Kalat, Pakistan

Last updated


District Headquarter / City
Gate of Kelat.jpg
Outer wall of Kalat city
Locator map Balochistan Pakistan.svg
Red pog.svg
Location of Kalat
Pakistan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Kalat (Pakistan)
Coordinates: 29°01′48″N66°35′20″E / 29.030°N 66.589°E / 29.030; 66.589 Coordinates: 29°01′48″N66°35′20″E / 29.030°N 66.589°E / 29.030; 66.589
Country Pakistan
Region Balochistan
District Kalat
2,007 m (6,585 ft)
Time zone UTC+5 (PST)
Area code(s) +92844

Kalāt or Qalāt (Brahui/Urdu : قلات), historically known as Qīqān, [1] [2] is a historical town located in Kalat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Kalat is the capital of Kalat District and is known locally as Kalat-e-Brahui and Kalat-e-Sewa. [3]


Qalat, formerly Qilat, is located roughly in the center of Balochistan, Pakistan, It was the capital of the Kalat Khanate. The current Khan of Kalat is a ceremonial title held by Mir Suleman Dawood Jan, and efforts have been made by the Pakistani government to reconcile with him; his son Prince Mohammed, who is next in line to be the Khan of Kalat, is pro-Pakistan. [4]


With virtually no rainfall during the year, Kalat features a cold desert climate (BWk) under the Köppen climate classification. The average temperature in Kalat is 14.1 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 163 mm. June is the driest month with 1 mm of rainfall, while January, the wettest month, has an average precipitation of 36 mm.

July is the warmest month of the year with an average temperature of 24.8 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 3.4 °C.

Climate data for Kalat
Average high °C (°F)10.3
Daily mean °C (°F)3.4
Average low °C (°F)−3.5
Source: Climate-Data.org [5]


The population is mostly Muslim, with a Hindu population of two percent. [6] In addition, there are some Hindu Hindkowan merchants who have settled in Kalat. [7] [8]

Kalat Kali Temple

As such, there is a Hindu mandir below citadel of the city, dedicated to Goddess Kali; this mandir dates back to pre-Islamic era of South Asia. Associated with Hindu Hindkowans Bhatia caste


It has been known in earlier times as Kalat-i-Seva (from a legendary Hindu king) and Kalat-i Nichari which connects it with the Brahui Speaking tribes of Nichari, which is generally accepted as belonging to the oldest branch of the indigenous Brahois [9]

The town of Kalat is said to have been founded by and named Qalat-e Sewa (Sewa's Fort), after Sewa, a legendary hero of the Brahui people.

The Brahui Speaking tribes arrived from east in the Qalat area way before the arrival of Balochi speaking tribes from the west. The Brohis established a large kingdom in the 15th century, but it soon declined and the region fell to Mughals for a short period. The brahui speaking Khans of Qalat were dominant from the 17th century onwards until the arrival of the British in the 19th century. A treaty was signed in 1876 to make Qalat part of the British Empire.

In 1947, the Khan of Kalat reportedly acceded to the dominion of Pakistan. In 1948, Qalat became part of Pakistan when the British withdrew. The last Khan of Qalat was formally removed from power in 1955, but the title is still claimed by his descendants. The current Khan of Qalat is Mir Suleman Dawood Khan Ahmadzai.

Related Research Articles

Balochistan, Pakistan Province of Pakistan

Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It is the largest province in terms of land area, forming the southwestern region of the country, but is the least populated. Its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta.

Demographics of Pakistan

Pakistan's latest estimated population is 207,774,520 according to the 2017 Census of Pakistan. Pakistan is the world's fifth-most-populous country.

Baloch people ethnic group native to South and Central Asia

The Baloch or Baluch are an Iranian people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as neighboring regions, including those in India; and having a significant diaspora in the Arabian Peninsula.

Brahui people ethnic group

The Brahui, Brahvi, or Brohi, are an ethnic group of about 2.2 million people with the vast majority found in Balochistan, Pakistan. They are also found in small numbers in Afghanistan and Iran, where they are native, but they are also found through their diaspora in other Middle Eastern states. They mainly occupy the area in Balochistan from Bolan Pass through the Bolan Hills to Ras Muari on the Arabian sea, separating the Baloch people of Balochistan to the west and the Sindhi people of Sindh in the east. The Brahuis are almost entirely Sunni Muslims. There is a varied pattern of language use among the Brahui: some of the constituent groups predominantly speak the Dravidian Brahui language, some are bilingual in Balochi and Brahui, while others are speakers only of Balochi.

History of Balochistan

The history of Balochistan began in 650 BCE with vague allusions to the region in Greek historical records. Balochistan is divided between the Pakistani province of Balochistan, the Iranian province of Sistan and Baluchestan and the Afghan region of Balochistan. Prehistoric Balochistan dates to the Paleolithic.

Kalat District District in Balochistan, Pakistan

Qalat or Kalat is a district in Balochistan, Pakistan. It is one of 26 in that province, and encompasses an area of 6,621 km2 (2,556 sq mi). The population of the district is estimated to be over 400,000 in 2005. The district is governed from the city of Kalat.

Khuzdar City in Balochistan, Pakistan

Khuzdār, historically known as Quṣdār, is the capital city of Khuzdar District in the central part of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Historically, Khuzdar was the main city and capital of the Jhalawan province of the Khanate of Kalat. From October 1952 to 1955, it became part of the Balochistan States Union. In 1955, Khuzdar became the capital of the newly formed Kalat Division. Currently, Khuzdar is the third-largest city of Balochistan Province after Quetta and Turbat, and is also the largest Brahui-speaking city.

