Kahoolawe

Last updated
Kahoʻolawe
Nickname: The Island of Kanaloa, Kohemalamalama, Hineli'i, and Kahiki Moe [1]
KahoolaweLandsat.jpg
Landsat satellite image of Kaho‘olawe
Map of Hawaii highlighting Kahoolawe.svg
Location in the State of Hawaii
Geography
Location 20°33′N156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W / 20.550; -156.600
Area44.59 sq mi (115.5 km2)
Area rank 8th largest Hawaiian Island
Highest elevation1,483 ft (452 m)
Highest pointPuʻu Moaulanui
on the crater rim of Lua Makika
Administration
United States
Symbols
FlowerHinahina kū kahakai (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum) [2]
ColourʻĀhinahina (gray)
Demographics
PopulationNo permanent population

Kahoʻolawe ( /kɑːˌhˈlɑːw, -v/ [3] ; Hawaiian: [kəˈhoʔoˈlɐve] ) is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoʻolawe is located about seven miles (11 km) southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lānaʻi, and it is 11 mi (18 km) long by 6.0 mi (9.7 km) wide, with a total land area of 44.97 sq mi (116.47 km2). [4] The highest point on Kahoʻolawe is the crater of Lua Makika at the summit of Puʻu Moaulanui, which is about 1,477 feet (450 m) above sea level. [5] Kahoʻolawe is relatively dry (average annual rainfall is less than 65 cm or 26 in) [6] because the island's low elevation fails to generate much orographic precipitation from the northeastern trade winds, and Kahoʻolawe is located in the rain shadow of eastern Maui's 10,023-foot-high (3,055 m) volcano, Haleakalā. More than one quarter of Kahoʻolawe has been eroded down to saprolitic hardpan soil, largely on exposed surfaces near the summit.

Volcano A rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Hawaiian Islands An archipelago in the North Pacific Ocean, currently administered by the US state of Hawaii

The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.

Maui island of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean

The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Lahaina, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

Contents

Aerial photo of Kaho`olawe. In the background is Mount Haleakala on Maui. Haleakala and Kahoolawe.jpg
Aerial photo of Kahoʻolawe. In the background is Mount Haleakala on Maui.

Kahoʻolawe has always been sparsely populated, due to its lack of fresh water. [7] During World War II, Kahoʻolawe was used as a training ground and bombing range by the Armed Forces of the United States. After decades of protests, the U.S. Navy ended live-fire training exercises on Kahoʻolawe in 1990, and the whole island was transferred to the jurisdiction of the state of Hawaii in 1994. The Hawaii State Legislature established the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve to restore and to oversee the island and its surrounding waters. Today Kahoʻolawe can be used only for native Hawaiian cultural, spiritual, and subsistence purposes.

Fresh water naturally occurring water with low concentrations of dissolved salts

Fresh water is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water. Fresh water includes water in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and even underground water called groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. Though the term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water, it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Bombing range military facility for testing ordinance and explosives

A bombing range usually refers to a remote military aerial bombing and gunnery training range used by combat aircraft to attack ground targets, or a remote area reserved for researching, developing, testing and evaluating new weapons and ammunition. Bombing ranges are used for precision targeting of high-explosive aerial bombs, precision-guided munitions and other aircraft ordnance, as opposed to a field firing range used by infantry and tanks. Various non-explosive inert "practice bombs" are also extensively used for precision aerial targeting bombing practice—to simulate various explosive aerial bomb types and minimise damage and environmental impact to bombing ranges.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines Kahoʻolawe as Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02 of Maui County, Hawaii. Kahoʻolawe has no permanent residents. [8]

A census tract, census area, census district or meshblock is a geographic region defined for the purpose of taking a census. Sometimes these coincide with the limits of cities, towns or other administrative areas and several tracts commonly exist within a county. In unincorporated areas of the United States these are often arbitrary, except for coinciding with political lines.

Maui County, Hawaii County in the United States

Maui County, officially the County of Maui, is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It consists of the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai, Kahoolawe, and Molokini. The latter two are uninhabited. As of the 2010 census, the population was 154,834. The county seat is Wailuku.

