from $2,800 U.S. in 2001 to around $10,000 U.S. in 2011, higher than income in some of the new EU member states. Other reforms included increasing civilian representation over military in areas of national security, education and media, and grant broadcasting and increased cultural rights to Kurds. On Cyprus, AKP supported unification of Cyprus, something deeply opposed by the Turkish military. Other AKP reforms included lifting bans on religious and conservative dress, such as headscarves, in universities and public institutions. AKP also ended discrimination against students from religious high schools, who previously had to meet additional criteria in areas of education and upon entry to universities. AKP is also accredited for bringing the Turkish military under civilian rule, a paradigm shift for a country that had experienced constant military meddling for almost a century. [79]

More recently, nationwide protests broke out against the alleged authoritarianism of the AKP in 2013, with the party's perceived heavy-handed response receiving western condemnation and stalling the party's once championed EU accession negotiations. [46] In addition to its alleged attempts to promote Islamism, the party is accused by some of restricting some civil liberties and internet use in Turkey, having temporarily blocked access to Twitter and YouTube in March 2014. [49] Especially after the government corruption scandal involving several AKP ministers in 2013, the party has been increasingly accused of crony capitalism. [47] The AKP favors a strong centralized leadership, having long advocated for a presidential system of government and significantly reduced the number of elected local government positions in 2013. [92]

Criticism

Critics have accused the AKP of having a 'hidden agenda' despite their public endorsement of secularism and the party maintains informal relations and support for the Muslim Brotherhood. [36] Both the party's domestic and foreign policy has been perceived to be Pan-Islamist or Neo-Ottoman, advocating a revival of Ottoman culture often at the expense of secular republican principles, [93] while increasing regional presence in former Ottoman territories. [14] [94] [95]

The AKP has been criticized for supporting a wide-scale purge of thousands of academics after the failed coup attempt in 2016. Primary, lower secondary and secondary school students were forced to spend the first day of school after the failed coup d'état watching videos about the ‘triumph of democracy’ over the plotters, and listening to speeches equating the civilian counter-coup that aborted the takeover with historic Ottoman victories going back 1000 years. Campaigns have been organised to release higher education personnel and to drop charges against them for peaceful exercise of academic freedom. [96]

Imprisonment of political activists continues, while the chair of Amnesty Turkey has been jailed for standing up to the AKP on trumped up "terrorist charges". These charges have drawn condemnation from many western countries, including from the US State Department, the EU, as well as from international and domestic human rights organisations. [97]

Party leaders

No.PortraitLeader
(birth–death)
ConstituencyTook officeLeft officeTerm lengthLeadership elections
1
Erdogan Canakkale (cropped).JPG
Erdoğan, Recep Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
(born 1954)
Siirt (2003)
İstanbul (I) (2007, 2011)
14 August 200127 August 201413 years, 13 days 2003 Ordinary Congress
2006 Ordinary Congress
2009 Ordinary Congress
2012 Ordinary Congress
2
Secretary Kerry Meets With Turkish Foreign Minister Davutoglu (2) (cropped).jpg
Davutoğlu, Ahmet Ahmet Davutoğlu
(born 1959)
Konya 27 August 201422 May 20161 year, 269 days 2014 Extraordinary Congress
2015 Ordinary Congress
3
Binali Yildirim.jpg
Yıldırım, Binali Binali Yıldırım
(born 1955)
İstanbul (I) (2002)
Erzincan (2007)
İzmir (II) (2011)
İzmir (I) (Nov 2015)
22 May 201621 May 2017364 days 2016 Extraordinary Congress
(1)
Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2019 (cropped).jpg
Erdoğan, Recep Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
(born 1954)
Incumbent President21 May 2017Incumbent4 years, 23 days 2017 Extraordinary Congress
2018 Ordinary Congress

Election results

Presidential elections

Presidential election record of the Justice and Development Party (AKP)
ElectionCandidateFirst roundSecond roundOutcomeMap
Votes %Votes %
10 August 2014 Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2017 (cropped).jpg
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
21,000,14351.79%N/AN/AErdoğan elected Turkish presidential election, 2014.png
24 June 2018 Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2017 (cropped).jpg
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
26,324,48252.59%N/AN/AErdoğan elected Turkish presidential election 2018.png

