Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation

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Kampuchea United Front for National Salvation (KUFNS)
រណសិរ្សសាមគ្គីសង្គ្រោះជាតិកម្ពុជា
Front Uni National pour le Salut du Kampuchéa (FUNSK)
Dates of operation 2 December 1978
Active region(s) Cambodia
Ideology Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Notable attacks Invasion of Cambodia
Status Transformed into the Solidarity Front for Development of the Cambodian Motherland (2006–present)
The KUFNS revived the flag adopted by the Khmer Issarak in the days of anti-French resistance, declaring it the flag of the PRK. Flag of the People's Republic of Kampuchea.svg
The KUFNS revived the flag adopted by the Khmer Issarak in the days of anti-French resistance, declaring it the flag of the PRK.
Kampuchea Revolutionary Women's Association (KRWA) leaders Nuth Kim Lay and Res Sivanna in East Germany at the Democratic Women's League of Germany-Congress in 1987 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1987-0306-104, Berlin, XII. DFD-Kongress.jpg
Kampuchea Revolutionary Women's Association (KRWA) leaders Nuth Kim Lay and Res Sivanna in East Germany at the Democratic Women's League of Germany-Congress in 1987

The Kampuchea (or Khmer) United Front for National Salvation (Khmer : រណសិរ្សសាមគ្គីសង្គ្រោះជាតិកម្ពុជា; KUFNS), often simply referred to as Salvation Front or by its French acronym FUNSK (Front Uni National pour le Salut du Kampuchéa), was the nucleus of a new Cambodian regime that would topple the Khmer Rouge and later establish the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). [2]

Khmer or Cambodian is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. With approximately 16 million speakers, it is the second most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. Khmer has been influenced considerably by Sanskrit and Pali, especially in the royal and religious registers, through Hinduism and Buddhism. The more colloquial registers have influenced, and have been influenced by, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cham, all of which, due to geographical proximity and long-term cultural contact, form a sprachbund in peninsular Southeast Asia. It is also the earliest recorded and earliest written language of the Mon–Khmer family, predating Mon and by a significant margin Vietnamese, due to Old Khmer being the language of the historical empires of Chenla, Angkor and, presumably, their earlier predecessor state, Funan.

Khmer Rouge followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea in Cambodia

The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had originally been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left.

Peoples Republic of Kampuchea former country

The People's Republic of Kampuchea was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government. Brought about by an invasion from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which routed the Khmer Rouge armies, it had Vietnam and the Soviet Union as its main allies.

Contents

The December 2 Memorial Monument to commemorate the establishment of the Solidarity Front for the Development of the Cambodian Motherland (SFDCM). December 2 Memorial Monument.jpg
The December 2 Memorial Monument to commemorate the establishment of the Solidarity Front for the Development of the Cambodian Motherland (SFDCM).

History

Its foundation took place on 2 December 1978 in Kratié Province near the border with Vietnam at a meeting of seventy dissident Cambodians determined to overthrow Pol Pot's government. Heng Samrin was voted as leader of the front and within a few weeks its influence spread widely on both sides of the border. [3] The front was a heterogeneous Cambodian politico-military organization that legitimized the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, precipitating the ensuing defeat of the Khmer Rouge's Democratic Kampuchea. It brought about the foundation of the new state named 'People's Republic of Kampuchea' and the reconstruction of the shattered and desperately impoverished country. This organization has undergone various name changes as it has expanded and adapted to the different historical realities in Cambodia.

Kratié Province Province in Cambodia

Kratié or Kraches is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the northeast. It borders Stung Treng to the north, Mondulkiri to the east, Kampong Thom and Kampong Cham to the west, and Tbong Khmum and Vietnam to the south.

Vietnam Country in Southeast Asia

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, part of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

Pol Pot 20th-century Cambodian revolutionary and politician

Pol Pot was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the general secretary of the Communist Party of Kampuchea from 1963 to 1981. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist and Khmer nationalist, he led the Khmer Rouge group from 1963 until 1997. From 1976 to 1979, he served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea.