Geology

The gently sloping flanks of Kaho`olawe shield volcano (viewed from Makena on the neighboring island Maui) Kahoolawe from Makena Maui.jpg
The gently sloping flanks of Kahoʻolawe shield volcano (viewed from Makena on the neighboring island Maui)

Kahoʻolawe is an extinct shield volcano, which formed during the Pleistocene epoch. Most of the island is covered by basaltic lava flows. A caldera is located in the eastern part of the island. The last volcanic activity on the island occurred about one million years ago. [9] [10]

Shield volcano Low profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows

A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually composed almost entirely of fluid lava flows. It is named for its low profile, resembling a warrior's shield lying on the ground. This is caused by the highly fluid lava erupted, which travels farther than lava erupted from a stratovolcano, and results in the steady accumulation of broad sheets of lava, building up the shield volcano's distinctive form.

The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology.

In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age but shorter than a period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of the Quaternary Period. Rock layers deposited during an epoch are called a series. Series are subdivisions of the stratigraphic column that, like epochs, are subdivisions of the geologic timescale. Like other geochronological divisions, epochs are normally separated by significant changes in the rock layers to which they correspond.

Climate

Kahoʻolawe experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh ).

Semi-arid climate climat with precipitation below potential evapotranspiration

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Climate data for Kahoʻolawe
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)89
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
89
(32)
90
(32)
91
(33)
91
(33)
92
(33)
91
(33)
93
(34)
93
(34)
91
(33)
93
(34)
Mean maximum °F (°C)78.2
(25.7)
77.9
(25.5)
78.1
(25.6)
77.4
(25.2)
79.3
(26.3)
78.5
(25.8)
80.5
(26.9)
80.9
(27.2)
81.6
(27.6)
81.4
(27.4)
79.6
(26.4)
78.9
(26.1)
82.8
(28.2)
Average high °F (°C)73.8
(23.2)
73.6
(23.1)
73.7
(23.2)
74.3
(23.5)
75.9
(24.4)
75.9
(24.4)
77.6
(25.3)
77.6
(25.3)
77.8
(25.4)
77.5
(25.3)
75.8
(24.3)
74.4
(23.6)
75.7
(24.3)
Average low °F (°C)64.9
(18.3)
64.8
(18.2)
65.2
(18.4)
65.8
(18.8)
66.5
(19.2)
67.5
(19.7)
69.2
(20.7)
69.0
(20.6)
69.0
(20.6)
68.7
(20.4)
67.6
(19.8)
66.3
(19.1)
67.0
(19.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C)61.6
(16.4)
59.9
(15.5)
60.4
(15.8)
61.8
(16.6)
63.4
(17.4)
65.3
(18.5)
66.7
(19.3)
67.0
(19.4)
66.8
(19.3)
66.5
(19.2)
64.1
(17.8)
62.7
(17.1)
59.1
(15.1)
Record low °F (°C)59
(15)
58
(14)
56
(13)
60
(16)
60
(16)
64
(18)
65
(18)
65
(18)
64
(18)
65
(18)
62
(17)
60
(16)
56
(13)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.44
(62)
1.19
(30)
1.31
(33)
0.90
(23)
0.94
(24)
0.67
(17)
1.05
(27)
0.76
(19)
1.09
(28)
1.58
(40)
1.90
(48)
2.00
(51)
15.82
(402)
Source #1: [11]
Source #2: [12]

History

Settlement

Sometime around the year 1000, Kahoʻolawe was settled by Polynesians, and small, temporary fishing communities were established along the coast. Some inland areas were cultivated. Puʻu Moiwi, a remnant cinder cone, [13] is the location of the second-largest basalt quarry in Hawaiʻi, and this was mined for use in stone tools such as koʻi (adzes). [14] Originally a dry forest environment with intermittent streams, the land changed to an open savanna of grassland and trees when inhabitants cleared vegetation for firewood and agriculture. [15] Hawaiians built stone platforms for religious ceremonies, set rocks upright as shrines for successful fishing trips, and carved petroglyphs, or drawings, into the flat surfaces of rocks. These indicators of an earlier time can still be found on Kahoʻolawe.

