|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• Density||4,726/km2 (12,240/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone)|
Kalmunai (Tamil : கல்முனை, romanized: Kalmuṉai; Sinhala : කල්මුනේ, romanized: Kalmunē) is the largest city of Ampara District. It is also the largest city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. It had a total population of 106,780 as of 2011. It is one of the few Muslim-majority municipalities in the country. When Muslims in Colombo were expelled by Portuguese in the 17th century, they fled to Kandy and sought refuge with King Rajasinha II, who resettled these refugees in Kalmunai (8,000 refugees) and Kattankudy (4,000). Kalmunai was the site of the royal farm, as a result of this settlement, it became a Muslim-majority area.
There were Sri Lankan Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, Sinhalese, and Burghers with the Moors forming a majority. It consists of four major regions namely Kalmunai city (Thalavatuvan Junction to Zahira College Road), Kalmunai North (Pandiruppu, Maruthamunai, and Neelavanai), Kalmunai South (Sainthamaruthu) and Kalmunai West (Natpittimunai, Chenaikudiruppu).
The devastating Sri Lankan civil war has adversely affected the area with number a forced disappearances, and civil unrest targeting the local civilians. The city was also severely impacted by the 2004 Tsunami, leading to many deaths and property destruction running into the millions of rupees.
The city is bounded on the east by the Indian Ocean on the north by the Periyaneelavanai village and on the south by Karaitivu village which is considered to be a suburb of the city.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Thamizhar or simply Tamils, are an ethnic Dravadic ethnic group who predominantly speak the Tamil language and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu or Sri Lanka. Tamils constitute 5.9% of the population in India, 15% in Sri Lanka, 6% in Mauritius, 7% in Malaysia and 5% in Singapore. Tamils, with a population of around 76 million and with a documented history stretching back over 2600 years, are one of the largest and oldest extant ethnolinguistic groups in the modern world.
Batticaloa is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital. It is the administrative capital of the Batticaloa District. The city is the seat of the Eastern University of Sri Lanka and is a major commercial city. It is on the east coast, 111 kilometres (69 mi) south of Trincomalee, and is situated on an island. Pasikudah is popular tourist destinations situated 35 km northwest with beaches and flat year-round warm-water shallow-lagoons.
The caste systems in Sri Lanka are social stratification systems found among the ethnic groups of the island since ancient times. The models are similar to those found in Continental India, but are less extensive and important for various reasons, although the caste systems still play an important and at least symbolic role in religion and politics. Sri Lanka is often considered to be a casteless or caste-blind society by Indians.
Sri Lankan Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylon Tamils or simply Tamils, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka. Today, they constitute a majority in the Northern Province, live in significant numbers in the Eastern Province and are in the minority throughout the rest of the country. 70% of Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka live in the Northern and Eastern provinces.
Sri Lankan Mukkuvar is a Tamil caste found in the coastal regions of Sri Lanka.
Negombo is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the west coast and at the mouth of the Negombo Lagoon, in Western Province, 38 km from Colombo via Colombo - Katunayake Expressway.
Sri Lankan Moors are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.2% of the country's total population. They are mainly native speakers of the Tamil language with influence of Sinhalese and Arabic words. They are predominantly followers of Islam. The Sri Lankan Muslim community is divided as Sri Lankan Moors, Indian Moors and Sri Lankan Malays as per their history and traditions.
The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora refers to the global diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. It can be said to be a subset of the larger Sri Lankan and Tamil diaspora.
The Kalmunai massacre refers to a series of mass killings that occurred in June 1990 in Kalmunai, a municipality within the Ampara District of Sri Lanka's Eastern Province. The massacre of civilians was allegedly carried out by the Sri Lankan Army in retaliation for an earlier massacre of Sri Lankan police officers. The University Teachers for Human Rights, a human rights organization, put the number of dead in the second massacre at 250, while a local Member of Parliament claimed that at least 160 people were killed.
Ceylon was the British Crown colony of present-day Sri Lanka between 1815 and 1948. Initially the area it covered did not include the Kingdom of Kandy, which was a protectorate, but from 1817 to 1948 the British possessions included the whole island of Ceylon, now the nation of Sri Lanka.
Karaitivu is a coastal village situated in the Eastern Coast of Sri Lanka about 30 miles (44 km) south of Batticaloa and is next to Kalmunai town. This is one of the oldest surviving village settlements in the Ampara District.
The 1956 Ceylonese riots, known as the Gal Oya riots, were the first ethnic riots between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon. The worst of the violence took place in the Gal Oya valley, where local majority Sinhalese colonists and employees of the Gal Oya Development Board commandeered government vehicles, dynamite and weapons and massacred minority Tamils. It is estimated that over 150 people lost their lives during the violence. Although initially inactive, the police and army were eventually able to bring the situation under control.
Social Class in Sri Lanka is often described as a casteless, though caste is still found on the island in both a symbolic and a practical sense, and also in an anagolous sense to refer to new social class divisions that have appeared in recent decades. The combination of ethnic nationalist movements that saw caste as an island-wide dividing tool, strong emphasis on providing access to education and healthcare regardless of background, and historic lack of discrimination among the colonial civil service played a factor in eradicating the caste system in most sectors of the island's society. Although the Buddhist culture actively fought against all forms of class discrimination, many Buddhist organizations used caste as a method to extract surplus from temple property.
Mannar District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the town of Mannar.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It is the administrative headquarters of the Jaffna District located on a peninsula of the same name. With a population of 88,138 in 2012, Jaffna is Sri Lanka's 12th most populous city. Jaffna is approximately six miles from Kandarodai which served as an emporium in the Jaffna peninsula from classical antiquity. Jaffna's suburb Nallur, served as the capital of the four-century-long medieval Jaffna Kingdom.
Mohammed Hussain Mohammed Ashraff was a Sri Lankan lawyer, politician, government minister and founder/leader of the Sri Lanka Muslim Congress.
Sammanthurai, is a town in Ampara District of Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Sammanthurai situated at, is 4.8 km west of the Bay of Bengal coast. It lies between the towns of Ampara and Karaitivu along the A31 road. It is surrounded by paddy fields and it is renowned for its rice paddies and its inner harbour from ancient times.
Batticaloa region (Tamil: மட்டக்களப்புத் தேசம் Maṭṭakkaḷapput tēcam; also known as Matecalo; Baticalo; in Colonial records, was the ancient region of Tamil Settlements in Sri Lanka. The foremost record of this region can be seen in Portuguese and Dutch historical documents along with local inscriptions such as "Sammanthurai Copper epigraphs" written on 1683 CE which also mentions about "Mattakkalappu Desam". Although there is no more the existence of Batticaloa region today, the amended term "Batti-Ampara Districts" still can be seen in the Tamil print media of Sri Lanka.
The 1987 Eastern Province massacres were a series of massacres of the Sinhalese population in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka during the Sri Lankan Civil War. Though they began spontaneously, they became more organized, with the LTTE leading the violence.