General elections

General election record of the Justice and Development Party (AKP)
     0–10%       10–20%       20–30%       30–40%       40–50%       50–60%       60–70%       70–80%
ElectionLeaderVoteSeatsResultOutcomeMap
3 November 2002 Erdogan Canakkale (cropped).JPG
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Turkish general election, 2002 pie chart.png
10,808,229
Parliament of Turkey 2002.svg
363 / 550 (Increase2.svg 363)
34.28%
Increase2.svg 34.28  pp
#1st
AKP majority
AKP 2002 performance.png
22 July 2007 Turkish general election, 2007 pie chart.png
16,327,291
Parliament of Turkey 2007.svg
341 / 550 (Decrease2.svg 22)
46.58%
Increase2.svg 12.30  pp
#1st
AKP majority
AKP 2007 performance.png
12 June 2011 Turkish general election, 2011 pie chart.png
21,399,082
Parliament of Turkey 2011.svg
327 / 550 (Decrease2.svg 14)
49.83%
Increase2.svg 3.25  pp
#1st
AKP majority
AKP 2011 performance.png
7 June 2015 Secretary Kerry Meets With Turkish Foreign Minister Davutoglu (2) (cropped).jpg
Ahmet Davutoğlu
Turkish general election, June 2015 pie chart.png
18,867,411
Parliament of Turkey June 2015.svg
258 / 550 (Decrease2.svg 69)
40.87%
Decrease2.svg 8.96  pp
#1st
Hung parliament
Turkish general election AKP votes by province.png
1 November 2015 Turkish general election, November 2015 pie chart.png
23,681,926
Parliament of Turkey November 2015.svg
317 / 550 (Increase2.svg 59)
49.50%
Increase2.svg 8.63 pp
#1st
AKP majority
Turkish general election, November 2015 (AKP).png
24 June 2018 Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2017 (cropped).jpg
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
2018SecimPastaGrafik.png
21,333,172
Parliament of Turkey 2018.svg
295 / 600 (Decrease2.svg 21)
42.56%
Decrease2.svg 6.94 pp
#1st
AKP-MHP Majority
Akp2018.png

Local elections

Local election record of the Justice and Development Party (AKP)
ElectionMetropolitanDistrictMunicipalProvincialMap
VoteMayorsVoteMayorsVoteCouncillorsVoteCouncillors
28 March 2004 46.07%
4,822,636
12 / 16
40.19%
9,674,306
1,750 / 3,193
40.33%
9,635,145
16,637 / 34,477
41.67%
13,447,287
2,276 / 3,208
Turkish local elections, 2004.png
29 March 2009 42.19%
7,672,280
10 / 16
38.64%
12,449,187
1,442 / 2,903
38.16%
12,237,325
14,732 / 32,393
38.39%
15,353,553
1,889 / 3,281
Turkish local elections, 2009.png
30 March 2014 45.54%
15,898,025
18 / 30
43.13%
17,952,504
800 / 1,351
42.87%
17,802,976
10,530 / 20,500
45.43%
4,622,484
779 / 1,251
Turkish local elections, 2014.png
31 March 2019 44.29%
16,000,992
15 / 30
42.55%
18,368,421
762 / 1,351
42.56%
18,299,576
10,175 / 20,500
41.61%
4,371,692
757 / 1,251
2019 Turkish local election map.png

Referendums

Election dateParty leaderYes votePercentageNo votePercentageAKP's support
21 October 2007 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 19,422,71468.958,744,94731.05Yes
12 September 2010 Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 21,789,18057.8815,854,11342.12Yes
16 April 2017 Binali Yıldırım 25,157,02551.4123,777,09148.59Yes

Footnotes

Literature

See also

Related Research Articles

Politics of Turkey Political system of Turkey

The politics of Turkey take place in the framework of a presidential republic as defined by the Constitution of Turkey. The President of Turkey is both the head of state and head of government.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan 12th president of Turkey

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician serving as the current President of Turkey. He previously served as Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014 and as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001, leading it to election victories in 2002, 2007, and 2011 before being required to stand down upon his election as President in 2014. He later returned to the AKP leadership in 2017 following the constitutional referendum that year. Coming from an Islamist political background and self-describing as a conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and populist policies during his administration.

