Kütahya

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Kütahya
Kutahya Clock Tower.jpg
Kütahya Clock Tower
Kutahya districts.png
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
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Kütahya
Location of Kütahya within Turkey.
Coordinates: 39°25′N29°59′E / 39.417°N 29.983°E / 39.417; 29.983 Coordinates: 39°25′N29°59′E / 39.417°N 29.983°E / 39.417; 29.983
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Region Aegean
Province Kütahya
Area
[1]
  District2,484.16 km2 (959.14 sq mi)
Elevation
970 m (3,180 ft)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
224,898
  District
248,054
  District density100/km2 (260/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+3 (FET)
Website www.kutahya.bel.tr

Kütahya (Turkish pronunciation:  [cyˈtahja] ) is a city in western Turkey with 237,804 inhabitants (2011 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 564,294 people (2011 estimate). The region of Kütahya has large areas of gentle slopes with agricultural land culminating in high mountain ridges to the north and west. The city's Greek name was Kotyaion[ pronunciation? ], Latinized in Roman times as Cotyaeum[ pronunciation? ]. [3] [4]

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Porsuk River river in Turkey

The Porsuk River also Kocasu-Porsuk River is a Turkish river, that flows for 448 km. The city of Eskişehir is sited on the banks of this river. The river is dammed by the Porsuk I dam and Porsuk II dam forming large reservoirs.

Kütahya Province Province of Turkey in Aegean

Kütahya Province is a province in the Aegean region of Turkey. It is 11,875 km2 in size, and the population is 571,554 (2014). In 1990, Kütahya had a population of 578,000.

Contents

History

Kütahya is remembered as Cotyaeum during classical times. It later became part of the Roman province of Phrygia Salutaris, [5] but in about 820 became the capital of the new province of Phrygia Salutaris III. Its bishopric thus changed from being a suffragan of Synnada to a metropolitan see, although with only three suffragan sees according to the Notitia Episcopatuum of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise (886-912), which is dated to around 901-902. [6] According to the 6th-century historian John Malalas, Cyrus of Panopolis, who had been prefect of the city of Constantinople, was sent there as bishop by Emperor Theodosius II (408-50), after four bishops of the city had been killed. Two other sources makes Cyrus bishop of Smyrna instead. The bishopric of Cotyaeum was headed in 431 by Domnius, who was at the Council of Ephesus, and in 451 by Marcianus, who was at the Council of Chalcedon. A source cited by Lequien says that a bishop of Cotyaeum named Eusebius was at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Cosmas was at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680–681. Ioannes, a deacon, represented an unnamed bishop of Cotyaeum at the Trullan Council in 692. Bishop Constantinus was at the Second Council of Nicaea in 692, and Bishop Anthimus at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879), [7] [8] [9] No longer a residential bishopric, Cotyaeum is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. [10]

Roman province Major Roman administrative territorial entity outside of Italy

The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and later the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman who was appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces.

Synnada in Phrygia

Synnada was an ancient town of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Its site is now occupied by the modern Turkish town of Şuhut, in Afyonkarahisar Province.

Leo VI the Wise Byzantine Emperor

Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher, was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912. The second ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, he was very well-read, leading to his epithet. During his reign, the renaissance of letters, begun by his predecessor Basil I, continued; but the Empire also saw several military defeats in the Balkans against Bulgaria and against the Arabs in Sicily and the Aegean. His reign also witnessed the formal discontinuation of several ancient Roman institutions, such as the Roman consul and Senate, which continued to exist in name only and lost much of their original functions and powers.

Under the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I the town was fortified with a double-line of walls and citadel. In 1071 Cotyaeum (or Kotyaion) fell to the Seljuk Turks and later switched hands, falling successively to the Crusaders, Germiyanids, Timur-Leng (Tamerlane), until finally being incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1428. [11] During this time a large number of Christian Armenians settled in Kotyaion/Kütahya, where they came to dominate the tile-making and ceramic ware production. [12] With this, Kütahya emerged as a renowned center for the Ottoman ceramic industry, producing tiles and faience for mosques, churches, and official buildings in places all over the Middle East. [13] It was initially center of Anatolia Eyalet till 1827, when Hüdavendigâr Eyalet was formed. It was later sanjak centre in Hüdavendigâr Vilayet in 1867. It was briefly occupied by troops of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in 1833.

