Kannada script

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Kannada script
ಕನ್ನಡ ಲಿಪಿ
Kavi file2.jpg
A Stanza from Kavirajamarga which praises the people for their literary skills written in the Kannada script
Type
Languages Kannada
Tulu
Kodava
Badaga
Beary
Sanketi
Konkani
Sanskrit
Time period
1300 CE present [1]
Parent systems
Child systems
Goykanadi [5]
Sister systems
Telugu
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924 Knda, 345
Unicode alias
Kannada
U+0C80U+0CFF
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

The Kannada script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi; obsolete: Kannara, Kanarese or Canarese script) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, [6] used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada script. [7] The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intellegibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script [8] (which included some elements from the Kadamba script [9] ), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma). [10]

Contents

The Kannada script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆakṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆvarṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts. Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel. Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable.

The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರsvara (vowels), ವ್ಯಂಜನvyañjana (consonants), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕyōgavāhaka (semiconsonants).

The Kannada words for a letter of the script are ಅಕ್ಷರakshara, ಅಕ್ಕರakkara, and ವರ್ಣvarṇa. Each letter has its own form (ಆಕಾರākāra) and sound (ಶಬ್ದśabda), providing the visible and audible representations, respectively. Kannada is written from left to right. [11]

History

The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved into the Kadamba script by the 5th century, which in turn developed into the Telugu-Kannada script (or 'Old Kannada script') in the 7th century. [12] The Telugu and Kannada scripts then separated by around 1300 C.E. [1]

Over the centuries some changes have been made to the Kannada script. These changes consist of:

  1. Modification of existing glyphs: In the early Kannada script, no orthographic distinction was made between the short mid [e, o], and long mid [eː, oː], . However, distinct signs were employed to denote the special consonants viz. the trill [r] the retroflex lateral [ɭ] and the retroflex rhotic [ɺ] found only in South Indian languages, by the 5th century.[ dubious ][ the transcriptions contradict themselves ]
  2. Introduction of new characters: Kannada script includes characters like [ç], [ʂ], [rɨː], [lɨ], [lɨː], [eʲ], [oʷ], [am]ಅಂ, [ah]ಅಃ, and mahāprāṇa characters like [kʰ], [ɡʱ], [tʃʰ], [dʒʱ], [t̪ʰ], [d̪ʱ], [ʈʰ], [ɖʱ], [pʰ], [bʱ]. The introduction was done so that Sanskrit (and loanwords into the Kannada language from the donor language Sanskrit) could be written using the Kannada script. These changes have facilitated the use of the Kannada script for writing many of the literary Indic languages, including Sanskrit.

Vowel letters

There are thirteen vowel letters (ಸ್ವರsvara) (14, if we consider obsolete vowel ೠ).

Brahmi script, Kanheri Caves Kanheri-brahmi.jpg
Brahmi script, Kanheri Caves
LetterDiacritic ISO notationLetterDiacritic ISO notation
aā
ಿiī
uū
ṛ/r̥ (obsolete)ṝ/r̥̄
eē
ai
oō
au

When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter.

Yōgavāha

The Yōgavāha (part-vowel, part consonant) include two letters:

  1. The anusvara: ಅಂ (aṁ)
  2. The visarga: ಅಃ (aḥ)

Another two Yōgavāha used in Sanskrit, but present in Kannada script, are known as Ardhavisarga:

  1. The Jihvamuliya:
  2. The Upadhmaniya:

Consonant letters

Two categories of consonant letters (ವ್ಯಂಜನvyan̄jana) are defined in Kannada: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants.

Structured consonants

The structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST transcriptions.

voiceless voiceless aspirate voiced voiced aspirate nasal
Velars (ka) (kha) (ga) (gha) (ṅa)
Palatals (ca) (cha) (ja) (jha) (ña)
Retroflex (ṭa) (ṭha) (ḍa) (ḍha) (ṇa)
Dentals (ta) (tha) (da) (dha) (na)
Labials (pa) (pha) (ba) (bha) (ma)

See place of articulation for more information on tongue positions.