Abdullah Gül 11th president of Turkey

Abdullah Gül is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014. He previously served for four months as Prime Minister from 2002 to 2003, and concurrently served as both Deputy Prime Minister and as Foreign Minister between 2003 and 2007. He is currently a member of the Advisory Panel for the President of the Islamic Development Bank.

Deniz Baykal Turkish politician

Deniz Baykal is a Turkish politician at the Republican People's Party who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1995 to 1996. Having served in numerous government positions, Baykal led the CHP from 1992 to February 1995, from September 1995 to 1999 and again from 2000 to 2010. Between 2002 and 2010, he also served as the Leader of the Opposition by virtue of leading the second largest party in Parliament.

Nationalist Movement Party

The Nationalist Movement Party is a Turkish far-right political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism. The group is often described as neo-fascist, and has been linked to some violent militias and paramilitaries.

2007 Turkish general election

The Turkish general election of 2007 was held on July 22, 2007 to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. The election was the 22nd general election to be held in the history of the Turkish Republic and the members elected formed the 23rd Parliament of Turkey.

2007 Turkish presidential election

The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the country's 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. The most likely candidate for president was Abdullah Gül. Turkey's presidential office is regarded as the guardian of the country's secular system; the fact that Gül's wife wears the Islamic headscarf, as well as his own history in political Islam, turned the elections into a political crisis.

Secularism in Turkey Separation of religion and state in Turkey

Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey. Secularism was first introduced with the 1928 amendment of the Constitution of 1924, which removed the provision declaring that the "Religion of the State is Islam", and with the later reforms of Turkey's first president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, which set the administrative and political requirements to create a modern, democratic, secular state, aligned with Kemalism.

Republic Protests

The Republic Protests were a series of peaceful mass rallies that took place in Turkey in 2007 in support of a strict principle of state secularism.

2011 Turkish general election

Turkey's 17th general election was held on 12 June 2011 to elect 550 new members of Grand National Assembly. In accordance to the result of the constitutional referendum held in 2007, the election was held four years after the previous one instead of five.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the 25th Prime Minister and 12th President of Turkey, was born on February 26, 1954 in Istanbul, Turkey.

The “Turkish model” refers to the focus on Republic of Turkey as "an example of a modern, moderate Muslim state that works." Turkey has been seen as combining a secular state and constitution, with a government run by a political party or political parties with "roots in political Islam". The AKP, led by Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, has ruled Turkey with a large majority in parliament since 2002. During this time Turkey has had good relations with the West, but also cordial ties with the Islamic Republic of Iran and a more pro-Palestinian policy. It has had vigorously contested, "substantially free and fair" elections, a vibrant culture, and has undergone an economic boom, developing a "large and growing middle class." However, as of summer 2013 and the crushing of the Taksim Gezi Park protests, some commentators complained that the model has come "unstuck".

June 2015 Turkish general election

The Turkish general election of June 2015 took place on 7 June 2015 in all 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. This was the 24th general election in the history of the Turkish Republic, electing the country's 25th Parliament. The result was the first hung parliament since the 1999 general election. Unsuccessful attempts to form a coalition government resulted in a snap general election being called for November 2015.

Conservative democracy is a label coined by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) of Turkey to describe Islamic democracy. Forming as a modernist breakaway party from former Islamist movements, the AKP's conservative democratic ideology has been described as a departure from or moderation of Islamic democracy and the endorsement of more secular and democratic values. The electoral success and the Neo-Ottoman foreign policy of the AKP that aims to broaden Turkey's regional influence has led to the party's conservative democratic ideals to be mirrored in other countries, such as by the Justice and Development Party in Morocco and the Ennahda Movement in Tunisia.