Justinian I major Eastern Roman emperor who ruled from 527 to 565

Justinian I, traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire".

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Armenians ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland

Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.

The fortifications of the city and its environs, which were vital to the security and economic prosperity of the region, have been built and rebuilt from antiquity through the Ottoman Period. [14] However, the dates assigned to the many periods of construction and the assessment of the military architecture are open to various interpretations. [15]

At the end of the nineteenth century, Kütahya's population was counted at 120,333, of which 4,050 were Greeks, 2,533 Armenians, 754 Catholics, and the remainder Turks and other Muslims. [16] It is noteworthy that Kütahya and the district itself were spared the ravages of the Armenian Genocide of 1915, when the Turkish governor went to extreme lengths to protect the Armenian population from being uprooted and sent away on death marches. [16] Kütahya was occupied by Greek troops on 17 July 1921 after Battle of Kütahya–Eskişehir during Turkish War of Independence and captured in ruins[ citation needed ] after the Battle of Dumlupınar during the Great Offensive on 30 August 1922. [17] [18]

The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.

Armenian Genocide systematic killing of Armenians residing in the Ottoman Empire

The Armenian Genocide, also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople to the region of Angora (Ankara), 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre. Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.

Greece republic in Southeast Europe

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Economy

History tourism is an important economic of the city. Asarkaya.JPG
History tourism is an important economic of the city.

The industries of Kütahya have long traditions, going back to ancient times. Kütahya is famous for its kiln products, such as tiles and pottery, which are glazed and multicoloured. [19] Modern industries are sugar refining, tanning, nitrate processing and different products of meerschaum, which is extracted nearby. The local agricultural industry produces cereals, fruits and sugar beet. In addition stock raising is of much importance. Not far from Kütahya there are important mines extracting lignite.

Kiln oven that generates high temperatures

A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes. Kilns have been used for millennia to turn objects made from clay into pottery, tiles and bricks. Various industries use rotary kilns for pyroprocessing—to calcinate ores, to calcinate limestone to lime for cement, and to transform many other materials.

Pottery Craft of making objects from clay

Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products." In archaeology, especially of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" often means vessels only, and figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious.

Sugar generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose, fructose, and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into fructose and glucose.

Kütahya is linked by rail and road with Balıkesir 250 km (155 mi) to the west, Konya 450 km (280 mi) to the southeast, Eskişehir 70 km (43 mi) northeast and Ankara 300 km (186 mi) east.

Traditional ceramics

Aizanoi Theather, Aizanoi.jpg
Aizanoi

A small ewer, now in the British Museum, gave its name to a category of similar blue and white fritware pottery known as 'Abraham of Kütahya ware'. It has an inscription in Armenian script under the glaze on its base stating that it commemorated Abraham of Kütahya with a date of 1510. [20] In 1957 Arthur Lane published an influential article in which he reviewed the history of pottery production in the region and proposed that 'Abraham of Kütahya' ware was produced from 1490 until around 1525, 'Damascus' and 'Golden Horn' ware were produced from 1525 until 1555 and 'Rhodian' ware from around 1555 until the demise of the İznik pottery industry at the beginning of the 18th century. This chronology has been generally accepted. [21]

Climate

Kütahya has a warm summer mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb), with cool winters and warm, dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn, but can be observed throughout the year.

