Kamchatka Krai

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Kamchatka Krai
Камчатский край
Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Kamchatka Krai [1]
Map of Russia - Kamchatka Krai.svg
Coordinates: 56°00′N159°00′E / 56.000°N 159.000°E / 56.000; 159.000 Coordinates: 56°00′N159°00′E / 56.000°N 159.000°E / 56.000; 159.000
CountryRussia
Federal district Far Eastern [2]
Economic region Far Eastern [3]
EstablishedJuly 1, 2007 [4]
Administrative center Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Government
  Body Legislative Assembly [5]
   Governor [5] Vladimir Solodov [6]
Area
[7]
  Total472,300 km2 (182,400 sq mi)
Area rank 10th
Population
  Estimate 
(2018) [8]
315,557
Time zone UTC+12 (MSK+9   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [9] )
ISO 3166 code RU-KAM
License plates 41, 82
OKTMO ID30000000
Official languagesRussian [10]
Website http://www.kamchatka.gov.ru

Kamchatka Krai (Russian:Камча́тский край, tr. Kamchatsky kray,IPA:  [kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj kraj] ) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and it is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Kamchatka Krai has a population of 322,079 (2010). [11]

Contents

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky is the largest city and capital of Kamchatka Krai, and home to over half of the krai's population.

Kamchatka Krai was formed on July 1, 2007, as a result of the merger of Kamchatka Oblast and Koryak Autonomous Okrug, based on the voting in a referendum on the issue on October 23, 2005. The okrug retains the status of a special administrative division of the krai, under the name of Koryak Okrug.

The Kamchatka Peninsula forms the majority of the krai's territory, separating the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea in the Pacific Ocean. The remainder is formed by a minor northern mainland portion, Karaginsky Island and the Commander Islands in the Bering Sea. It is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the west and Chukotka to the north. Kamchatka Krai is an active volcanic zone which is home to Kluchevskaya, the largest volcano in Eurasia, and the Decade Volcanoes of Avachinsky and Koryaksky.

Geography

Kamchatka Krai occupies the territory of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the adjacent part of the mainland, the island Karaginsky and Commander Islands. It is bounded to the east by the Bering Sea of the Pacific Ocean (a coastline of more than 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi)) and to the west by the Okhotsk Sea (a coastline of approximately 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi)).

Mountain ranges: Sredinny Range (about 900 kilometres (560 mi) long), Eastern Range (about 600 kilometres (370 mi) long), Vetveysky, Penzhinsky, Pahachinsky, Olyutorskij et al. Heights: Khuvkhoitun (2,613 meters (8,573 ft)), the Ice (2,562 meters (8,406 ft)), Acute (2,552 meters (8,373 ft)), Shishel (2,531 meters (8,304 ft)), Tylele volcano (2,234 meters (7,329 ft)).

Peninsulas (NW-NE going clockwise): Gavena Peninsula, Ilpinsky Peninsula, Ozernoy Peninsula, Kamchatskiy Peninsula, Shipunksiy Peninsula  [ ru ] and the Yelistratova Peninsula.

Islands (NW-NE going clockwise): Verkhoturov Island, Karaginsky Island, the Commander Islands, Ptichy Island (Kamchatka Krai), Konus Island, Zubchaty Island, Rovny Island, Dobrzhanskogo Island, Vtoroy Island, Krayniy Island and Trety Island. Despite their proximity, the Kuril Islands are not part of Kamchatka Krai, falling instead under Sakhalin Oblast.

Kamchatka belongs to the zone of volcanic activity, there are about 300 large and medium-sized volcanoes, 29 of them are active. The largest volcano in Eurasia – Kluchevskaya (altitude 4,750 meters (15,580 ft)). With the volcanic activity associated with the formation of many minerals, as well as a manifestation of hydro geo thermal activity: education fumaroles, geysers, hot springs, etc.

Despite Kamchatka lying at similar latitudes to Scotland, it is mostly subarctic, more continental in the hinterland, and more maritime and prone to monsoons on the coast.

Nature

Lake Kronotskoye Lake Kronotzkoe.jpg
Lake Kronotskoye
Kambalny stratovolcano Kambalny.jpg
Kambalny stratovolcano
Koryaksky volcano Koryaksky Sopka seen from the Avachinsky's Sopka - Kamchatka, Russian Federation - Summer 1993 03.jpg
Koryaksky volcano
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Kamchatka Volcano Koryaksky (24231533812).jpg
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Most of the peninsula is covered with forests of stone birch, while alder and cedar elfin are commonly found at higher altitudes. In central areas, especially in the Kamchatka River valley, widespread forests of larch and spruce can be found. In floodplains, forests grow with fragrant poplar, alder, Chosenia, and Sakhalin willow. In the second tier, undergrowth such as the common hawthorn, Asian cherry, Kamchatka rowan, and shrubs growing Kamchatka elderberries, Kamchatka honeysuckle, meadowsweet, willow shrubs, and many other species.

