Kaifeng

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Kaifeng

开封市
Long Ting Gong Yuan  - panoramio (2).jpg
Qing Xin Lou  (6162261508).jpg
Iron Pagoda Tie Ta  (6162387102).jpg
Kai Feng Song Du Yu Jie 122.jpg
Lu Zhi Shen Da Xiang Guo Si Dao Ba Yang Liu .jpg
Clockwise: Dragon Pavilion, Iron Pagoda, Lu Zhishen Daxiangguo Temple, Songdu Royal Street, Kaifeng Mayor's Mansion
Flag of Kaifeng, China.svg
Flag
ChinaHenanKaifeng.png
Location of Kaifeng City jurisdiction in Henan
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Kaifeng
Location on the North China Plain
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kaifeng
Kaifeng (China)
Coordinates(Kaifeng municipal government): 34°47′53″N114°18′51″E / 34.7981°N 114.3143°E / 34.7981; 114.3143 Coordinates: 34°47′53″N114°18′51″E / 34.7981°N 114.3143°E / 34.7981; 114.3143
Country People's Republic of China
Province Henan
Municipal seat Longting District
Area
   Prefecture-level city 6,247 km2 (2,412 sq mi)
  Urban
546.4 km2 (211.0 sq mi)
  Metro
546.4 km2 (211.0 sq mi)
Elevation
75 m (245 ft)
Population
 (2010 census)
   Prefecture-level city 4,676,159
  Density750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
   Urban
826,961
  Urban density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
   Metro
826,961
  Metro density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code(s) 371
ISO 3166 code CN-HA-02
GDP¥7,250 per capita (2004)
Major Nationalities Han, Hui
County-level divisions5
License plate prefixes 豫B
Website kaifeng.gov.cn
Kaifeng
Kaifeng (Chinese characters).svg
"Kaifeng" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese 开封
Traditional Chinese 開封
Literal meaning"Opening the Border"

Kaifeng (Chinese :开封) is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty.

Contents

Around 5 million people currently live in Kaifeng's metropolitan area. Located along the Yellow River's southern bank, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and Heze of Shandong to the northeast.

Names

The postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is (Biàn). Historically it has also been known as

The area was named "Kaifeng" after the Qin's conquest of China in the second century BC. The name literally means "opening the border" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance". [1] Its name was originally Qifeng (Chinese :啓封), but the syllable qi (Baxter-Sagart: /*kʰˤijʔ/) was changed to the essentially synonymous kai (/*Nə-[k]ʰˤəj/, /*[k]ʰˤəj/) to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi (Emperor Jing of Han).

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Kaifeng administers five districts and four counties:

Map

History

The famous painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival is believed by some to portray life in Kaifeng on Qingming Festival. Several versions exist - the above is an 18th-century recreation - of an original attributed to the 12th-century artist Zhang Zeduan. QingmingshangHetu.jpg
The famous painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival is believed by some to portray life in Kaifeng on Qingming Festival. Several versions exist – the above is an 18th-century recreation – of an original attributed to the 12th-century artist Zhang Zeduan.
The city of Kaifeng (Dongjing, Bianliang) in Northern Song Dynasty Kaifeng in Northern Song.jpg
The city of Kaifeng (Dongjing, Bianliang) in Northern Song Dynasty
Map of Kaifeng (K'ai-feng) Txu-oclc-10552568-ni50-5-back.jpg
Map of Kaifeng (K'ai-feng)

Kaifeng is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history.

In 364 BC during the Warring States period, the State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁) as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the Yellow River. When the State of Qin conquered the State of Wei, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place.

During the Han Dynasty, the city underwent some reconstruction. Kaifeng became the capital of Liu Wu (son of Han emperor Wen) when he was given the title of Liang Xiao Wang. Liu Wu restored and constructed many buildings and old city walls. Kaifeng became a center of music, art, a refuge for artists, and of splendid gardens despite the trivial political importance of the city at this period. [2]

Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as through the construction of a canal running to western Shandong.

In 781 during the Tang dynasty, a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin (936–946), Later Han (947–950), and Later Zhou (951–960) of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song dynasty made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards, the city underwent further expansion.

During the Song, when it was known as Dongjing or Bianjing, Kaifeng, then the largest and most prosperous city in China, was the capital, with a population of over 400,000 living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem in the city. The historian Jacques Gernet provides a lively picture of life in this period in his Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276, which often draws on Dongjing Meng Hua Lu , a nostalgic memoir of the city of Kaifeng. [3]

In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda (佑國寺塔) – or Iron Pagoda as it is called today – was constructed measuring 54.7 meters (179 ft) in height. It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song-dynasty pagoda, Po Tower  [ zh ], dating from 974, has been partially destroyed.