Cinder cone A steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent

A Cinder Cone Volcano is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, such as either volcanic clinkers, volcanic ash, or cinder that has been built around a volcanic vent. The pyroclastic fragments are formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single, typically cylindrical, vent. As the gas-charged lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that solidify and fall as either cinders, clinkers, or scoria around the vent to form a cone that often is symmetrical; with slopes between 30–40°; and a nearly circular ground plan. Most cinder cones have a bowl-shaped crater at the summit.

Basalt A magnesium- and iron-rich extrusive igneous rock

Basalt is a mafic extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of magnesium-rich and iron-rich lava exposed at or very near the surface of a terrestrial planet or a moon. More than 90% of all volcanic rock on Earth is basalt. Basalt lava has a low viscosity, due to its low silica content, resulting in rapid lava flows that can spread over great areas before cooling and solidification. Flood basalt describes the formation in a series of lava basalt flows.

Quarry A place from which a geological material has been excavated from the ground

A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground.

While it is not known how many people inhabited Kahoʻolawe, the lack of freshwater probably limited the population to a few hundred people. As many as 120 people might have once lived at Hakioawa, the largest settlement, which was located at the northeastern end of the island—facing Maui.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
183280    
183680+0.0%
186618−77.5%
1910 2−88.9%
1920 3+50.0%
1930 2−33.3%
1940 1−50.0%
1950 0−100.0%
1960 00.00%
1970 00.00%
1980 00.00%
1990 00.00%
2000 00.00%
2010 00.00%
U.S. Decennial Census
1866 Hawaiian Census
Military report (1958 and 1965)
Source: Manoa Library [16]

Warfare

Violent wars among competing aliʻi (chiefs) laid waste to the land and led to a decline in the population. During the 18th century War of Kamokuhi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruler of the Big Island of Hawaii, raided and pillaged Kahoʻolawe in an unsuccessful attempt to take Maui from Kahekili II, the King of Maui. [17]

Post-contact

From 1778 to the early 19th century, observers on passing ships reported that Kahoʻolawe was uninhabited and barren, destitute of both water and wood.

After the arrival of missionaries from New England, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi under the rule of King Kamehameha III replaced the death penalty with exile, and Kahoʻolawe became a men's penal colony sometime around 1830. Food and water were scarce, some prisoners reportedly starved, and some of them swam across the channel to Maui to find food. The law making the island a penal colony was repealed in 1853.

A survey of Kahoʻolawe in 1857 reported about 50 residents here, about 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of land covered with shrubs, and a patch of sugarcane growth. Along the shore, tobacco, pineapple, gourds, pili grass, and scrub trees grew. Beginning in 1858, the Hawaiian government leased Kahoʻolawe to a series of ranching ventures. Some of these proved to be more successful than others, but the lack of freshwater was an unrelenting hindrance. Through the next 80 years, the landscape changed dramatically, with drought and uncontrolled overgrazing denuding much of the island. Strong trade winds blew away most of the topsoil, leaving behind red hardpan dirt.

20th century

From 1910 to 1918, the Territory of Hawaii designated Kahoʻolawe as a forest reserve in the hope of restoring the island through a revegetation and livestock removal program. This program failed, and leases again became available. In 1918, the rancher Angus MacPhee of Wyoming, with the help of the landowner Harry Baldwin of Maui, leased the island for 21 years, intending to build a cattle ranch there. By 1932, the ranching operation was enjoying moderate success. After heavy rains, native grasses and flowering plants would sprout, but droughts always returned. In 1941, MacPhee subletted part of the island to the U.S. Army. Later that year, because of continuing drought, MacPhee removed his cattle from the island.

Training grounds

Operation "Sailor Hat", 1965, the detonation of the 500-ton TNT explosive charge for test shot "Bravo", first of a series of three test explosions on the southwestern tip of Kaho`olawe Island, Hawaii, February 6, 1965. TNT detonation on Kahoolawe Island during Operation Sailoir Hat, sjot Bravo, 1965.jpg
Operation "Sailor Hat", 1965, the detonation of the 500-ton TNT explosive charge for test shot "Bravo", first of a series of three test explosions on the southwestern tip of Kahoʻolawe Island, Hawaii, February 6, 1965.