More than 14.5% of the territory of the Kamchatka Territory is specially protected. There are six protected areas of federal significance (three state reserves, one federal reserve "South Kamchatka", two spa areas – "Resort Paratunka", "Malkinskie mineral waters"); four natural parks of regional significance ("Nalychevo", "Bystrinsky", "South Kamchatka", "Kluchevskoy"); 22 reserve of regional importance; 116 monuments of nature; four protected areas (landscape natural park "Blue Lake", Southwest and Tundra Sobolewski reserves).

Kronotsky Nature Reserve is a nature area reserved for the study of natural sciences in the remote Russian Far East, on the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. [12] It was created in 1934 and its current boundary contains an area of 10,990 square kilometers (4,240 sq mi). [12] It also has Russia's only geyser basin, plus several mountain ranges with numerous volcanoes, both active and extinct. Due to its often harsh climate and its mix of volcanoes and geysers, it is frequently described as the "Land of Fire and Ice". [13]

It is mainly accessible only to scientists, plus approximately 3,000 tourists annually who pay a fee equivalent to US$700 to travel by helicopter for a single day's visit. [13] Kronotsky Nature Reserve has been proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [14]

Climate

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Kamchatka Russia [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Klyuchi 20.7/11.169/52-12.9/-20.49/-5
Kamenskoye 19.1/8.866/48−20.8/−28.2-5/-19
Ossora 16.4/9.362/49−11/−20.112/−4
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 16.5/1062/50−4.4/−9.224/15
Bering Island 10.7/7.751/46−2/−5.528/22

Administrative divisions

Economy

The main industries in Kamchatka include fishing and forestry. Coal and other raw materials are extracted. Due to its geographical location near major shipping routes, it is a center for shipbuilding, ship repair, and related services. [20] There are also oil and mineral resources which are yet to be fully developed. [21]

The largest companies in the region include Kamchatskenergo (power distribution company with revenues of $257.11 million in 2017), Oceanrybflot (fishing company, $248.54 million), Morskoy Trast ($197.12 million), Amethystvoye Mining and Processing Combine (gold mine, part of Renova Group, $171.41 million). [22]

Demographics

Population: 322,079(2010 Census); [11] 358,801(2002 Census); [23] 466,096(1989 Census). [24]

Vital statistics for 2007

Source: [26]

After nearly two decades, Kamchatka recorded a net natural population growth instead of decline in 2007. However, in first half of 2008, the trend was reversed and population decline was observed again, partly due to an increased mortality rate among the rural population.

Vital statistics for 2012

Total fertility rate: [28]
2009 – 1.58 | 2010 – 1.51 | 2011 – 1.61 | 2012 – 1.73 | 2013 – 1.77 | 2014 – 1.85 | 2015 – 1.89 | 2016 – 1.90(e)

Ethnic composition

There were 108 recognized ethnic groups in the krai as of 2010. Indigenous peoples of the North made up only 5% of the total population. [11]

Religion

Religion in Kamchatka Krai as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [30] [31]
Russian Orthodoxy
31.2%
Other Orthodox
0.8%
Protestantism
0.6%
Other Christians
5.2%
Islam
1.2%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
2.4%
Spiritual but not religious
22.8%
Atheism and irreligion
21.0%
Other and undeclared
14.8%

According to a 2012 survey [30] 31.2% of the population of Kamchatka adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4.4% are unaffiliated Christians, 0.8% are Orthodox Christians that don't belong to the Russian Orthodox Church. 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith or to Siberian shamanism, 1.2% to Islam, 0.6% to forms of Protestantism, and 0.4% to Hinduism. In addition, 22.8% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 21% is atheist, and 14.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

Koryak Okrug

Koryak Okrug, or Koryakia, is an administrative division of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. It was a federal subject of Russia from 1931 until July 1, 2007, when it merged with Kamchatka Oblast. Prior to the merger, it was called Koryak Autonomous Okrug. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Palana. Population: 18,759 (2010 Census); 25,157 (2002 Census); 39,363 (1989 Census).

Nikolskoye, Kamchatka Krai Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Nikolskoye is a rural locality and the administrative center of Aleutsky District of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on Bering Island in the Commander Islands chain. Population: 676 (2010 Census); 808 (2002 Census); 1,356 (1989 Census). It is the only remaining inhabited locality in the district.

Palana, Russia Urban-type settlement in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Palana is an urban locality in Tigilsky District of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia which serves as the administrative center of Koryak Okrug. It is located on the west coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the right bank of the Palana River within 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) from the Sea of Okhotsk. Population: 3,155 (2010 Census); 3,928 (2002 Census); 4,343 (1989 Census).

Yelizovo Town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Yelizovo is a town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Avacha River 32 kilometers (20 mi) northwest of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Population: 39,569 (2010 Census); 41,533 (2002 Census); 46,929 (1989 Census).

Vilyuchinsk Town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Vilyuchinsk is a closed town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Kamchatka Peninsula about 20 kilometers (12 mi) across Avacha Bay from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Population: 22,905 (2010 Census); 24,166 (2002 Census).

