Kamal Amrohi in the 1950s
Syed Amir Haider Kamal Naqvi
17 January 1918
|Died||11 February 1993 75) (aged|
|Burial place||Rahmatabad cemetery, Mumbai|
|Other names||Kamal Amrohvi, Chandan.|
|Occupation||film director and producer, screenwriter, dialogue writer|
|Spouse(s)||Bilkis Bano, |
(m. 1952;sep. 1964)
|Awards||1961: Filmfare Best Dialogue Award: Mughal E Azam|
Syed Amir Haider Kamal Naqvi (Urdu : سیّد امِیر حَیدر کمال نقوی ), popularly known as Kamal Amrohi (Urdu : کمال امروہی ), (17 January 1918 – 11 February 1993) was an Indian film director and screenwriter. He was also an Urdu and Hindi poet.
Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50% of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular ethnicity or language; the Indian nationality consists of dozens of regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of the country. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia, North America, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Africa.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film.
A screenplay writer, scriptwriter or scenarist is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs and video games, are based.
His Hindi films include Mahal (1949), Pakeezah (1972) and Razia Sultan (1983). He established Kamal Pictures (Mahal Films) in 1953 and Kamalistan Studio in Bombay in 1958.
Mahal is a 1949 Indian Hindi film directed by Kamal Amrohi and starring Ashok Kumar and Madhubala. It was India's first reincarnation thriller film.
Pakeezah is a 1972 Indian cult classic film, written and directed by Kamal Amrohi, who was known for his perfectionism. The music is by Ghulam Mohammed and Naushad Ali. The film starred Meena Kumari, Raaj Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Nadira, D.K. Sapru and Veena. Meena Kumari's performance as a golden-hearted Lucknow nautch-girl drew major praise. However, this was to be Meena Kumari's last performance.
Kamal Amrohi was born in Amroha, United Provinces in British India (present-day Uttar Pradesh) and later took on the name Kamal Amrohi (or Amrohvi).He was a first cousin to Pakistani writers Jaun Elia and Rais Amrohvi.
Amroha is a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh state in India. It is located north-west of Moradabad, near the Sot River. It is the administrative headquarters of the Amroha district.
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.
Jaun Elia was a Pakistani progressive Marxist Urdu poet, philosopher, biographer, and scholar. He was the brother of Rais Amrohvi and Syed Muhammad Taqi, who were journalists and psychoanalysts. He was fluent in Urdu, Arabic, English, Persian, Sanskrit and Hebrew. One of the most prominent modern Pakistani poets, popular for his unconventional ways, he "acquired knowledge of philosophy, logic, Islamic history, the Muslim Sufi tradition, Muslim religious sciences, Western literature, and Kabbala."
In 1938, he left Amroha to study in Lahore, now part of Pakistan, where singer K. L. Saigal discovered him and took him to Mumbai (Bombay) to work for Sohrab Modi's Minerva Movietone film company, where he started his career working on films like Jailor (1938), Pukar (1939), Bharosa (1940), A. R. Kardar's film (Shahjehan 1946). He made his debut as a director in 1949, with Mahal , starring Madhubala and Ashok Kumar, which was a musical hit, with songs by Lata Mangeshkar and Rajkumari Dubey.
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities, with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, and historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
Kundanlal Saigal, often abbreviated as K. L. Saigal, was an Indian singer and actor who is considered the first superstar of the Hindi film industry, which was centred in Kolkata during Saigal's time, but is currently centred in Mumbai. Saigal's unique voice quality which was a mixture of baritone and soft tenor was the benchmark for most of the singers who followed him. In fact it remains the gold standard even today shining through very early and practically primitive recording technology.
He directed only four films; of these were Mahal (1949) for Bombay Talkies, Daera (1953) with Meena Kumari and Nasir Khan, Pakeezah , which was conceived in 1958 but was not brought to the screen until 1972. He also wrote the screenplay, lyrics and produced the latter. Film Pakeezah (1972) has been called one of the extraordinary musical melodramas ever made in India, although flawed but noble.Meena Kumari herself, in her public comments to the press, after seeing the movie, said that it was Kamal Amrohi's tribute to her. This was followed by Razia Sultan (1983), his last film. Though, he started a film, Majnoon with Rajesh Khanna and Rakhee Gulzar as leads, however the film got shelved.