November 2015 Turkish general election

The Turkish general election of November 2015 was held on 1 November 2015 throughout the 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. It was the 25th general election in the History of the Republic of Turkey and elected the country's 26th Parliament. The election resulted in the Justice and Development Party (AKP) regaining a Parliamentary majority following a 'shock' victory, having lost it five months earlier in the June 2015 general election.

Dengir Mir Mehmet Fırat

Dengir Mir Mehmet Fırat was a Kurdish politician who was one of the founders of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in 2001. He served as a Member of Parliament for the Grand National Assembly from 1999 to 2011 and again from 2015 to 2018 as a member of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP).

İsmail Kahraman 27th Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey

İsmail Kahraman is a Turkish politician from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who served as the 27th Speaker of the Grand National Assembly from 22 November 2015 to 7 July 2018. He has been the Member of Parliament for İstanbul's first electoral district since 1 November 2015, having previously served as an MP for İstanbul between 1995 and 2002. He also served as Minister of Culture from 1996 to 1997 in the government of Necmettin Erbakan as a member of the Islamist Welfare Party.

Erdoğanism refers to the political ideals and agenda of Turkish President and former Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who became Prime Minister in 2003 and served until his election to the Presidency in 2014. With support significantly derived from charismatic authority, Erdoğanism has been described as the "strongest phenomenon in Turkey since Kemalism" and used to enjoy broad support throughout the country until the 2018 Turkish economic crisis which caused a significant decline in Erdoğan's popularity. Its ideological roots originate from Turkish conservatism and its most predominant political adherent is the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP), a party that Erdoğan himself founded in 2001.

The People's Alliance is an electoral alliance in Turkey, established in February 2018 between the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the opposition Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). The alliance was formed to contest the 2018 general election, and brings together the political parties supporting the re-election of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Its main rival is the Nation Alliance, which was originally created by four opposition parties in 2018 and was re-established in 2019.

2018 Turkish parliamentary election

The 2018 Turkish parliamentary election took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 Turkish general election, with a presidential election taking place on the same day. Originally scheduled for 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called a snap election on 18 April after months of speculation. With the passage of a series of constitutional amendments in the 2017 referendum, the number of MPs will be increased from the previous 550 to 600. These representatives will be elected by the constituents of the 87 electoral districts of Turkey by party-list proportional representation.