Games in the Jinming Pool, an early 12th-century painting depicting Kaifeng, by Zhang Zeduan. Song-Imperial-Garden1.jpg
Games in the Jinming Pool, an early 12th-century painting depicting Kaifeng, by Zhang Zeduan.

Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower of the engineer, scientist, and statesman Su Song (1020–1101 AD). It was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere that was hydraulically-powered (i.e. by water wheel and a water clock), yet it incorporated an escapement mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of Europe and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.

Kaifeng reached its peak importance in the 11th century as a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000. It is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. [4]

This period ended in 1127 when the city fell to Jurchen invaders during the Jingkang Incident. It subsequently came under the rule of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, which had conquered most of North China during the Jin–Song Wars. [5] While it remained an important administrative center, only the area inside the inner city wall of the early Song remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned.

As the imperial capital of the Song, Kaifeng was conveniently situated along the Grand Canal for logistics supply but militarily vulnerable due to its position on the floodplains of the Yellow River.

Kaifeng served as the Jurchen "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. [6] The Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee from the onslaught of the Mongols. In 1232 they succumbed to the combined Mongol and Song forces in the Mongol siege of Kaifeng. The Mongols captured the city and in 1279 conquered all of China. During the Yuan dynasty Bianliang became the capital of Henan Jiangbei Province, which was established in 1277.

East Market Street, Kaifeng, 1910. The synagogue of the Kaifeng Jews lay beyond the row of stores on the right East Market street, Kaifeng-1-.JPG
East Market Street, Kaifeng, 1910. The synagogue of the Kaifeng Jews lay beyond the row of stores on the right

The city was briefly captured around the mid-fourteenth century by the Red Turban rebels who made it their capital for ten years. They were crushed by the early Ming forces. At the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan province. [2]

In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again.

In 1662, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, Kaifeng was rebuilt. Another reconstruction in 1843 followed flooding in 1841, shaping Kaifeng as it stands today.

On 6 June 1938, the city was occupied by the invading Japanese Imperial Army.

Kaifeng is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews.

Kaifeng remained the capital of Henan province until 1954, when it was moved to Zhengzhou.

In 1969, the former President of the People's Republic of China, Liu Shaoqi, died from medical neglect while under house arrest in Kaifeng.

Climate

Kaifeng has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) that borders on a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and mostly dry while summers are hot and humid; spring is warm and sees some, but not much rainfall, while autumn weather is crisp and drier. Precipitation mainly occurs from June to September.

Climate data for Kaifeng (1971−2000)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)19.2
(66.6)
25.5
(77.9)
29.4
(84.9)
35.4
(95.7)
38.1
(100.6)
42.5
(108.5)
39.0
(102.2)
37.6
(99.7)
35.6
(96.1)
34.1
(93.4)
26.6
(79.9)
22.2
(72.0)
42.5
(108.5)
Average high °C (°F)5.1
(41.2)
8.4
(47.1)
13.7
(56.7)
21.5
(70.7)
26.9
(80.4)
31.3
(88.3)
31.7
(89.1)
30.5
(86.9)
26.7
(80.1)
21.3
(70.3)
13.7
(56.7)
7.3
(45.1)
19.8
(67.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.0
(32.0)
2.7
(36.9)
7.9
(46.2)
15.3
(59.5)
20.7
(69.3)
25.3
(77.5)
26.9
(80.4)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
15.1
(59.2)
7.8
(46.0)
1.9
(35.4)
14.2
(57.6)
Average low °C (°F)−4.1
(24.6)
−1.7
(28.9)
2.9
(37.2)
9.6
(49.3)
14.8
(58.6)
19.8
(67.6)
22.9
(73.2)
22.0
(71.6)
16.5
(61.7)
10.1
(50.2)
3.1
(37.6)
−2.3
(27.9)
9.5
(49.0)
Record low °C (°F)−15
(5)
−14.2
(6.4)
−7.3
(18.9)
−1.6
(29.1)
5.0
(41.0)
11.3
(52.3)
15.2
(59.4)
13.5
(56.3)
6.0
(42.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−11.7
(10.9)
−16.0
(3.2)
−16.0
(3.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)8.1
(0.32)
11.2
(0.44)
28.2
(1.11)
35.4
(1.39)
55.0
(2.17)
73.4
(2.89)
174.9
(6.89)
109.7
(4.32)
69.5
(2.74)
41.5
(1.63)
20.4
(0.80)
9.9
(0.39)
637.2
(25.09)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)2.93.95.96.26.87.811.39.07.66.64.53.075.5
Source: Weather China

Transportation

Air

Downtown Kaifeng is about 55 km (34 mi) away from Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport (IATA: CGO, ICAO: ZHCC), which is the busiest airport in central China in terms of both passenger and cargo traffic (2017 statistics). [7]

With the completion of Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway and Zhengzhou–Xinzheng Airport intercity railway, fast train connections to Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport from Kaifeng became available. As of August 2018, there are 12 pairs of intercity trains running between Xinzheng Airport and Songchenglu every day, with a travel time of 53 min.