Bombay Talkies was a movie studio founded in 1934. During its period of operation, Bombay Talkies produced 40 movies in Malad, a suburb of the Indian city of Bombay.
Rajesh Khanna was an Indian actor, film producer and politician who is known for his work in Hindi cinema. He is referred to as the "first superstar" of Indian Cinema. He starred in 15 consecutive solo hit films from 1969 to 1971, still an unbroken record.
Raakhee Gulzar is a former Indian film actress who has primarily appeared in Hindi films, as well as in many Bengali films. In four decades of acting, she has won three Filmfare Awards and one National Film Award, apart from many other awards. At Filmfare, Raakhee has been nominated 16 times in all, making her the most-nominated performer in the female categories, alongside Madhuri Dixit and Rani Mukerji. Her first hindi film was in Sharmeelee where she acted as her own twin
He wrote scripts for the movies made by Sohrab Modi, Abdul Rashid Kardar and K. Asif.He was one of the four dialogue writers for the latter's famous 1960 movie, Mughal-e-Azam , for which he won the Filmfare Award.
Sohrab Modi (1897–1984) was an Indian Parsi stage and film actor, director and producer. His films include Khoon Ka Khoon (1935), a version of Shakespeare's Hamlet, Sikandar, Pukar, Prithvi Vallabh, Jhansi ki Rani, Mirza Ghalib, Jailor and Nausherwan-E-Adil (1957). His films always carried a message of strong commitment to social and national issues.
K. Asif, born Asif Karim, was an Indian film director, film producer and screenwriter who is famous for his work on the Hindi epic motion picture, Mughal-e-Azam (1960).
Mughal-e-Azam is a 1960 Indian epic historical drama film directed by K. Asif and produced by Shapoorji Pallonji. Starring Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, and Durga Khote, it follows the love affair between Mughal Prince Salim and Anarkali, a court dancer. Salim's father, Emperor Akbar, disapproves of the relationship, which leads to a war between father and son.
As a director, he developed a style that combined a stylised direction with minimalist performances. This style was different from the one with expressive acting that was common in Indian cinema of his period.[ citation needed ]
In 1958, he started Kamaal Studios for his banner Mahal Films, though it closed down after three years and later changed hands to become Natraj Studios.[ citation needed ]
It was mentioned that the last movie he wanted to make was called Aakhri Mughal. He had written a substantial portion of the script. But it went into oblivion after his death.[ citation needed ] Noted film maker J P Dutta was to revive the film in the late 1990s which was supposed to have been Abhishekh Bachchan's debut movie. But later Dutta scrapped the project. He was again planning to revive the film in 2007 after the debacle of his costume drama Umrao Jaan (2006) remake from the cult film from the 1980s.[ citation needed ]
Amrohi married three times: His first wife was Bilkis Bano (who was a maid to Nargis's mother, Jaddan Bai). His second wife was Sayeda Al-Zehra Mehmoodi, daughter of Jamal Hasan. She died on 9 April 1982.He met Meena Kumari during the filming of Tamasha . Veteran actor Ashok Kumar introduced them. They fell in love and married on 14 February 1952, on Valentine's Day in a much private ceremony. Only Amrohi's friend Baaqar Ali and Meena Kumari's younger sister Madhu were aware of this development.
The couple then made Daera (1953 film), a film based on their love story, however the movie tanked at the box office. During the filming of Azaad in 1954, both of them planned another movie, Pakeezah.[ citation needed ] The film went on studio floors by 1956, but as the craze of colour films increased, particularly after the release of Mother India (1957), the black & white scenes were re-shot to colour sequences. After the release of Guru Dutt's classic Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959 film) which marked the arrival of Cinemascope technique, the film was again shot, this time in Cinemascope.[ citation needed ] By the 1960s, Meena Kumari was at the peak of her career which caused tensions between the couple and ultimately led to a mutual separation in March 1964. Film Pakeezah got shelved. In March 1969, the film was revived with an ill Meena Kumari, (due to her alcoholism) in the lead. They lived together for a total of 11 years. Raaj Kumar was roped in, as by that time, Ashok Kumar- the original lead was too old to portray the hero of the film.