Tilichiki Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Tilichiki is a rural locality and the administrative center of Olyutorsky District of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. It is located on the Korfa Bay of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

Aleutsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Aleutsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located to the east of the Kamchatka Peninsula on the Commander Islands. The area of the district is 1,580 square kilometers (610 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Nikolskoye. Population: 676 (2010 Census); 808 (2002 Census); 1,356 (1989 Census). All of the district's population resides in Nikolskoye.

Bystrinsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Bystrinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 23,377 square kilometers (9,026 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Esso. Population: 2,560 (2010 Census); 2,660 (2002 Census); 2,947 (1989 Census). The population of Esso accounts for 78.6% of the district's total population.

Milkovsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Milkovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 22,590 square kilometers (8,720 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Milkovo. Population: 10,585 (2010 Census); 12,080 (2002 Census); 16,913 (1989 Census). The population of Milkovo accounts for 78.0% of the district's total population.

Sobolevsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Sobolevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southwest of the krai. The area of the district is 21,076 square kilometers (8,137 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Sobolevo. Population: 2,604 (2010 Census); 3,221 (2002 Census); 6,079 (1989 Census). The population of Sobolevo accounts for 68.1% of the district's total population.

Ust-Bolsheretsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ust-Bolsheretsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the southern and southwestern parts of the krai. The area of the district is 20,626 square kilometers (7,964 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ust-Bolsheretsk. Population: 8,331 (2010 Census); 10,347 (2002 Census); 14,188 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Bolsheretsk accounts for 25.4% of the district's total population.

Ust-Kamchatsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ust-Kamchatsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 40,837 square kilometers (15,767 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ust-Kamchatsk. Population: 11,744 (2010 Census); 15,084 (2002 Census); 28,867 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Kamchatsk accounts for 37.1% of the district's total population.

Yelizovsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Yelizovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the south of the krai. The area of the district is 40,996.4 square kilometers (15,828.8 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Yelizovo. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 24,566.

Karaginsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Karaginsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northern central part of the krai. The area of the district is 40,641 square kilometers (15,692 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ossora. Population: 4,076 (2010 Census); 5,656 (2002 Census); 8,777 (1989 Census). The population of Ossora accounts for 52.3% of the district's total population.

Olyutorsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Olyutorsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northeast of the krai. The area of the district is 72,352 square kilometers (27,935 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tilichiki. Population: 5,036 (2010 Census); 7,170 (2002 Census); 12,833 (1989 Census). The population of Tilichiki accounts for 34.6% of the district's total population.

Penzhinsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Penzhinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the northwest of the krai. The area of the district is 116,086 square kilometers (44,821 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kamenskoye. Population: 2,340 (2010 Census); 2,990 (2002 Census); 5,301 (1989 Census). The population of Kamenskoye accounts for 28.0% of the district's total population.

Tigilsky District District in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Tigilsky District is an administrative district (raion) of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia, one of the eleven in the krai. It is located in the west of the krai. The area of the district is 63,484 square kilometers (24,511 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Tigil. Population: 7,307 (2010 Census); 9,341 (2002 Census); 12,452 (1989 Census). The population of Tigil accounts for 23.1% of the district's total population.

Ossora Selo in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ossora is a selo and the administrative center of Karaginsky District of Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: 2,133 (2010 Census); 2,589 (2002 Census); 4,074 (1989 Census).

Milkovo, Kamchatka Krai Rural locality in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Milkovo is a rural locality and the administrative center of Milkovsky District, Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: 8,251 (2010 Census); 9,243 (2002 Census); 12,132 (1989 Census).

Ust-Bolsheretsk Rural locality in Kamchatka Krai, Russia

Ust-Bolsheretsk is a rural locality and the administrative center of Ust-Bolsheretsky District, Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: 2,116 (2010 Census); 2,277 (2002 Census); 3,075 (1989 Census).

References

Notes

  1. Law #397
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. Law #2-FKZ, Article 4
  5. 1 2 Charter of Kamchatka Krai, Article 13
  6. Official website of Kamchatka Krai. Vladimir Viktorovich Solodov, Acting Governor of Kamchatka Krai (in Russian)
  7. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  8. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  12. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica (2009) Kronotsky Nature Reserve Archived June 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved March 12, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  13. 1 2 Quammen, David (2009) Fragile Russian Wilderness: The Kronotsky Nature Reserve Is Best Appreciated From Afar Archived March 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , National Geographic, p.62, January 2009, Vol. 215, No.1
  14. Wild Russia: Centre For Nature Conservation website Archived March 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine , retrieved 2009-03-11
  15. "CLIMATE Klyuchi". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  16. "CLIMATE Kamenskoie". pogodaikilmat.ru. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  17. "CLIMATE Ossora". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  18. "CLIMATE Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  19. "CLIMATE Bering Ostrovie". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  20. "Kamchatka Region". Kommersant. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  21. Rahr, III, Guido. "Bountiful Breed". PBS. Archived from the original on June 20, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
  22. Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  23. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  24. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  25. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. Archived January 17, 1999, at the Wayback Machine
  27. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 18, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. 1 2 3 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia" Archived September 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . Sreda, 2012.
  31. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

Sources