Rail

Kaifeng railway station is on the east–west Longhai Railway mainline and provides convenient access to many cities around China, including Beijing West, Shanghai, Shanghai Hongqiao, Tianjin, Xi'an, Jinan, Hangzhou. Services to Zhengzhou, Luoyang and Qingdao are also frequent and convenient. Direct long-distance services to Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing North, Harbin, Ürümqi, Fuzhou, Dalian and Wuhan are also available.

The Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway (郑开城际铁路) started operation on 28 December 2014, [8] connecting the provincial capital Zhengzhou and Kaifeng. The railway currently terminates at Songchenglu, and is planned to be extended to Kaifeng railway station. The designed top speed is 200 km/h (120 mph).

Kaifeng North railway station of the Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railway is the main high-speed railway station of the city. It started operation on 10 September 2016. [9]

Coach

There are 4 main coach stations in Kaifeng:

There are frequent services to many neighboring counties, other provincial cities and long-distance services to other provinces.

Road transport

Culture

Religion

One of Kaifeng's many women's mosques Kaifeng east mosque.jpg
One of Kaifeng's many women's mosques
The Sacred Heart Cathedral of Kaifeng Cathedral in Kaifeng 01.jpg
The Sacred Heart Cathedral of Kaifeng

Kaifeng is known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews.

It also has a significant Muslim enclave and is notable for its many women's mosques (nǚsì), including the oldest nǚsì in China: Wangjia Hutong Women's Mosque, which dates to 1820. [10] [10]

There are also some active Christian churches, like Sacred-Heart of Kaifeng cathedral (开封耶稣圣心主教座堂).

Cuisine

Kaifeng-style Xiaolongbao Steamed soup buns of Kaifeng.jpg
Kaifeng-style Xiaolongbao

Kaifeng cuisine plays a dominant part in forming Henan cuisine. [11]

Kaifeng offers a wide range of food specialties such as steamed pie and dumplings. Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (wǔxiāng shāobǐng), which, like pita, can be opened and filled. In the evening, Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous night market. People from nearby Zhengzhou often come to Kaifeng to visit family members and to enjoy the atmosphere.

The Ma Yu Ching's Bucket Chicken House (马豫兴桶子鸡;; Mǎ Yùxīng Tǒngzi Jī), located in Kaifeng, is by some accounts the world's oldest restaurant.

Chrysanthemums

The chrysanthemum is the city flower of Kaifeng. The tradition of cultivating varieties of chrysanthemums extends back 1600 years, and the scale of cultivation reached its height during the Song dynasty until its loss to the Jürchens in 1126.

The city has held the Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival since 1983 (renamed China Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival in 1994). The festival has since taken place between 18 October and 18 November of every year.

The festival reached another milestone in 2012, when it celebrated its 30th birthday. [12] The opening ceremony was broadcast live on Henan Satellite TV Channel (HNTV) at the evening prime slot on 18 October 2012, which has a coverage of all Chinese cities of or above the prefecture-level classification in the Chinese administrative division.

During the festival, hundreds of chrysanthemums breeds are on show at festival venues, and the flower becomes a common features around the city. Kaifeng has been dubbed the "city of chrysanthemums".

Sporting events

Zheng-Kai International Marathon

The China Zheng-Kai International Marathon (中国郑开国际马拉松赛, Zheng-Kai stands for "Zhengzhou-Kaifeng", also abbreviated "ZK") is a sporting event hosted jointly by the Chinese Athletic Association, the general sport administration of Henan province, Zhengzhou municipal government, and the Kaifeng municipal government. It is the premier international sports competition in Henan province and one of the biggest sports competitions in the Central-West of China. ZK International Marathon is held at the end of March or beginning of April each year. The main part of the event occurs along the famous Zhengkai Express Way (郑开大道). At its launch in 2007, 5600 athletes competed. By 2012, almost 25000 athletes from 28 countries and regions have participated in the ZK International Marathon.

Military

Kaifeng is the headquarter of the 20th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of three group armies that comprise the Jinan Military Region responsible for the defense of the Yellow River Plain.