Unstructured consonants

The unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures:

(ya), (ra), (ṟa) (obsolete), (la), (va), (śa), (ṣa), (sa), (ha), (ḷa), (ḻ) (obsolete).

Consonant conjuncts

The Kannada script is rich in conjunct consonant clusters, with most consonants having a standard subjoined form and few true ligature clusters. A table of consonant conjuncts follows, although the forms of individual conjuncts may differ according to font.

Consonant conjuncts with ರ (ra)

Of special note is the sequence concerning the letter (ra). Unlike other letters, the conjunct form is written second even if it is pronounced first in the sequence.

For example, the /rnaː/ in the word Karnāṭaka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ) is written ರ್ನಾ rather than ರ‍್ನಾ.

Consonant conjuncts with nasal consonants

The nasal consonants (ṅa), (ña), (ṇa), (na), and (ma) are usually written as an anusvara when preceding another consonant rather than a consonant conjunct.

For example, the /ŋg/ in the word Beṅgaḷūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು) is usually written ಂಗ rather than ಙ್ಗ (ಬೆಙ್ಗಳೂರು).

Obsolete Kannada letters

Historical form of representing n
in Kannada script. Kannada-archaic-n.png
Historical form of representing ನ್ in Kannada script.

Kannada literary works employed the letters (transliterated '' or 'rh') and (transliterated '', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the 12th and 18th centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with (ra) and (la) respectively. [13]

Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. Kannada-archaic-n.png Likewise, this has its equivalent in Telugu, where it is called Nakaara pollu. The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the Dakshina Kannada district). Now, hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).[ citation needed ]

Pronunciation of letters

Writing order

Akshara

Written Kannada is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ka, has the inherent vowel a. This is called ದೀರ್ಘdīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವhrasva.