References

  1. "AK PARTİ" (in Turkish). yargitaycb.gov.tr. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  2. Hüseyin Şengül. "AKP mi, AK Parti mi?" (in Turkish). bianet.org. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  3. "Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi" (in Turkish). Yargıtay Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  4. "The AK Party's Islamic Realist Political Vision: Theory and Practice". June 2014.
  5. Çağliyan‐i̇Çener, Zeyneb (December 2009). "The Justice and Development Party's Conception of "Conservative Democracy": Invention or Reinterpretation?". Turkish Studies. 10 (4): 595–612. doi:10.1080/14683840903384851. hdl: 11693/22548 .
  6. "Erdogan faces serious setbacks in Turkish local elections". April 2019.
  7. "AKP yet to win over wary business elite". Financial Times . 8 July 2007.
  8. Cagaptay, Soner (2014). The Rise of Turkey. Potomac Books. p. 117.
  9. Yavuz, M. Hakan (2009). Secularism and Muslim Democracy in Turkey . Cambridge University Press. p.  105.
  10. "Erdoğan's Triumph". Financial Times . 24 July 2007. The AKP is now a national conservative party — albeit rebalancing power away from the westernised urban elite and towards Turkey's traditional heartland of Anatolia — as well as the Muslim equivalent of Europe's Christian Democrats.[ permanent dead link ]
  11. Abbas, Tahir (2016). Contemporary Turkey in Conflict. Edinburgh University Press.
  12. Bayat, Asef (2013). Post-Islamism. Oxford University Press. p. 11.
  13. Gunes, Cengiz; Zeydanlioglu, Welat, eds. (2013). The Kurdish Question in Turkey. Routledge. p. 270.
    Konak, Nahide (2015). Waves of Social Movement Mobilizations in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges to the Neo-Liberal World Order and Democracy. Lexington Books. p. 64.
    Jones, Jeremy (2007). Negotiating Change: The New Politics of the Middle East . I.B. Tauris. p.  219.
  14. 1 2 Osman Rifat Ibrahim. "AKP and the great neo-Ottoman travesty". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  15. Yavuz, M. Hakan (1998). "Turkish identity and foreign policy in flux: The rise of Neo‐Ottomanism". Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. 7 (12): 19–41. doi:10.1080/10669929808720119.
  16. Kardaş, Şaban (2010). "Turkey: Redrawing the Middle East Map or Building Sandcastles?". Middle East Policy. 17: 115–136. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4967.2010.00430.x.
  17. Borger, Julian (26 October 2020). "Republicans closely resemble autocratic parties in Hungary and Turkey – study". The Guardian . Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  18. "Erdogan: The World's Newest Strongman". Bloomberg News . 25 June 2018.
  19. "Trump tariffs, sanctions offer Erdogan excuse for Turkey's economic woes". NBC News . 23 September 2018.
  20. Yilmaz, Ihsan; Bashirov, Galib (July 2017). "The AKP after 15 years: emergence of Erdoganism in Turkey". Third World Quarterly. 39 (9): 1812–1830. doi: 10.1080/01436597.2018.1447371 .
  21. Baris Gulmez, Seckin (February 2013). "Rising euroscepticism in Turkish politics: The cases of the AKP and the CHP". Acta Politica. 48 (3): 326–344. doi:10.1057/ap.2013.2.
  22. "Rethinking Euroscepticism in Turkey: Government, Opposition and Public Opinion". April 2020.
  23. Kastoryano, Riva (2013). Turkey between Nationalism and Globalization. Routledge. p. 97.
  24. Cizre, Umit (2008). Secular and Islamic Politics in Turkey . Routledge. p.  50.
  25. Picq, Manuela (2015). Sexualities in World Politics. Routledge. p. 126.
  26. Bugra, Ayse (2014). New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 49.
  27. Yesilada, Birol (2013). Islamization of Turkey under the AKP Rule. Routledge. p. 63.
  28. Guerin, Selen Sarisoy (2011). On the Road to EU Membership: The Economic Transformation of Turkey. Brussels University Press. p. 63.
  29. Bugra, Ayse (2014). New Capitalism in Turkey: The Relationship between Politics, Religion and Business. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 60.
  30. Soner Cagaptay (17 October 2015). "Turkey's divisions are so deep they threaten its future". Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
  31. Erisen, Cengiz (2016). Political Psychology of Turkish Political Behavior. Routledge. p. 102.
  32. Çınar, Alev (2011). "The Justice and Development Party: Turkey's Experience with Islam, Democracy, Liberalism, and Secularism". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 43 (3): 529–541. doi:10.1017/S0020743811000651. hdl: 11693/38147 . ISSN   0020-7438. JSTOR   23017316.
  33. 1 2 3 Isil Sariyuce and Ivana Kottasová. "Istanbul election rerun won by opposition, in blow to Erdogan". CNN. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  34. 1 2 3 Gall, Carlotta (23 June 2019). "Turkey's President Suffers Stinging Defeat in Istanbul Election Redo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  35. GlobalSecurity.org – Reliable Security Information. "Justice and Development Party (AKP) Adalet ve Kalkinma Parti (AKP)". GlobalSecurity.org – Reliable Security Information. Retrieved 13 December 2017. Others suggest that that around 60 percent of AKP's supporters were traditional (non-Islamist) conservatives, around 15 percent were Islamist-oriented voters, with the rest mostly swing protest voters upset with corruption in the other parties.