On December 7, 1941, after the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor and Oahu, the U.S. Army declared martial law throughout Hawaii, and it used Kahoʻolawe as a place to train American soldiers and Marines headed west to engage in the War in the Pacific. The use of Kahoʻolawe as a bombing range was believed to be critical, since the United States was executing a new type of war in the Pacific Islands. Their success depended on accurate naval gunfire support that suppressed or destroyed enemy positions as U.S. Marines and soldiers struggled to get ashore. Thousands of soldiers, sailors, Marines, airmen, and coastguardsmen prepared on Kahoʻolawe for the brutal and costly assaults on islands such as the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, the Marianas and Pelileu, New Guinea, et cetera, in the Western Pacific.[ citation needed ]

Military and naval training on Kahoʻolawe continued following World War II. During the Korean War, warplanes from aircraft carriers played a critical role in attacking enemy airfields, convoys, and troop staging areas. Mock-ups of airfields, military camps, and vehicles were constructed on Kahoʻolawe, and while pilots were preparing for war at Barbers Point Naval Air Station on Oʻahu, they practiced spotting and hitting the mock-ups at Kahoʻolawe. Similar training took place throughout the Cold War and during the War in Vietnam, with mock-ups of aircraft, radar installations, gun mounts, and surface-to-air missile sites being placed across this island for pilots and bombardiers to use in their training.

In early 1965, the U.S. Navy conducted Operation Sailor Hat to determine the blast resistance of ships. Three tests off the coast of Kahoʻolawe subjected the island and a target ship to massive explosions, with 500 tons of conventional TNT detonated on the island near the target ship USS Atlanta (CL-104). This warship was damaged, but she was not sunk. The blasts created a crater on the island known as "Sailor Man's Cap" and they might have cracked the island's caprock, causing some groundwater to be lost into the ocean. [18]

Operation Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana (PKO)

Aerial view of Kaho'olawe, Molokini, and the Makena side of Maui Aerial-Makena-Molokini-Kahoolawe.jpg
Aerial view of Kaho‘olawe, Molokini, and the Makena side of Maui

In 1976, a group of individuals calling themselves the Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana (PKO) filed suit in U.S. Federal Court to stop the Navy's use of Kahoʻolawe for bombardment training, to require compliance with a number of new environmental laws and to ensure protection of cultural resources on the island. In 1977, the U.S. District Court for the District of Hawaii allowed the Navy's use of this island to continue, but the Court directed the Navy to prepare an environmental impact statement and to complete an inventory of historic sites on the island.

The effort to regain Kaho‘olawe from the U.S. Navy began as a new wave of political awareness and activism was inspired within the Hawaiian community. [19] Charles Maxwell and other community leaders began to plan a coordinated effort to land on the island, which was still under Navy control. The effort for the "first landing" began in Waikapu (Maui) on January 5, 1976. Over 50 people from across the Hawaiian islands, including a range of cultural leaders, gathered on Maui with the goal of "invading" Kahoʻolawe on January 6, 1976. The date was selected because of its association with the United States' bicentennial anniversary.

As the larger group headed towards the island, they were intercepted by military craft. "The Kaho‘olawe Nine" continued and successfully landed on the island. They were Walter Ritte, Emmett Aluli, George Helm, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Stephen K. Morse, Kimo Aluli, Ellen Miles, Ian Lind, and Karla Villalba of the Puyallup/Muckleshoot tribe (Washington State). [20] The effort to retake Kaho‘olawe would eventually claim the lives of George Helm and Kimo Mitchell. In an effort to reach Kaho‘olawe, Helm and Mitchell (who were also accompanied by Billy Mitchell, no relation) ran into severe weather and were unable to reach the island. Despite extensive rescue and recovery efforts, they were never recovered. Ritte became a leader in the Hawaiian community, coordinating community efforts including for water rights, opposition to land development, and the protection of marine animals and ocean resources. [21]

Kahoʻolawe Island Archeological District

Kahoʻolawe Island Archeological District
USA Hawaii location map.svg
Red pog.svg
NRHP reference # 81000205 [22]
Added to NRHPMarch 18, 1981

