The Kakuyids at their greatest extent
|Capital|| Isfahan |
|Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
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The Kakuyids (also called Kakwayhids, Kakuwayhids or Kakuyah) (Persian : آل کاکویه) were a Daylamite dynasty that held power in western Persia, Jibal and Persian Iraq (c. 1008–c. 1051). They later became atabegs (governors) of Yazd, Isfahan and Abarkuh from c. 1051 to 1141. They were related to the Buyids.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Jibāl was the name given by the Arabs to a region and province located in western Iran, under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates.
Persian Iraq, also uncommonly spelled Persian Irak, is a historical region of the western parts of Iran.
Many scholars consider the Kakuyids relatives of Sayyida Shirin,who was from the Dailamite Bavand dynasty.
Sayyida Shirin, also simply known as Sayyida, was a Bavandid princess, who was the wife of Buyid ruler of Ray, Fakhr al-Dawla. She was the de facto ruler of Ray during the reign of her son, Majd al-Dawla.
The Bavand dynasty, or simply the Bavandids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan (Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran from 651 until 1349, alternating between outright independence and submission as vassals to more powerful regional rulers.
The Kakuyids were given control of Isfahan in or before 1008 by Sayyida Shirin, who held the regencies of her young Buyid sons Majd al-Dawla of Ray and Shams al-Dawla of Hamadan. The man who was given the administration of the city was Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar. Over time, he effectively became independent of Buyid control.
Abu Taleb Rostam, known as Majd al-Dawla, was the Buyid emir of Rayy, a city in Iran (997–1029). He was the eldest son of Fakhr al-Dawla. His reign saw the removal of the Buyids as a power in central Iran.
Abu Taher was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan from 997 to 1021. He was the son of Fakhr al-Dawla.
Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.
At times Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar acted as an ally of the Buyids; when Shams al-Dawla was faced with a revolt in Hamadan, for example, he turned to the Kakuyids for aid. Shortly after Shams al-Daula died, he was succeeded by Sama' al-Dawla, however, the Kakuyids invaded and took control of Hamadan in 1023 or 1024. They then moved on and seized Hulwan from the 'Annazids. The Buyid Musharrif al-Dawla, who ruled over Fars and Iraq, forced the Kakuyids to withdraw from Hulwan, but they retained Hamadan. Peace was made between the two sides, and a matrimonial alliance was eventually arranged.
Sama' al-Dawla was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan. He was the son of Shams al-Dawla.
Abu 'Ali, better known by his laqab of Musharrif al-Dawla, was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1021–1025). He was the youngest son of Baha' al-Dawla.
Fars Province also known as Pars or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2, and its administrative center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers (urban/suburbs), 32.1% villagers, and 0.3% nomad tribes. The etymology of the word Persian, found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region. Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.
Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar was succeeded in 1041 by his son Faramurz. While in Hamadan another Kakuyid, Garshasp I, took power. In 1095, Garshasp II became the new Emir of the Kakuyid dynasty, and was later killed at the Battle of Qatwan.Faramurz's reign was cut short by the Seljuks, who after a year-long siege of Isfahan took the city in 1051 or 1052. Despite this, Faramurz was given Yazd and Abarkuh in fief by the Seljuks. The Kakuyids remained the governors of these provinces until sometime in the mid-12th century; their rule during this time was known for the construction of mosques, canals and fortifications.
Abu Mansur Faramurz, mostly known as Faramurz, was the Kakuyid Emir of Isfahan. He was the eldest son of Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar. He was defeated by Tughril in 1051 and became his vassal. Faramurz later died after 1063, probably in the 1070s.
Garshasp I ibn Muhammad, mostly known as Garshasp I, was the Kakuyid emir of Hamadan, including Nihawand, Borujerd and western Jibal. He was the youngest son of Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar, and was the vassal king of his brother Faramurz. In 1047, the Seljuqs defeated his forces and seized Hamadan, which forced him to flee to Buyid territory, where he became governor of Khuzistan. In ca. 1050, Garshasp sent an army to aid the Ghaznavid ruler Maw'dud in his wars with the Seljuqs. Garshasp later died in 1051/2 in Khuzestan.
Garshasp II, was the last Kakuyid Emir of Yazd and Abarkuh. He was the son of Ali ibn Faramurz.
Muhammad ibn Rustam Dushmanziyar, also known by his laqab of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad, was a Daylamite military commander who founded in 1008 the short-lived but important independent Kakuyid dynasty in Jibal. He is also known as Pusar-i Kaku, Ibn Kakuyeh, Ibn Kakuya, and Ibn Kaku, which means maternal uncle in the Deylami language, and is related to the Persian word "kaka". Muhammad died in September 1041 after having carved out a powerful kingdom which included western Persia and Jibal. However, these gains were quickly lost under his successors.
Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.
Yazd, formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, and it is currently 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
|Sharwin (Sharwin III?)|
|Sayyida Shirin||Rustam Dushmanziyar|
|Faramurz||Garshasp I||Abu Harb|
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids, also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire.
Mahmud II was the Seljuq sultan of Baghdad in 1118 following the death of his father Muhammad I. At the time Mahmud was fourteen, and ruled over Iraq and Persia.
Abu Mansur Buya, better known his honorific title of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983). He was the third son of Rukn al-Dawla.
Falak al-Ma'ali Manuchihr, better known as Manuchihr, was the ruler of the Ziyarids. He was the son of Qabus.
Mas'ud I of Ghazni, known as Amīr-i Shahīd, was sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 1030 to 1040. He rose to power by seizing the Ghaznavid throne from his younger twin Mohammad, who had been nominated as the heir upon the death of their father Mahmud of Ghazni. His twin was shortly blinded and imprisoned. However, when much of Mas'ud's western domains had been wrested from his control, his troops rebelled against him and reinstated Mohammad to the throne.
Abu 'l-Fadl Muhammad ibn Abi Abdallah al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Katib, commonly known after his father as Ibn al-'Amid was a Persian statesman who served as the vizier of the Buyid ruler Rukn al-Dawla for thirty years, from 940 until his death in 970. His son, Abu'l-Fath Ali ibn Muhammad, also called Ibn al-'Amid, succeeded him in his office.
Ali ibn Faramurz, was the Kakuyid Emir of Yazd and Abarkuh. He was the son of Faramurz.
Rustam Dushmanziyar was a Daylamite aristocrat and the ancestor of the Kakuyid dynasty. His personal name was Rustam, but was known as Dushmanziyar, which is the Daylami version of the Persian word Dushmanzar.
Ibn Fuladh, also known as Ibn Puladh, was a Daylamite military officer who is known for revolting against his Buyid overlords. He was the son of Fuladh ibn Manadhar, a prominent Buyid officer who was son of Manadhar, an Justanid king.
Bahram ibn Shahriyar, was an Iranian prince from the Bavand dynasty.
Al-Marzuban, was the thirteenth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 979 to 986. He was the son and successor of Rustam II. In some sources, his name was changed to Rustam ibn al-Marzuban, which caused confusion among the historians, and made them think that they were two people.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad, was the ruler of the Bavand dynasty from an unknown date until his capture and defeat by the Kakuyids in 1027.