  36. 1 2 3 "Turkey: AKP's Hidden Agenda or a Different Vision of Secularism?". Nouvelle Europe. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2015. "The "Hidden" That Never Was". Reflections Turkey. Retrieved 7 June 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
    "Support for Muslim Brotherhood isolates Turkey". Die Weld. Retrieved 7 June 2015.Ömer Taşpınar (1 April 2012). "Islamist Politics in Turkey: The New Model?". The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  37. "What you should know about Turkey's AKP-Gulen conflict". Al-Monitor. 3 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  38. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. 1 2 "New to Turkish politics? Here's a rough primer". Turkish Daily News . 22 July 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  40. Jakes, Lara (9 December 2020). "U.S. Takes Tougher Tone With Turkey as Trump Exits". New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  41. "Turkey: Erdogan faces new protests over corruption scandal". Digital Journal. 28 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  42. "İstanbul'da yolsuzluk ve rüşvet operasyonu". 17 December 2013.
  43. "Turkey officially designates Gulen religious group as terrorists". Reuters. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  44. "Turkey: The New Model?". 30 November 2001.
  45. 1 2 Robert Tait (30 July 2008). "Turkey's governing party avoids being shut down for anti-secularism". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  46. 1 2 "EU delays Turkey membership talks after German pressure". BBC News. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "Gezi Park protests: The AKP's battle with Turkish society". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  47. 1 2 "New Turkey and AKP-type capitalism". Today's Zaman. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "Mass Murder in Soma Mine: Crony Capitalism and Fetish of Growth in Turkey". politiikasta.fi. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  48. 1 2 Babacan, Nuray (30 January 2015). "Presidential system tops AKP's election campaign". Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  49. 1 2 Kevin Rawlinson (21 March 2014). "Turkey blocks use of Twitter after prime minister attacks social media site". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "Turkey moves to block YouTube access after 'audio leak'". BBC News. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "Turkey: What's Behind the AKP's New Anti-Abortion Agenda?". EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    Jenna Krajeski (14 February 2014). "The Last Chance To Stop Turkey's Harsh New Internet Law". The New Yorker. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "AKP Wages Jihad Against Alcohol in Turkey". Al-Monitor. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  50. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  51. "Turkey mulls banning leading party before elections". EurActiv. 23 October 2002. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
  52. Gungor, Izgi (22 July 2008). "From landmark success to closure: AKP's journey". Turkish Daily News . Retrieved 11 August 2008.[ permanent dead link ]
    "Closure case against ruling party creates shockwaves". Today's Zaman . 15 March 2008. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
    "Full text of testimony". Milliyet (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  53. Today's Zaman , 19 August 2013, AKP to ask for retrial by Constitutional Court Archived 20 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  54. "HSP dissolves itself as its leader plans to join the ruling party". Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  55. "The battle for Turkey's soul (Democracy v secularism in Turkey)". The Economist . 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  56. "Secular rally targets Turkish PM," BBC News, 14 April 2007.
  57. "Turkey's ruling party announces FM Gul as presidential candidate," Xinhua, 24 April 2007.
  58. "More than one million rally in Turkey for secularism, democracy". Agence France-Presse . Retrieved 29 April 2007.[ permanent dead link ]
  59. "One million Turks rally against government". Reuters . 29 April 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007.
  60. "Saylan: Manisa mitingi önemli". Milliyet (in Turkish). Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  61. "Turks protest ahead of early elections". Swissinfo . Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  62. "Turkey: 22 July 2007 – Election Results". BBC Turkish. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
  63. "Turkish local elections, 2009". International / Europe. NTV-MSNBC. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  64. "AKP'nin Anayasa hedefi 15 madde". NTVMSNBC. 17 February 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