The Salvation Front (1978-1981)

Politically the Salvation Front (FUNSK) was a pro-Hanoi umbrella organization of the Marxist Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP) opposed to the Communist Party of Kampuchea —also known as the Angkar . The original FUNSK group was formed within Cambodia in an area around Kratie that had been liberated from the Khmer Rouge by Cambodian Communists and Khmer Rouge defectors. [4] The latter didn't share Pol Pot's growing personality cult and his increasingly anti-Vietnamese policies. Many felt personally threatened by the bloody purges in Eastern Cambodia in 1977, especially after So Phim's murder at the hand of members of the pro-Pol Pot faction. [5]

Hanoi Municipality in Hà Nội, Vietnam

Hanoi is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population. The city mostly lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,720 km (1,070 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 105 km (65 mi) west of Haiphong.

Communist Party of Kampuchea communist party in Cambodia

The Communist Party of Kampuchea, also known as Khmer Communist Party (KCP), was a communist party in Cambodia. Its leader was Pol Pot and its followers were generally known as Khmer Rouge. The party was underground for most of its existence and took power in the country in 1975 and established the state known as Democratic Kampuchea. The party lost power in 1979 with the establishment of the People's Republic of Kampuchea by leftists who were dissatisfied by the Pol Pot regime and by the intervention of Vietnamese military forces after a period of mass killing. The party was officially dissolved in 1981, with the Party of Democratic Kampuchea claiming its legacy.

The date of the Salvation Front's foundation was December 2, 1978, in what Khmer socialist militants called a "Reunion Congress". [6] The aim of the FUNSK was to expand as a Cambodian front in order to overthrow Pol Pot's regime of terror. The Salvation Front drew eleven points for the reconstruction of the country. These points would be used after the establishment of the PRK to motivate Cambodians to support the rebuilding efforts and the pro-Soviet structure of the new state to keep the revolution alive with a moderate, pragmatic and humane approach compared to the Khmer Rouge. Although the front was largely controlled by KPRP communists, it included quite a few non-communists in its leadership, such as Cambodian Buddhist religious figures, as well as women. [7]

Central Committee of FUNSK consists of 15 members, Heng Samrin as Chairman, Chea Sim as vice president, Ros Samay as secretary general. Revolutionary People's Council decreed on January 8, 1979: Heng Samrin (Chairman), Vice Chairman: Pen Sovan. Headed by Heng Samrin, Revolutionary People's Council of Kampuchea includes Hun Sen (Foreign Affairs), Keo Chenda (Culture and Information), Mot Sakun (Economy), Chea Sim (Interior), Pen Sovan (Defense), Nu Beng (Health and Social Affairs), and Chan Ven (Education).

Chea Sim Cambodian politician

Chea Sim was a Cambodian politician. He was President of the Cambodian People's Party from 1991 to 2015, President of the National Assembly of Cambodia from 1981 to 1998 and President of the Senate from 1999 to 2015. His official title was Samdach Akeak Moha Thomak Pothisal Chea Sim, Protean Protsaphea ney Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea.

Heng Samrin Cambodian politician

Heng Samrin is a Cambodian politician who was the de facto leader of the Hanoi-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea from 1979 to 1981 and General Secretary of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party from 1981 to 1991. He has been the President of the National Assembly of Cambodia since 2006; he is also Honorary President of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and a Member of Parliament for Tboung Khmum Province. Heng Samrin is Cambodia's oldest parliamentarian, at 84 years of age. His honorary title is "Samdech Akeak Moha Ponhea Chakrei Heng Samrin".

Pen Sovan was a Cambodian politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Hanoi-backed People's Republic of Kampuchea from 27 June to 5 December 1981, and was General Secretary of the Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP) from 1979 to 1981. He was arrested and removed from office in December 1981 by the Vietnamese for irritating Lê Đức Thọ, the chief adviser to the PRK government. He was imprisoned in Vietnam until January 1992.