On March 18, 1981, the entire island of Kahoʻolawe was added to the National Register of Historic Places. At that time, the Kahoʻolawe Archaeological District was noted to contain 544 recorded archaeological or historic sites and over 2,000 individual features. As part of the soil conservation efforts, Mike Ruppe, an Army Specialist on loan from Schofield Barracks, plus other military personnel, laid lines of explosives, detonating them to break the hardpan so that seedling trees could be planted. Used car tires were taken to Kahoʻolawe and placed in miles of deep gullies to slow the washing of red soil from the barren uplands to the surrounding shores. Ordnance and scrap metal was picked up by hand and then transported by large trucks to a collection site. [23]

End of live-fire training

In 1990, President George H. W. Bush ordered an end to live-fire training on the island. The U.S. Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991 established the Kahoʻolawe Island Conveyance Commission to recommend terms and conditions for the conveyance of Kahoʻolawe from the U.S. government to the state of Hawaii.

Transfer of title and UXO cleanup

Navy sign in Honokanaia Starr 030731-0121 Prosopis pallida.jpg
Navy sign in Honokanaia

In 1993, Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii sponsored Title X of the Fiscal Year 1994 for the Department of Defense appropriation bill, directing that the U.S. government to convey Kahoʻolawe and its surrounding waters to the state of Hawaii. Title X also established the objective of a "clearance or removal of unexploded ordnance (UXO)" and the environmental restoration of the island, to provide "meaningful safe use of the island for appropriate cultural, historical, archaeological, and educational purposes, as determined by the State of Hawaii." [23] In turn, the Legislature of Hawaii created the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission to exercise policy and management oversight of the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve. As directed by Title X and in accordance with a required memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Navy and the state of Hawaii, the Navy transferred the title to the land of Kahoʻolawe to the state of Hawaii on May 9, 1994.

As required by Title X, the U.S. Navy retained access control to the island until the clearance and environmental restoration projects were completed, or until November 11, 2003, whichever came first. The state agreed to prepare a use plan for Kahoʻolawe and the Navy agreed to develop a cleanup plan based on that use plan and to implement that plan to the extent Congress provided funds for that purpose.

In July 1997, the Navy awarded a contract to the Parsons/UXB Joint Venture to clear unexploded ordnance from the island to the extent funds were provided by Congress. [24] After the state and public review of the Navy cleanup plan, Parsons/UXB began their work on the island in November 1998.

From 1998 to 2003, the U.S. Navy executed a large-scale, but limited[ clarification needed ], removal of unexploded ordnance and other environmental hazards from Kahoʻolawe. [25] Since the clearance did not completely remove all the hazardous and dangerous materials from the island, a residual level of danger remains. The Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission developed a plan to manage the residual risk to reserve users and to carry out a safety program, and to establish stewardship organizations to work in conjunction with the commission. [25]

Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve

In 1993, the Hawaiian State Legislature established the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve, consisting of "the entire island and its surrounding ocean waters in a two mile (three km) radius from the shore". By state law, Kahoʻolawe and its waters can be used only for Native Hawaiian cultural, spiritual, and subsistence purposes; fishing; environmental restoration; historic preservation; and education. All commercial uses are prohibited.

Kaho`olawe vegetation Kahoolawe vegetation.jpg
Kahoʻolawe vegetation

The legislature also created the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission to manage the reserve while it is held in trust for a future Native Hawaiian sovereign entity. [26] The restoration of Kahoʻolawe will require a strategy to control erosion, re-establish vegetation, recharge the water table, and gradually replace alien plants with native species. Plans will include methods for damming gullies and reducing rainwater runoff. In some areas, non-native plants will temporarily stabilize soils before planting of permanent native species. Species used for revegetation include ʻaʻaliʻi ( Dodonaea viscosa ), ʻāheahea ( Chenopodium oahuense ), kuluʻī ( Nototrichium sandwicense ), Achyranthes splendens , ʻūlei ( Osteomeles anthyllidifolia ), kāmanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides), koaiʻa ( Acacia koaia ), and alaheʻe ( Psydrax odorata ). [27]

Irrigation tubing running atop the red soil of Kaho`olawe as a crew works to plant new life in the hard-packed ground. Kahoolawe restoration work.jpg
Irrigation tubing running atop the red soil of Kahoʻolawe as a crew works to plant new life in the hard-packed ground.