  65. "Turkey PM Ahmet Davutoğlu to quit amid reports of Erdoğan rift". BBC News. BBC. 5 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  66. "Turkey's ruling party loses Istanbul election". 23 June 2019 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  67. Isil Sariyuce and Ivana Kottasová. "Istanbul election rerun set to be won by opposition, in blow to Erdogan". CNN.
  68. Gauthier-Villars, David. "In Setback for Erdogan, Opposition Candidate Wins Istanbul Mayor Seat". WSJ.
  69. "Son dakika… Financial Times'tan şok İstanbul seçimi yorumu". www.sozcu.com.tr.
  70. "Erdoğan: 'İstanbul'da teklersek, Türkiye'de tökezleriz'". Tele1. 2 April 2019.
  71. 1 2 Lowen, Mark (24 June 2019). "Can Erdogan bounce back from big Turkey defeat?" . Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  72. "The beginning of the end for Erdogan?". The National. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  73. 1 2 "Could Imamoglu victory in Istanbul be 'beginning of the end' for Erdogan?". euronews. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  74. Ellyatt, Holly (24 June 2019). "Turkey's Erdogan suffers election blow, sparking hope for change". CNBC.
  75. Gall, Carlotta (23 June 2019). "Turkey's President Suffers Stinging Defeat in Istanbul Election Redo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  76. Zaman, Amberin (15 March 2021). "Erdogan's Islamic credentials no longer a winning hand among Turkey's Kurds". Al-Monitor.
  77. "Justice and Development Party". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved 21 July 2014. Unlike its predecessors, the AKP did not centre its image around an Islamic identity; indeed, its leaders underscored that it was not an Islamist party and emphasized that its focus was democratization, not the politicization of religion.
  78. "AKP explains charter changes, slams foreign descriptions". Hürriyet Daily News. Istanbul. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2014. In the Western press, when the AKP administration, the ruling party of the Turkish Republic, is being named, unfortunately most of the time Islamic agenda,' and similar language is being used. These characterizations do not reflect the truth, and they sadden us," Çelik said. "Yes, the AKP is a conservative democratic party. The AKP's conservatism is limited to moral and social issues.
  79. 1 2 Taşpınar, Ömer (24 April 2012). Turkey: The New Model?. Brookings Institution (Report).
  80. Akyol, Mustafa (22 July 2016). "Who Was Behind the Coup Attempt in Turkey?". New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  81. "Secularism must be removed from constitution, Turkey's Parliament Speaker says". Milliyet. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  82. "Erdogan The Nationalist Vs Erdogan The Islamist". Hoover Institution . 13 December 2018.
  83. "Turkey's Hour of Nationalism: The Deeper Sources of Political Realignment". The American Interest . 18 June 2019.
  84. "Turkish Conservatives' Loyalty to Erdoğan and Views on Potential Successors". Center for American Progress . 5 December 2019.
  85. Taşpınar, Ömer (September 2008). "Turkey's Middle East Policies: Between Neo-Ottomanism and Kemalism". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
  86. "I am not a neo-Ottoman, Davutoğlu says". Today's Zaman. Turkey. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  87. "Erdoğan's AKP party joins Cameron's conservative political family". EURACTIV.com. 13 November 2013.
  88. "Conservative Eurosceptic alliance reaches out to far-right". Financial Times . 12 November 2018.
  89. "Erdoğan's AKP party joins Cameron's conservative political family". EurActiv. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  90. Lagendijk, Joost (12 November 2013). "AKP looking for new European friends". Today's Zaman . Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  91. Yinanç, Barçin (19 November 2013). "By abandoning conservatives AKP helps anti-Turkey bloc in EU". Hürriyet Daily News . Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  92. "Presidential system tops AKP's election campaign". Hurriet Daily News. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  93. Öztürk, Ahmet Erdi (1 October 2016). "Turkey's Diyanet under AKP rule: from protector to imposer of state ideology?" (PDF). Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 16 (4): 619–635. doi:10.1080/14683857.2016.1233663. ISSN   1468-3857. S2CID   151448076.
  94. "Düşünmek Taraf Olmaktır". taraf.com.tr. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  95. "AKP'li vekil: Osmanlı'nın 90 yıllık reklam arası sona erdi". Cumhuriyet Gazetesi. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
    "İslami Analiz".
  96. "Turkey's War Against the Academics". 30 June 2017.
  97. "Taner Kılıç released on bail".
  98. "AK PARTİ TÜZÜĞÜ" [AK PARTİ STATUTES](PDF) (in Turkish). Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  99. "Less than white?". The Economist . 18 September 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2008.
    "AK Parti mi, AKP mi? (AK Parti or AKP?)". Habertürk (in Turkish). 5 June 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  100. Ebru Toktar and Ersin Bal. "Laiklik anlayışlarımız farklı" Archived 12 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish). Akşam, 7 May 2008.