Pakeezah was released on 4 February 1972, 14 years after it first began. Unfortunately, it received a lukewarm response from the critics. Although the film received warm reception from the audience, it was Meena Kumari's untimely death on 31 March 1972 which acted as an ultimate push and made it one of the top grossers of that year. The film is now considered as a cult classic and has a status much similar to K. Asif's 1960 magnum opus, Mughal-E-Azam .
Kamal Amrohi had three children with Mehmoodie: two sons, Shandaar and Taajdaar, both of whom worked with him in Razia Sultan (1983 film) , [ citation needed ]and a daughter, Rukhsar Amrohi. He had no children with Meena Kumari. Shandaar died on 21 August 2011 in Goa. He was survived by his wives, Shahida Amrohi and Khursheed Naqvi Amrohi. He was laid to rest in Mumbai the following day. Amrohi's grandsons Mashhoor Amrohi and Bilal Amrohi are also actors.
Kamal Amrohi Studios (Kamalistan Studios) was established in 1958, spread over 15 acre, it is situated in Jogeshwari East, off Jogeshwari – Vikhroli Link Road in Mumbai. It continues to run, managed by Amrohi's son, Tajdar Amrohi; despite 2010 news reports of it being sold,and continued litigation thereafter. Over the years, it has been venues of films like Razia Sultan (1983) Kamal Amrohi's last film as a director, Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) and Kaalia (1981), Khalnayak (1993), Koyla (1997), and recently the first schedule of film, Dabangg 2 was shot there in 2012, apart from the television shows are also shot at the complex.
Amrohi died on 11 February 1993 in Mumbai [ citation needed ], twenty one years after his wife Meena Kumari's death and ten years after making his last film, Razia Sultan (1983). He was buried next to Meena Kumari in Rehmatabad Qabristan, an Indian-Iranian graveyard in Mumbai.
Kamal Amrohi's only daughter from his second wife, Mehmoodie, Rukhsaar Amrohi (fondly called 'bitiya' as a child by Kamal Amrohi) gave a newspaper interview describing her version of life-events, which she witnessed, between her father Kamal Amrohi and Meena Kumari.
|Prem Ki Jyot||1939|
|Romeo & Juliet||1947|
|Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai||1960|
|Mughal E Azam||1960||Won-Filmfare Best Dialogue Award|
|Zindagi aur Khwab||1961|
Nominated-Filmfare Award for Best Director.
Also Songwriter of the film
|Shankar Hussain||1977||Also Songwriter of the film|
|Razia Sultan||1983|| |
1998 Such a Long Journey (writer: "Thare rahiyo")
Madhubala, was an Indian film actress who appeared in Hindi films. She was active between 1942 and 1964. Known for her beauty, personality, and sensitive portrayals of tragic women, she was also known as The Beauty With Tragedy and The Venus Queen of Indian Cinema. Her comparison with Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe earned her the name Marilyn Monroe of Bollywood.
Jogeshwari is a suburb located in the western part of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is notable for its caves - 'Mahakali Caves', particularly one containing a shrine of the Hindu God Shiva, his family and the deity Hanuman. It belongs to the K/E ward of Mumbai.
Mohammed Zahur "Khayyam" Hashmi, better known as Khayyam, is an Indian music director and background score composer whose career spanned four decades (1953–1990).
Meena Kumari was an Indian film actress, singer and poet under the pseudonym Naaz, who starred in classic films of Hindi Cinema. Popularly known as The Tragedy Queen, Chinese Doll and Female Guru Dutt, she is often remembered as Cinderella of Indian films. She was active between 1939-1972.
Veena, also known as Veena Kumari, real name Tajour Sultana, was an Indian actress.
Pradeep Kumar was an Indian actor who is recognized for his work in Hindi English and Bengali cinema.
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam is a 1962 Indian Hindi film produced by Guru Dutt and directed by Abrar Alvi. It is based on a Bengali novel, Saheb Bibi Golam by Bimal Mitra, and is a look into the tragic fall of the haveli-dom and feudalism in Bengal during the British Raj. The title of the movie and the story is a reference to the plot simultaneously exploring a platonic friendship between a beautiful lonely wife (Bibi) of an aristocrat (Sahib) and a career-driven low-income part-time servant (Ghulam). The film's music is by Hemant Kumar and lyrics were by Shakeel Badayuni. The film is also noted for its brilliant cinematography by V. K. Murthy. The film stars Guru Dutt, Meena Kumari, Rehman, Waheeda Rehman and Nazir Hussain.