DiacriticVowel letterd with vowel diacriticPronunciation
(ಅ, a)/da/
ದ್/d/
(ಆ, ā)ದಾ/daː/
ಿ(ಇ, i)ದಿ [note 1] /di/
(ಈ, ī)ದೀ/diː/
(ಉ, u)ದು/du/
(ಊ, ū)ದೂ/duː/
(ಋ, r̥)ದೃ/dr̥ː/
(ೠ, r̥̄)ದೄ/dr̥ː/
(ಎ, e)ದೆ/de/
(ಏ, ē)ದೇ/deː/
(ಐ, ai)ದೈ/dai/
(ಒ, o)ದೊ/do/
(ಓ, ō)ದೋ/doː/
(ಔ, au)ದೌ/dau/
(ಅಂ, aṃ)ದಂ/dã/
(ಅಃ, aḥ)ದಃ/dah/
  1. This diacritic has the form ಿ when combined with other consonant letters.
ಅಂಅಃ
ಕಾಕಿಕೀಕುಕೂಕೃಕೄಕೆಕೇಕೈಕೊಕೋಕೌಕಂಕಃಕ್
ಖಾಖಿಖೀಖುಖೂಖೃಖೄಖೆಖೇಖೈಖೊಖೋಖೌಖಂಖಃಖ್
ಗಾಗಿಗೀಗುಗೂಗೃಗೄಗೆಗೇಗೈಗೊಗೋಗೌಗಂಗಃಗ್
ಘಾಘಿಘೀಘುಘೂಘೃಘೄಘೆಘೇಘೈಘೊಘೋಘೌಘಂಘಃಘ್
ಙಾಙಿಙೀಙುಙೂಙೃಙೄಙೆಙೇಙೈಙೊಙೋಙೌಙಂಙಃಙ್
ಚಾಚಿಚೀಚುಚೂಚೃಚೄಚೆಚೇಚೈಚೊಚೋಚೌಚಂಚಃಚ್
ಛಾಛಿಛೀಛುಛೂಛೃಛೄಛೆಛೇಛೈಛೊಛೋಛೌಛಂಛಃಛ್
ಜಾಜಿಜೀಜುಜೂಜೃಜೄಜೆಜೇಜೈಜೊಜೋಜೌಜಂಜಃಜ್
ಝಾಝಿಝೀಝುಝೂಝೃಝೄಝೆಝೇಝೈಝೊಝೋಝೌಝಂಝಃಝ್
ಞಾಞಿಞೀಞುಞೂಞೃಞೄಞೆಞೇಞೈಞೊಞೋಞೌಞಂಞಃಞ್
ಟಾಟಿಟೀಟುಟೂಟೃಟೄಟೆಟೇಟೈಟೊಟೋಟೌಟಂಟಃಟ್
ಠಾಠಿಠೀಠುಠೂಠೃಠೄಠೆಠೇಠೈಠೊಠೋಠೌಠಂಠಃಠ್
ಡಾಡಿಡೀಡುಡೂಡೃಡೄಡೆಡೇಡೈಡೊಡೋಡೌಡಂಡಃಡ್
ಢಾಢಿಢೀಢುಢೂಢೃಢೄಢೆಢೇಢೈಢೊಢೋಢೌಢಂಢಃಢ್
ಣಾಣಿಣೀಣುಣೂಣೃಣೄಣೆಣೇಣೈಣೊಣೋಣೌಣಂಣಃಣ್
ತಾತಿತೀತುತೂತೃತೄತೆತೇತೈತೊತೋತೌತಂತಃತ್
ಥಾಥಿಥೀಥುಥೂಥೃಥೄಥೆಥೇಥೈಥೊಥೋಥೌಥಂಥಃಥ್
ದಾದಿದೀದುದೂದೃದೄದೆದೇದೈದೊದೋದೌದಂದಃದ್
ಧಾಧಿಧೀಧುಧೂಧೃಧೄಧೆಧೇಧೈಧೊಧೋಧೌಧಂಧಃಧ್
ನಾನಿನೀನುನೂನೃನೄನೆನೇನೈನೊನೋನೌನಂನಃನ್
ಪಾಪಿಪೀಪುಪೂಪೃಪೄಪೆಪೇಪೈಪೊಪೋಪೌಪಂಪಃಪ್
ಫಾಫಿಫೀಫುಫೂಫೃಫೄಫೆಫೇಫೈಫೊಫೋಫೌಫಂಫಃಫ್
ಬಾಬಿಬೀಬುಬೂಬೃಬೄಬೆಬೇಬೈಬೊಬೋಬೌಬಂಬಃಬ್
ಭಾಭಿಭೀಭುಭೂಭೃಭೄಭೆಭೇಭೈಭೊಭೋಭೌಭಂಭಃಭ್
ಮಾಮಿಮೀಮುಮೂಮೃಮೄಮೆಮೇಮೈಮೊಮೋಮೌಮಂಮಃಮ್
ಯಾಯಿಯೀಯುಯೂಯೃಯೄಯೆಯೇಯೈಯೊಯೋಯೌಯಂಯಃಯ್
ರಾರಿರೀರುರೂರೃರೄರೆರೇರೈರೊರೋರೌರಂರಃರ್
ಱಾಱಿಱೀಱುಱೂಱೃಱೄಱೆಱೇಱೈಱೊಱೋಱೌಱಂಱಃಱ್
ಲಾಲಿಲೀಲುಲೂಲೃಲೄಲೆಲೇಲೈಲೊಲೋಲೌಲಂಲಃಲ್
ವಾವಿವೀವುವೂವೃವೄವೆವೇವೈವೊವೋವೌವಂವಃವ್
ಶಾಶಿಶೀಶುಶೂಶೃಶೄಶೆಶೇಶೈಶೊಶೋಶೌಶಂಶಃಶ್
ಷಾಷಿಷೀಷುಷೂಷೃಷೄಷೆಷೇಷೈಷೊಷೋಷೌಷಂಷಃಷ್
ಸಾಸಿಸೀಸುಸೂಸೃಸೄಸೆಸೇಸೈಸೊಸೋಸೌಸಂಸಃಸ್
ಹಾಹಿಹೀಹುಹೂಹೃಹೄಹೆಹೇಹೈಹೊಹೋಹೌಹಂಹಃಹ್
ಳಾಳಿಳೀಳುಳೂಳೃಳೄಳೆಳೇಳೈಳೊಳೋಳೌಳಂಳಃಳ್
ೞಾೞಿೞೀೞುೞೂೞೃೞೄೞೆೞೇೞೈೞೊೞೋೞೌೞಂೞಃೞ್

The formations shown boldface above are seldom used in the normal course of the language.