Climate data for Kütahya
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.1
(62.8)
20.6
(69.1)
27.0
(80.6)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
36.2
(97.2)
39.5
(103.1)
38.8
(101.8)
36.1
(97.0)
31.2
(88.2)
25.4
(77.7)
21.7
(71.1)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)4.7
(40.5)
6.5
(43.7)
11.0
(51.8)
16.2
(61.2)
21.3
(70.3)
25.2
(77.4)
28.2
(82.8)
28.5
(83.3)
24.8
(76.6)
19.0
(66.2)
12.7
(54.9)
6.6
(43.9)
17.1
(62.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.4
(32.7)
1.7
(35.1)
5.2
(41.4)
10.0
(50.0)
14.6
(58.3)
18.4
(65.1)
20.9
(69.6)
20.6
(69.1)
16.6
(61.9)
11.8
(53.2)
6.7
(44.1)
2.6
(36.7)
10.8
(51.4)
Average low °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.0
(32.0)
4.2
(39.6)
7.9
(46.2)
11.1
(52.0)
13.4
(56.1)
13.2
(55.8)
9.4
(48.9)
5.8
(42.4)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
5.0
(41.0)
Record low °C (°F)−20.1
(−4.2)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−15.7
(3.7)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.9
(35.4)
4.0
(39.2)
3.3
(37.9)
0.0
(32.0)
−6.5
(20.3)
−11.0
(12.2)
−17.8
(0.0)
−22.9
(−9.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)69.7
(2.74)
59.1
(2.33)
60.0
(2.36)
55.3
(2.18)
52.1
(2.05)
34.3
(1.35)
18.6
(0.73)
14.4
(0.57)
21.4
(0.84)
42.1
(1.66)
51.8
(2.04)
85.4
(3.36)
564.2
(22.21)
Average rainy days14.312.812.913.011.87.14.43.94.88.810.714.2118.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 6286.8142.6174229.4279310291.4225151.910258.92,113
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [22]

Kütahya is forecast to be the city most affected by global warming in Turkey. [23]

Culture

Kutahya ceramics, Pitcher, second half of the 18th century Turkish - Bowl - Walters 481732 - View A.jpg
Kütahya ceramics, Pitcher, second half of the 18th century

Kütahya's old neighbourhoods are dominated by traditional Ottoman houses made of wood and stucco, some of the best examples being found along Germiyan Caddesi. It has many historical mosques such as Ulu Camii, Cinili Camii, Balikli Camii and Donenler Camii. The Şengül Hamamı is a famous Turkish bath located in the city

The town preserves some ancient ruins, a Byzantine castle and church. During late centuries Kütahya has been renowned for its Turkish earthenware, of which fine specimens may be seen at the national capital. The Kütahya Museum has a fine collection of arts and cultural artifacts from the area, the house where Hungarian statesman Lajos Kossuth lived in exile between 1850-1851 is preserved as a museum.

Education

The Main Campus and the Germiyan Campus of the Kütahya Dumlupınar University are located in the city.

Transport

Zafer Airport Zafer Airport.jpg
Zafer Airport

The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Zafer Airport is active. Kastamonu is also the main railroad endpoint for the Aegean region.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Kütahya is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
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  4. "Kütahya Turkey, britannica.com".
  5. Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 540, nº 338.
  6. Gelzer, op. cit., p. 559, nnº 650-653.
  7. Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 851-852
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  11. "History of Kutahya".
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  13. See Dickran Kouymjian, "The Role of Armenian Potters of Kutahia in the Ottoman Ceramic Industry," in Armenian Communities of Asia Minor, pp. 107-30.
  14. Foss, Clive (1985). Survey of the Medieval Castles of Anatolia: Kütahya. Oxford, U.K.: BAR. pp. 12ff.
  15. Edwards, Robert W., “Medieval Castles of Anatolia: Kütahya,” Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies 62.3, 1987, pp.675-680.
  16. 1 2 Hovannisian and Manuk-Khaloyan, "The Armenian Communities of Asia Minor," p. 34.
  17. "Gamblers on Turkish Brink" (PDF).
  18. "Kütahya".
  19. Henry Glassie, Turkish Traditional Art Today Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993, pp. 435 ff.
  20. 'Abraham of Kütahya' ewer, British Museum Accession Code: G.1
  21. Nurhan Atasoy and Julian Raby (authors), Yanni Petsopoulos (editor) (1989). Iznik: The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey. London: Alexandria Press. ISBN   978-1-85669-054-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  22. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-03-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. "Evaluation of the Global Warming Impacts Using a Hybrid Method Based on Fuzzy Techniques: A Case Study in Turkey".

PD-icon.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.