Kalat, Pakistan

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Kalat

قلات

Qalāt
District Headquarter / City
Gate of Kelat.jpg
Outer wall of Kalat city
Locator map Balochistan Pakistan.svg
Red pog.svg
Kalat
Location of Kalat
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kalat
Kalat (Pakistan)
Coordinates: 29°01′48″N66°35′20″E / 29.030°N 66.589°E / 29.030; 66.589 Coordinates: 29°01′48″N66°35′20″E / 29.030°N 66.589°E / 29.030; 66.589
Country Pakistan
Region Balochistan
District Kalat
Government
  TypeCity
Elevation
2,007 m (6,585 ft)
Time zone UTC+5 (PST)
Area code(s) +92844

Kalāt or Qalāt (Brahui/Urdu : قلات), historically known as Qīqān, [1] [2] is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-e-Brahui and Kalat-e-Sewa. [3]

Contents

Qalat, formerly Qilat, is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, It was the capital of the Kalat Khanate. The current Khan of Kalat is a ceremonial title held by Mir Suleman Dawood Jan, and efforts have been made by the Pakistani government to reconcile with him; his son Prince Mohammed, who is next in line to be the Khan of Kalat, is pro-Pakistan. [4]

Climate

With virtually no rainfall during the year, Kalat features a cold desert climate (BWk) under the Köppen climate classification. The average temperature in Kalat is 14.1 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 163 mm. June is the driest month with 1 mm of rainfall, while January, the wettest month, has an average precipitation of 36 mm.

July is the warmest month of the year with an average temperature of 24.8 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 3.4 °C.

Climate data for Kalat
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)10.3
(50.5)
12.1
(53.8)
17.1
(62.8)
22.1
(71.8)
27.4
(81.3)
31.9
(89.4)
32.6
(90.7)
31.7
(89.1)
28.6
(83.5)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
13.1
(55.6)
22.3
(72.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)3.4
(38.1)
5.3
(41.5)
9.8
(49.6)
14.3
(57.7)
18.9
(66.0)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
23.4
(74.1)
19.4
(66.9)
13.8
(56.8)
8.6
(47.5)
4.9
(40.8)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F)−3.5
(25.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.6
(36.7)
6.6
(43.9)
10.5
(50.9)
13.5
(56.3)
17.0
(62.6)
15.2
(59.4)
10.3
(50.5)
4.3
(39.7)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
6.0
(42.7)
Source: Climate-Data.org [5]

Demographics

The population is mostly Muslim, with a Hindu population of two percent. [6] In addition, there are some Hindu Hindkowan merchants who have settled in Kalat. [7] [8]

Kalat Kali Temple

As such, there is a Hindu mandir below citadel of the city, dedicated to Goddess Kali; this mandir dates back to pre-Islamic era of South Asia. Associated with Hindu Hindkowans Bhatia caste

History

It has been known in earlier times as Kalat-i-Seva (from a legendary Hindu king) and Kalat-i Nichari which connects it with the Brahui Speaking tribes of Nichari, which is generally accepted as belonging to the oldest branch of the indigenous Brahois [9]

The town of Kalat is said to have been founded by and named Qalat-e Sewa (Sewa's Fort), after Sewa, a legendary hero of the Brahui people.

The Brahui Speaking tribes arrived from east in the Qalat area way before the arrival of Balochi speaking tribes from the west. The Brohis established a large kingdom in the 15th century, but it soon declined and the region fell to Mughals for a short period. The brahui speaking Khans of Qalat were dominant from the 17th century onwards until the arrival of the British in the 19th century. A treaty was signed in 1876 to make Qalat part of the British Empire.

In 1947, the Khan of Kalat reportedly acceded to the dominion of Pakistan. In 1948, Qalat became part of Pakistan when the British withdrew. The last Khan of Qalat was formally removed from power in 1955, but the title is still claimed by his descendants. The current Khan of Qalat is Mir Suleman Dawood Khan Ahmadzai.

Related Research Articles

Balochistan, Pakistan Province of Pakistan

Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is the largest province in terms of land area, forming the southwestern region of the country, but is the least populated. Its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta.

Demographics of Pakistan

Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 according to the 2017 Census of Pakistan. Pakistan is the world's fifth-most-populous country.

Baloch people ethnic group native to South and Central Asia

The Baloch or Baluch are an Iranian people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as neighboring regions, including those in India; and having a significant diaspora in the Arabian Peninsula.

Brahui people ethnic group

The Brahui, Brahvi, or Brohi, are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Balochistan, Pakistan. They are also found in small numbers in Afghanistan and Iran, where they are native, but they are also found through their diaspora in other Middle Eastern states. They mainly occupy the area in Balochistan from Bolan Pass through the Bolan Hills to Ras Muari on the Arabian sea, separating the Baloch people of Balochistan to the west and the Sindhi people of Sindh in the east. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims. There is a varied pattern of language use among the Brahui: some of the constituent groups predominantly speak the Dravidian Brahui language, some are bilingual in Balochi and Brahui, while others are speakers only of Balochi.

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Kalat District District in Balochistan, Pakistan

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Makran (princely state)

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Kalat Kali Temple

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References

  1. Baig, Zeeshan Muhammad (December 10, 2017). "باب الاسلام سندھ ؛ محمد بن قاسم سے قبل سندھ پر حملے کی اسلامی جنگی مہمات". Express .
  2. Asif, Manan Ahmed (September 19, 2016). A Book of Conquest. Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780674660113 via Google Books.
  3. Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43. Viking Fund. 1908. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Below the citadel lies a Hindu temple of Kāli, probably of pre-Muhammadan date.
  4. Shahid, Saleem (June 29, 2015). "Khan of Kalat being persuaded to return home". DAWN.COM.
  5. "Climate: Kalat - Climate-Data.org" . Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 3. Encyclopœdia Britannica. 1964. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Almost all the people are Muslim ; the largest Hindu minorities are in the Sibi (9%) and Kalat (2%) districts.
  7. Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43. Viking Fund. 1966. Retrieved 2008-08-17. ...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.
  8. The social organization of the Marri Baluch. Indus Publications. 1977. Retrieved 2008-08-17. ...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.
  9. E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4 By M. Th. Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor Houtsma Page 678