Numerals

The decimal numerals in the script are:

Kannada numerals English numerals
numeralnamenumeralname
sonne (ಸೊನ್ನೆ)0zero
ondu (ಒಂದು)1one
eraḍu (ಎರಡು)2two
mūru (ಮೂರು)3three
nālku (ನಾಲ್ಕು)4four
aidu (ಐದು)5five
āru (ಆರು)6six
ēḷu (ಏಳು)7seven
enṭu (ಎಂಟು)8eight
oṃbattu (ಒಂಬತ್ತು)9nine
೧೦hattu (ಹತ್ತು)10ten

Transliteration

Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha [14] (based on ITRANS), Pada Software [15] and several internet tools like Google transliteration, Quillpad [16] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the Government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration.

Due to its resemblance to an eye and an eyebrow, the Kannada letter ṭha is used in the "look of disapproval" (displayed as "ಠ_ಠ"), a popular emoticon used to convey disapproval or contempt. [17] Similarly, the akshara ರೃrr̥a has been used in emoticons to represent a monocle, while tha has been used to represent a tearing eye.

Unicode

Kannada script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Kannada is U+0C80–U+0CFF:

Kannada [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+0C8x
U+0C9x
U+0CAx
U+0CBxಿ
U+0CCx
U+0CDx
U+0CEx
U+0CFx    
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

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The Bengali or Bangla alphabet is the alphabet used to write the Bengali language and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal. It is quite similar to the Assamese alphabet and other alphabets based on the Bengali–Assamese script.

Bharati Braille Alphabet

Bharati braille, or Bharatiya Braille, is a largely unified braille script for writing the languages of India. When India gained independence, eleven braille scripts were in use, in different parts of the country and for different languages. By 1951, a single national standard had been settled on, Bharati braille, which has since been adopted by Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bangladesh. There are slight differences in the orthographies for Nepali in India and Nepal, and for Tamil in India and Sri Lanka. There are significant differences in Bengali Braille between India and Bangladesh, with several letters differing. Pakistan has not adopted Bharati braille, so the Urdu Braille of Pakistan is an entirely different alphabet than the Urdu Braille of India, with their commonalities largely due to their common inheritance from English or International Braille. Sinhala Braille largely conforms to other Bharati, but differs significantly toward the end of the alphabet, and is covered in its own article.

The Velthuis system of transliteration is an ASCII transliteration scheme for the Sanskrit language from and to the Devanagari script. It was developed by Frans Velthuis, a scholar living in Groningen, Netherlands, who created a popular, high-quality software package in LaTeX for typesetting Devanāgarī. It is based on using the ISO 646 repertoire to represent mnemonically the accents used in standard scholarly transliteration. It does not use diacritics as compared to IAST. It does not use capital letters as compared to Harvard-Kyoto or ITRANS schemes.

References

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  2. Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography, R. Malatesha Joshi, Catherine McBride(2019),p.29
  3. Salomon 1999, p. 35
  4. https://karnatakaitihasaacademy.org/evolution-of-kannada-script/
  5. Ghantkar, Gajanana (1993). History of Goa through Gõykanadi script (in English, Konkani, Marathi, and Kannada). pp. Page x.
  6. Campbell, George L. (6 November 1997). Handbook of scripts and alphabets (1st ed.). Routledge, New York. pp.  84–5. ISBN   978-0-415-13715-7. OCLC   34473667.
  7. Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 804, 805. ISBN   978-0-415-77294-5.
  8. "Romanization, Sinhala (Sinhalese) Script" (PDF). KAMALAKAR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  9. "Ancient scripts, hala" . Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  10. "Telugu & Sinhalese script similarities" . Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  11. A Grammar of the Kannada Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 5
  12. Diringer, David (1948). Alphabet a key to the history of mankind. p. 381.
  13. Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kannada Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14–15
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  15. "Pada Software – For Indic Scripts". pada.pro.
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  17. "Browser Extension of the Week: Look of Disapproval". Maximum PC. Retrieved 24 April 2013.