Sibi City in Balochistan, Pakistan

Sibi or Siwei is a city situated in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. The city is the headquarters of the district and tehsil of the same name.

Khanate of Kalat Former princely state in Pakistan

The Khanate of Kalat was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Baloch and Brahui Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 until 27 March 1948, when the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.

Makran (princely state)

Makran was an autonomous princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India until 1947, then from 1948 a princely state of Pakistan. It ceased to exist in 1955. It was located in the extreme southwest of present-day Pakistan, an area now occupied by the districts of Gwadar, Kech and Panjgur. The state did not include the enclave of Gwadar, which was under Omani rule until 1958.

Mengal is a Brahui tribe.

Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo was a prominent Baloch politician of Balochistan, Pakistan. He was born in Nall Khuzdar Balochistan in either December 1917 His father's name was Safar Khan. One of the founding members of the National Awami Party, he served as the Governor of Balochistan from 1972 to 1973 and was a key signatory to Pakistans Third constitution.

Insurgency in Balochistan

The Insurgency in Balochistan is a guerrilla war being waged by Baloch nationalists against the governments of Pakistan and Iran in the Balochistan region, which covers the Balochistan Province in southwestern Pakistan, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran, and the Balochistan region of southern Afghanistan. Rich in natural resources like natural gas, oil, coal, copper, sulphur, fluoride and gold, this is the largest and least developed province in Pakistan. Armed groups demand greater control of the province's natural resources and political autonomy. Baloch separatists have attacked civilians from other ethnicities throughout the province. In the 2010s, attacks against the Shi'a community by sectarian groups—though not always directly related to the political struggle—have risen, contributing to tensions in Balochistan.

The Langau, or Langah, are a Sulemani-speaking Baloch tribe in Balochistan, Pakistan.

Hindkowans are an Indo-Aryan linguistic-cultural group, which is native to the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pothohar Plateau and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan. Hindkowans speak various Hindko dialects of the Lahnda language family in contrast to Pashto.

Gul Khan Nasir Pakistani writer

Mir Gul Khan Naseer, also widely regarded as Malek o-Sho'arā Balochistan was a prominent politician, poet, historian, and journalist from Balochistan, Pakistan. Born on 14 May 1914 in Noshki, Gul Khan Naseer was at the forefront of the Baloch nationalist movement and was most active between 1935 and 1980. His father's name was Mir Habib Khan and he belonged to the Paindzai family of the Zagar Mengal sub branch of the Mengal tribe. Mir Gul Khan's mother “Bibi Hooran” belonged to the Rakhshani branch of the Bolazai Badini. Mir Habib Khan had five sons and three daughters. Mir Gul Khan Nasir was number seven among his eight siblings and he was the fourth amongst his brothers (i.e.) Mir Samand Khan, Mir Lawang Khan, Mir Lal Bux, Mir Gul Khan and Col. Sultan Mohammad Khan.

The major ethnic groups of Pakistan include Muslim Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Paharis, Hindkowans, Chitralis and other smaller groups. Smaller ethnic groups found throughout the nation include Kashmiris, Kalash, Siddi, Burusho, Wakhis, Khowar, Hazara, Shina, Kalyu Baltis and Jatts.

Nawab Sanaullah Khan Zehri was the Chief Minister of Balochistan from 24 December 2015 to 9 December 2017. He belongs to Channal Zarakzai family and also the Nawab of the Zehri tribe and chief of Jhalawan & Zehri is a Sub Caste of Baloch. Zehri succeeded Abdul Malik Baloch as chief minister Balochistan, Pakistan on 24 December 2015 as part of the power sharing deal brokered in the resort town of Murree. Zehri is the central president of the Pakistan Muslim League's Balochistan branch and a confidant of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

Dajal, Rajanpur Town in Punjab, Pakistan

Daajal is a small town in the south-west of Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in Jampur Tehsil, Rajanpur District. It has a population of around 50,000, and the main languages spoken are Saraiki and Balochi.

Kalat Kali Temple

Kalat Kali Mandir is a Hindu temple located in Kalat, Pakistan in Balochistan province devoted to the Hindu deity Kali.It was built 1500 years ago.The temple has the second biggest Kali Mata Statue in Asia. Hindus not only of Pakistan but from India also comes here to visit the mandir.


  1. Baig, Zeeshan Muhammad (December 10, 2017). "باب الاسلام سندھ ؛ محمد بن قاسم سے قبل سندھ پر حملے کی اسلامی جنگی مہمات". Express .
  2. Asif, Manan Ahmed (September 19, 2016). A Book of Conquest. Harvard University Press. ISBN   9780674660113 via Google Books.
  3. Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43. Viking Fund. 1908. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Below the citadel lies a Hindu temple of Kāli, probably of pre-Muhammadan date.
  4. Shahid, Saleem (June 29, 2015). "Khan of Kalat being persuaded to return home". DAWN.COM.
  5. "Climate: Kalat - Climate-Data.org" . Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 3. Encyclopœdia Britannica. 1964. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Almost all the people are Muslim ; the largest Hindu minorities are in the Sibi (9%) and Kalat (2%) districts.
  7. Viking fund publications in anthropology, Issue 43. Viking Fund. 1966. Retrieved 2008-08-17. ...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.
  8. The social organization of the Marri Baluch. Indus Publications. 1977. Retrieved 2008-08-17. ...is in the hands of a small caste of Hindu merchants. These Hindus are Hindko-speaking and regard Kalat as their homeland, where they generally keep their families and go for some months every year to visit and to obtain supplies. While in the Marri area, they must be under the protection of a local Marri chief or the sardar himself.
  9. E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4 By M. Th. Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor Houtsma Page 678