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Kakuyid Emirate

آل کاکویه
The Kakuyids at their greatest extent
Capital Isfahan
Common languages Persian
Shia Islam
Government Monarchy
Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar
Garshasp II
Historical era Middle Ages
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Buyids 970.png Buyid dynasty
Great Seljuq Empire Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
Atabegs of Yazd Blank.png

The Kakuyids (also called Kakwayhids, Kakuwayhids or Kakuyah) (Persian : آل کاکویه) were a Daylamite dynasty that held power in western Persia, Jibal and Persian Iraq (c. 1008c. 1051). They later became atabegs (governors) of Yazd, Isfahan and Abarkuh from c. 1051 to 1141. They were related to the Buyids. [1]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.


Jibāl was the name given by the Arabs to a region and province located in western Iran, under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates.

Persian Iraq Historical region of Persia

Persian Iraq, also uncommonly spelled Persian Irak, is a historical region of the western parts of Iran.



Many scholars consider the Kakuyids relatives of Sayyida Shirin, [2] [3] [4] who was from the Dailamite [4] [5] Bavand dynasty. [4] [6] [7]

Sayyida Shirin, also simply known as Sayyida, was a Bavandid princess, who was the wife of Buyid ruler of Ray, Fakhr al-Dawla. She was the de facto ruler of Ray during the reign of her son, Majd al-Dawla.

Bavand dynasty

The Bavand dynasty, or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.


The Kakuyids were given control of Isfahan in or before 1008 by Sayyida Shirin, who held the regencies of her young Buyid sons Majd al-Dawla of Ray and Shams al-Dawla of Hamadan. The man who was given the administration of the city was Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar. Over time, he effectively became independent of Buyid control.

Majd al-Dawla Buyid Emir

Abu Taleb Rostam, known as Majd al-Dawla, was the Buyid emir of Rayy, a city in Iran (997–1029). He was the eldest son of Fakhr al-Dawla. His reign saw the removal of the Buyids as a power in central Iran.

Shams al-Dawla Buyid ruler of Hamadan

Abu Taher was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan from 997 to 1021. He was the son of Fakhr al-Dawla.

Hamadan City in Iran

Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.

At times Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar acted as an ally of the Buyids; when Shams al-Dawla was faced with a revolt in Hamadan, for example, he turned to the Kakuyids for aid. Shortly after Shams al-Daula died, he was succeeded by Sama' al-Dawla, however, the Kakuyids invaded and took control of Hamadan in 1023 or 1024. They then moved on and seized Hulwan from the 'Annazids. The Buyid Musharrif al-Dawla, who ruled over Fars and Iraq, forced the Kakuyids to withdraw from Hulwan, but they retained Hamadan. Peace was made between the two sides, and a matrimonial alliance was eventually arranged.

Sama' al-Dawla was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan. He was the son of Shams al-Dawla.

Abu 'Ali, better known by his laqab of Musharrif al-Dawla, was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1021–1025). He was the youngest son of Baha' al-Dawla.

Fars Province Province in Region 2, Iran

Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2, and its administrative center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers (urban/suburbs), 32.1% villagers, and 0.3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region. Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.

Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar was succeeded in 1041 by his son Faramurz. While in Hamadan another Kakuyid, Garshasp I, took power. In 1095, Garshasp II became the new Emir of the Kakuyid dynasty, and was later killed at the Battle of Qatwan. [8] Faramurz's reign was cut short by the Seljuks, who after a year-long siege of Isfahan took the city in 1051 or 1052. Despite this, Faramurz was given Yazd and Abarkuh in fief by the Seljuks. The Kakuyids remained the governors of these provinces until sometime in the mid-12th century; their rule during this time was known for the construction of mosques, canals and fortifications.

Faramurz Kakuyid Emir of Isfahan

Abu Mansur Faramurz, mostly known as Faramurz, was the Kakuyid Emir of Isfahan. He was the eldest son of Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar. He was defeated by Tughril in 1051 and became his vassal. Faramurz later died after 1063, probably in the 1070s.

Garshasp I ibn Muhammad, mostly known as Garshasp I, was the Kakuyid emir of Hamadan, including Nihawand, Borujerd and western Jibal. He was the youngest son of Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar, and was the vassal king of his brother Faramurz. In 1047, the Seljuqs defeated his forces and seized Hamadan, which forced him to flee to Buyid territory, where he became governor of Khuzistan. In ca. 1050, Garshasp sent an army to aid the Ghaznavid ruler Maw'dud in his wars with the Seljuqs. Garshasp later died in 1051/2 in Khuzestan.

Garshasp II, was the last Kakuyid Emir of Yazd and Abarkuh. He was the son of Ali ibn Faramurz.

Kakuyid rulers

Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar

Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar, also known by his laqab of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad, was a Daylamite military commander who founded in 1008 the short-lived but important independent Kakuyid dynasty in Jibal. He is also known as Pusar-i Kaku, Ibn Kakuyeh, Ibn Kakuya, and Ibn Kaku, which means maternal uncle in the Deylami language, and is related to the Persian word "kaka". Muhammad died in September 1041 after having carved out a powerful kingdom which included western Persia and Jibal. However, these gains were quickly lost under his successors.

Isfahan City in Iran

Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.

Yazd City in Iran

Yazd, formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, and it is currently 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Family tree

Sharwin (Sharwin III?)
Sayyida Shirin
Rustam Dushmanziyar
Garshasp I
Abu Harb
Garshasp II

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  1. The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 37.
  2. Huart 1993, p. 667-668.
  3. Bosworth 1993, pp. 359-362.
  4. 1 2 3 Kennedy 2004, p. 244.
  5. Sadiq Sajjadi; Sayyid Ali Al-i Dawood. "Al-i Kakuya". CGIE . Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  6. Madelung 1975, p. 217.
  7. Madelung 1984, pp. 747-753.
  8. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, Historic cities of the Islamic world, (BRILL, 2007), 562.
  9. Dailamīs in Central Iran: The Kākūyids of Jibāl and Yazd, C. E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 8, (1970), 86.