Kampuchean United Front for National Construction and Defence (1981-2006)

In 1981, two years after the liberation of Phnom Penh, the Salvation Front was renamed "Kampuchean United Front for National Construction and Defence", Front d'union pour l'édification et la défense de la patrie du Cambodge (KUFNCD or UFCDK). [8] Years after the establishment of the People's Republic of Kampuchea, the Front remained as the main political organization of the pro-Hanoi Cambodian state. The front's role in the political life of the nation was officially established in the PRK Constitution, which stated in Article 3 that "The Kampuchean Front for National Construction and the revolutionary mass organizations constitute a solid support base of the state, encouraging the people to fulfill their revolutionary tasks."

Phnom Penh Autonomous municipality in Cambodia

Phnom Penh, formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul, is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia. Phnom Penh has been the national capital since French colonization of Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's economic, industrial, and cultural center.

Honorary Chairman: Heng Samrin

Chairman: Chea Sim

Solidarity Front for Development of the Cambodian Motherland (2006 – present)

On the 5th congress of the Kampuchean United Front for National Construction and Defence, held in Phnom Penh, on 29 April 2006, the name of the KUFNCD was changed to "Solidarity Front for Development of the Cambodian Motherland", Front de solidarité pour le développement de la Patrie du Cambodge (SFDCM). [9]

This organization, so important in its heyday, has lost much of its original relevance in Cambodian present-day politics.

Chairman: Heng Samrin

Honorary Chairman: Chea Sim

Tasks

The Front's specific missions were to transmit party policies to the masses, to act as an ombudsman, and to mobilize the people around the regime's efforts to consolidate the so-called "worker-peasant alliance." The front's cadres were required to stay in close touch with the people, to report their needs and problems to authorities, and to conduct mass campaigns to generate support for the regime, or to lead "emulation" drives to spur the population to greater efforts in pursuit of specific goals.

The cadres were also responsible for organizing networks of Salvation Front activists in villages and in communes and for coordinating their functions with cadres of various mass organizations. Often this involved long indoctrination sessions and getting villagers to paint banners and hoardings related to the Salvation Front propaganda. This created some resentment in the eyes of the people who perceived that the effort could have been directed towards more productive work. [10]

The Front also was responsible for conducting "activities of friendship," which were aimed at improving the climate for close cooperation with "the Vietnamese people and the Vietnamese army and experts." Another major function of the front was to reeducate Buddhist monks so that they would "discard the narrow-minded views of dividing themselves into groups and factions" and would participate more actively in the revolutionary endeavors of the Salvation Front.

Presently the Solidarity Front for Development of the Cambodian Motherland (SFDCM), the Salvation Front's latest avatar, organizes national and international events, such as sports venues and trade fairs on behalf of the Cambodian government.

Organizations

Among the more important mass organizations affiliated with the KUFNCD as an umbrella organization were the following:

Commemorative dates

All the organizations under the KUFNCD held rallies to arouse public awareness on national commemorative occasions such as the following:

See also

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Margaret Slocomb, The People's Republic of Kampuchea, 1979-1989: The revolution after Pol Pot ISBN   978-974-9575-34-5
  2. David P. Chandler, A history of Cambodia, Westview Press; Allen & Unwin, Boulder, Sydney, 1992
  3. Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979. Page 442
  4. Michael Vickery, Cambodia 1975-1982
  5. Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79. New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN   978-0-300-14434-5, 1996
  6. Kathleen Gough, Interviews in Kampuchea; Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Vol. 14, 1982
  7. Role of Buddhism in Cambodian Life
  8. Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies - Cambodia - Major Political and Military Organizations
  9. Vietnamese News Agency - Cambodge: Le PPC veille à la grande union nationale 29 April 2006 -- 22:04(GMT+7)
  10. Soizick Crochet, Le Cambodge, Karthala, Paris 1997, ISBN   2-86537-722-9