Kaifeng Air Base is a military airfield in the southern suburb of Kaifeng City. It does not provide civilian aviation service.

Twin towns – sister cities

Kaifeng is twinned with: [13]

Colleges and universities

Public

See also

Related Research Articles

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Zhengzhou is the capital and largest city of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the National Central Cities in China, the centre of Central Plains area, and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province. The Zhengzhou metropolitan area is the core area of the Central Plains Economic Zone.

Xinzheng County-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

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Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport airport in Peoples Republic of China

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Zhengzhou Metro rapid transit metro rail network in Zhengzhou, Henan, China

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Zhengzhou East railway station railway station in Zhengzhou, China (for metro station, see Q17061114)

The Zhengzhoudong railway station is a railway station for high-speed trains in Zhengzhou, Henan, China. It is located approximately 3 km southeast of the Zhengdong New Area CBD. On the junction of the North-South Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong high-speed railway and the East-West Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railway, it is one of the largest passenger railway stations in China.

The history of Zhengzhou, a city that is today the provincial capital of Henan Province, China. spans over 10,000 years from its beginnings as a Neolithic settlement to its emergence as a trading port during the final years of the Qing Dynasty.

Central Plains Metropolitan Region intercity railway planned mass transit network in Zhengzhou, China

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Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway

Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway, abbreviated as the Zhengkai intercity railway, is a higher-speed intercity railway in Henan, China, connecting Zhengzhou and Kaifeng. It is part of the larger Central Plain Metropolitan Intercity Rail network. Construction commenced on December 29, 2009. With a designed top speed of 160 km/h, it is built as a double tracked electrified passenger dedicated line. Total length of this project is 50.33 kilometers, costing an estimated 5.5 billion yuan to construct.

Kaifeng North railway station

The Kaifeng North railway station is a railway station of Xuzhou–Lanzhou high-speed railway in Kaifeng, Henan, China. The station started operation on 10 September 2016, together with the Zhengzhou-Xuzhou section of the railway.

Jialuhe railway station

Jialuhe railway station is a closed station on Zhengzhou–Kaifeng Intercity Railway. The station is located at the crossing of Zhengkai Avenue and Zhengxin Road, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Songchenglu railway station

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The Yunlianghe railway station is a railway station on Zhengzhou–Kaifeng Intercity Railway in Kaifeng, Henan, China.

Lüboyuan railway station

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Nancao railway station railway station in Zhengzhou, Henan

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Mengzhuang railway station railway station on Zhengzhou-Xinzheng Airport intercity railway

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Xinzheng Airport railway station railway station in Zhengzhou, China (for metro station, see Q55372404)

The Xinzheng Airport railway station is an underground railway station on Zhengzhou–Xinzheng Airport Intercity Railway in Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Kaifeng railway station

Kaifeng railway station is a station on Longhai railway in Kaifeng, Henan.

The Zhengzhou–Minquan Expressway, often referred to as Zhengmin Expressway and designated as S82 in Henan's expressway system, is 120.6-kilometre (74.9 mi) long regional expressway in Henan, China. The expressway connects Zhengzhou and Minquan County.

The Zhengzhounan railway station is an under-construction railway station in Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

References

  1. 中国古今地名大辞典 (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. 2005. p. 348.
  2. 1 2 Schellinger, Paul; Salkin, Robert, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 5: Asia and Oceania. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 420. ISBN   1-884964-04-4.
  3. Jacques Gernet. Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962). Translated by H. M. Wright. ISBN   0804707200.
  4. "Largest Cities Through History" . Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  5. Lorge, Peter (2005). War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795. Routledge. pp. 52–54. ISBN   978-0-203-96929-8.
  6. "The Eastern Manchurian Woodsmen Replacing the Western Manchurian Nomads" (PDF). Retrieved November 6, 2010.
  7. "Archived copy" 2017年民航机场生产统计公报 (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China. 2018-03-07. Archived from the original on 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2018-03-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. 郑州开封城铁开通:省委书记玩自拍 “包拯”捧场. new.qq.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  9. 郑徐高铁开封北站即将开门迎宾(组图). henan.people.com.cn (in Chinese). 2016-09-07. Retrieved 2018-08-02.
  10. 1 2 NPR
  11. "Archived copy" 豫菜成大器 任重而道远. Archived from the original on January 29, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. "China Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival" . Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  13. "友好都市". ekaifeng.gov.cn (in Chinese). Kaifeng. Retrieved 2020-07-14.

Further reading

Preceded by
Chang'an
Capital of China (as Kaifeng)
960−1127
Succeeded by
Lin'an