Traditional subdivisions

Traditionally, Kahoʻolawe has been an ahupuaʻa of Honuaʻula, [28] one of the twelve moku of the island (mokupuni) of Maui, [29] and was subdivided into twelve ʻili that were later combined to eight. [30] [31] The eight ʻili are listed below, in counterclockwise sequence, and original area figures in acres, starting in the northeast: [32]

Nr.ʻiliArea
acres
Area
km²
1Hakioawa22839.24
2Pāpākā14435.84
3Kuheia-Kaulana342913.88
4Ahupū435117.61
5Honokoʻa17016.88
6Kealaikahiki327613.26
7Kūnaka-Naʻalapa962638.96
8Kanapou251110.16
9(Lua Makika)1560.63
 Kahoʻolawe28776116.46
Topographical map of Kaho`olawe with traditional `ili subdivisions Kahoolawe - Map of the Administrative Divisions.jpg
Topographical map of Kahoʻolawe with traditional ʻili subdivisions

The boundaries of all but the two westernmost ʻili converge on the crater rim of Lua Makika, but do not include it. The crater area of Lua Makika is not considered an ʻili and does not belong to any ʻili.

According to other sources, the island was subdivided into 16 ahupuaʻa that belonged to three moku, namely Kona, Ko’olau and Molokini. [33]

See also

Notes

  1. "Kahoʻolawe". Kumukahi. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  2. Shearer, Barbara Smith (2002). "Chapter 6 - State and Territory Flowers". State Names, Seals, Flags, and Symbols: a Historical Guide (3 ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-313-31534-3.
  3. Dictionary.com
  4. "Table 5.08 - Land Area of Islands: 2000" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
  5. "Table 5.11 - Elevations of Major Summits" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
  6. "Kahoolawe" (PDF). Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. Hawaii Division of Land and Natural Resources.
  7. Robert C. Schmitt and Carol L. Silva: Population Trends on Kahoolawe
  8. Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02, Maui County United States Census Bureau
  9. Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawai‘i, Sheet 6—Island of Kaho‘olawe (PDF). USGS.
  10. Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawai‘i (PDF). USGS ; Open-File Report 2007-1089.
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  14. McGregor, Davianna (2007). "Chapter 6 - Kahoolawe: Rebirth of the Sacred". Nā Kuaʻāina: Living Hawaiian Culture. University of Hawaii Press. p. 253. ISBN   978-0-8248-2946-9.
  15. Merlin, Mark D.; James O. Juvik (1992). Charles P. Stone; Clifford W. Smith; J. Timothy Tunison (eds.). Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research (PDF). p. 602.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
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  17. Fornander, Abraham (1880). An Account of the Polynesian Race: Its Origins and Migrations, and the Ancient History of the Hawaiian People to the Times of Kamehameha I. London: Trübner & Co. pp. 156–157.
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  19. Luci Yamamoto (2006). Kaua'i. Lonely Planet. p. 35. ISBN   978-1-74059-096-9.
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  21. Mooallem, Jon (May 8, 2013). "Who Would Kill a Monk Seal?". The New York Times . Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  22. National Park Service (2008-04-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service.
  23. 1 2 U. S. Navy, “Kaho`olawe Island Reserve UXO Clearance Project Cleanup Plan” 64.78.11.86/uxofiles/enclosures/kahclear.pdf
  24. "Navy Concludes Operations on Hawaiian Island of Kaho'olawe". From Commander, Navy Region Hawaii Public Affairs. U.S. Navy. April 16, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
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  30. Kaho`olawe Island Reserve Commission: Volunteer Packet, page 4
  31. Scott Broadbent: Kaho‘olawe Uncovered. Part one in a series about Maui County’s most mysterious isle. Maui Weekly, November 11, 2010 Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
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References

Coordinates: 20°33′N156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W / 20.550; -156.600