Kępno

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Kępno
SM Kepno Ratusz (9) ID 651409.jpg
Town hall
POL Kepno flag.svg
POL Kepno COA.svg
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kępno
Greater Poland Voivodeship location map.svg
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Kępno
Coordinates: 51°17′N17°59′E / 51.283°N 17.983°E / 51.283; 17.983 Coordinates: 51°17′N17°59′E / 51.283°N 17.983°E / 51.283; 17.983
Country Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship POL wojewodztwo wielkopolskie flag.svg  Greater Poland
County Kępno County
Gmina Gmina Kępno
First mentioned1282
Town rightsca. 1283
Area
  Total7.8 km2 (3.0 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)
  Total14,419 [1]
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
63-600
Vehicle registration PKE
Climate Cfb
Highways S8-PL.svg S11-PL.svg
Voivodeship roads DW482-PL.svg
Website http://www.um.kepno.pl

Kępno [ˈkɛmpnɔ] (German : Kempen in Posen) is a town in south-central Poland. It lies on the outskirts of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, bordering the historical region of Silesia and the Łódź Voivodeship. As of December 31, 2009 Kępno had a population of 14,760. One popular attraction in Kępno is the Rynek (market square).

Contents

History

Memorial stone commemorating the Treaty of Kepno from 1282 Kepno - pamiatkowy glaz.JPG
Memorial stone commemorating the Treaty of Kępno from 1282

The history of Kępno dates back to a medieval Polish stronghold. The oldest known mention of Kępno comes from 1282, when it was the place of signing of the Treaty of Kępno, between dukes of fragmented Poland, Przemysł II, Duke of Greater Poland and Mestwin II, Duke of Pomerania. In 1283 it enjoyed town rights. [2] Initially a royal city of Poland, in 1365 it was granted by King Casimir III the Great to knight and noble Wierzbięta z Paniewic  [ pl ]. [2] Administratively located in the Sieradz Voivodeship in the Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown, it became a village again. [2] It regained town rights in 1660, by decision of King John II Casimir of Poland. [2] Protestants from nearby Silesia as well as Jews settled in Kępno in the 17th century. One of two main routes connecting Warsaw and Dresden ran through the town in the 18th century and Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland often traveled that route. [3]

Kępno was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the 1793 Second Partition of Poland. Administered within South Prussia from 1793 to 1807, it was part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815. As Kempen, it was restored to Prussia in the 1815 Congress of Vienna and administered within the Grand Duchy of Posen (until 1848) and the Province of Posen, within which it was the seat of the district Kempen in Posen. The town was a 19th-century shtetl. The majority of the Jews left the city during the second half of the 19th century because of the epidemics (cholera, etc.) and the poor living conditions. They left mainly for Wrocław and surroundings, Berlin, and the Americas. Kempen (Kepno) immigrants were the first Jews to settle in Guatemala, and formed the basis of the German-Jewish community there. In the meantime, the Polish population was subject to Germanisation policies. [2] Since the mid-19th century, to resist Germanisation, Poles founded various organizations, including industrial and cultural societies, printing houses and a local branch of the "Sokół" Polish Gymnastic Society. [4] In the early 20th century local Poles protested against Germanisation policies. [5]

In 1918 Poland regained independence after World War I and the Greater Poland Uprising broke out, the aim of which was to reunite the region with Poland. In response the Germans placed over 1,000 Grenzschutz troops in the town and persecuted the local Polish population. [6] In January 1919, the Germans interned six leading local Polish activists in Świętoszów. [6] Despite their plans, the Polish insurgents did not try to recapture the town, however, it was still restored to Poland on 17 January 1920. [6]

Following the invasion of Poland and the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, Kępno was occupied by the Wehrmacht and on September 6–7, 1939 the Einsatzgruppe III entered the town to commit atrocities against Poles. [7] Some Poles from Kępno were murdered by German troops already on September 7, 1939 in the nearby village of Wylazłów. [8] The town was annexed by Nazi Germany, renamed Kempen and administered as part of the county or district (kreis) of the same name within Reichsgau Wartheland. Its population was subject to segregation, Germanisation, confiscation of property, arrests, expulsions, deportations to forced labour, imprisonment in concentration camps and executions. [9] The Germans established and operated a Nazi prison in the town. [10] Polish monuments were destroyed. [11] The Polish resistance movement was organized in Kępno in November 1939. [12] Red Army troops took the town on January 21, 1945 and with the end of the war, the town returned to Poland, although with a Soviet-installed communist regime, which remained in power until the Fall of Communism in the 1980s. The Polish resistance movement remained active in the town, and in September 1945 it captured the local communist police station and liberated the prisoners. [13]

Cuisine

Kępno is one of the production sites of the Greater Poland liliput cheese (ser liliput wielkopolski), a traditional regional Polish cheese, protected as a traditional food by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Poland. [14]

Notable residents

Memorial plaque dedicated to the Kepno-born Polish writer Wladyslaw Rabski Kepno Rabski.jpg
Memorial plaque dedicated to the Kępno-born Polish writer Władysław Rabski

Education

Transport

The intersection of the Polish S8 and S11 highways is located just outside of the town limits, north-east of Kępno. There is also a train station.

Sports

The local football club is Polonia Kępno  [ pl ]. It competes in the lower leagues.

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References

Footnotes

  1. "Kępno Population". www.polskawliczbach.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "Historia". kepno.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  3. "Informacja historyczna". Dresden-Warszawa (in Polish). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  4. Kowalski 2018, p. 57-61.
  5. Kowalski 2018, p. 59-60.
  6. 1 2 3 "Kępno nie zostało zdobyte". Instytut Pamięci Narodowej (in Polish). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  7. Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 56.
  8. Wardzyńska, p. 94
  9. Kowalski 2018, p. 134-135.
  10. "NS-Gefängnis Kempen". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  11. Kowalski 2018, p. 134.
  12. Kowalski 2018, p. 137.
  13. Łuczak, Agnieszka (2011). "Podziemie niepodległościowe w Wielkopolsce w latach 1945–1956". Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (in Polish). No. 5-6 (126-127). IPN. p. 77. ISSN   1641-9561.
  14. "Ser liliput wielkopolski". Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi - Portal Gov.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 May 2021.