Pandit Lachhu Maharaj (1907–1978) was an Indian classical dancer and choreographer of Kathak. He came from a family of illustrious Kathak exponents in Lucknow, and also worked as film choreographer, Hindi cinema, most notably Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and Pakeezah (1972). He was awarded the 1957 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the highest award for performing artists, conferred by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama.
Kabban Mirza is known for singing a couple of melodious songs in Hindi cinema. Not much is known about Mirza's life and his whereabouts, though it is known that he belonged to Uttar Pradesh. His singing was featured in the film Razia Sultan, directed by Kamal Amrohi (1983). Two of his songs are "Aayee Zanjeer Ki Jhankar" and "Tera Hijr Mera Naseeb Hai". He also sang a song, entitled "Is Pyar Ki Basti Mein" for the movie, Sheeba, though he was not given credit for it.
Venkatarama Pandit Krishnamurthy known professionally as V. K. Murthy, was an Indian cinematographer. Murthy, a one-time violinist and jailed freedom fighter, was Guru Dutt's regular cameraman on his movies. He provided some of Indian cinema's most notable images in starkly contrasted black and white. He also shot India's first cinemascope film, Kaagaz Ke Phool. For his contribution to film industry, particularly Indian film industry he was awarded the IIFA Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. In 2010, he was honoured with the Dada Saheb Phalke Award for his contributions to Indian cinema.
Raziya Sultan, also known as Razia Sultan, is 1983 Indian film, written and directed by Kamal Amrohi, and starring Hema Malini, Parveen Babi and Dharmendra in lead roles.
Ghulam Mohammed was an Indian film score composer, who is most remembered for his work in Hindi musical-hit films like, Mirza Ghalib (1954), Shama (1961) and Pakeezah (1972).
Josef Wirsching sometimes credited as Joseph Wirsching, was a German cinematographer, who became a pioneer in cinematography in India and who contributed to the heritage of Cinema of India and still photography in its improvement into a scientific art of expression. His association with Indian cinema started in 1925, when he worked with another German, Franz Osten, in the Indo-European collaboration, The Light of Asia. Thereafter he settled in India, went on to work in over 20 films with Bombay Talkies and subsequently with Kamal Amrohi in Mahal (1949), Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi (1960) and his masterpiece Pakeezah (1972), though he died while it was still under production.
Kaif Bhopali was an Indian Urdu poet and lyricist. He was a poet in the Urdu mushaira circles, and is known as the writer of songs like Chalo Dildar Chalo, sung by Mohd. Rafi in Kamal Amrohi's 1972 classic, Pakeezah.
The Muslim social is a film genre in Hindi cinema that portrays and critiques Islamic culture in India. It flourished in the 1950s and 1960s and lasted till the early 1980s. Muslim socials are divided into two categories: "classic Muslim socials" that explore nawabi culture and focus on upper class or elite Muslim families, and "new wave Muslim socials" that portray middle class Muslim families who experience economic problems, discrimination and communal violence. Muslim socials often include ghazals, qawwalis, Urdu poetry and expressions, and musical forms commonly associated with Islamic culture. However, lately the label has also been criticized for cultural ghettoization of minority cinema. Director M.S. Sathyu who made Garam Hava (1973), called it "a skewed way to look at cinema. When there is no Hindu social or Christian social, how can there be a Muslim social".
The 20th Filmfare Awards were held in 1973, awarding the films made in 1972. Sohanlal Kanwar's Be-Imaan swept the awards, winning 7 awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor for its star Manoj Kumar.
Daaera is a 1953 film written and directed by Kamal Amrohi, starring Meena Kumari, Nasir Khan and Nana Palsikar. It was released at Bombay's Naaz cinema. Its story is loosely based on Kamal Amrohi and Meena Kumari's own love story.
Zindagi Aur Khwab is a 1961 Bollywood film produced by Dinu M. Desai and directed by S. Banerji. The film was declared above average at the box office.
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