Kantō region

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Kantō region

関東地方
Japan Kanto Region large.png
The Kantō region in comparison to the rest of Japan
Mapofkanto.png
Closeup map of the areas within the Kantō region
Area
  Total32,423.90 km2 (12,518.94 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2017)
  Total43,284,547
  Density1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
GDP
 (nominal; 2012) [1] [2]
  Total$2.5 trillion
  Per capita$60,000
Time zone UTC+9 (JST)

The Kantō region(関東地方,Kantō-chihō) is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. [3] The region includes the Greater Tokyo Area and encompasses seven prefectures: Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, and Kanagawa. Within its boundaries, slightly more than 45 percent of the land area is the Kantō Plain. The rest consists of the hills and mountains that form the land borders. According to the official census on October 1, 2010 by the Japan Statistics Bureau, the population was 42,607,376, [4] amounting to approximately one third of the total population of Japan.

Honshu Largest island of Japan

Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits. The island separates the Sea of Japan, which lies to its north and west, from the North Pacific Ocean to its south and east. It is the seventh-largest island in the world, and the second-most populous after the Indonesian island of Java.

Japan Country in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Greater Tokyo Area Place in Japan

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region. In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, one of the most common being Capital Region.

Contents

History

The heartland of feudal power during the Kamakura period and again in the Edo period, Kantō became the center of modern development. Within the Greater Tokyo Area and especially the Tokyo-Yokohama metropolitan area, Kantō houses not only Japan's seat of government but also the nation's largest group of universities and cultural institutions, the greatest population, and a large industrial zone. Although most of the Kantō plain is used for residential, commercial, or industrial construction, it is still farmed. Rice is the principal crop, although the zone around Tokyo and Yokohama has been landscaped to grow garden produce for the metropolitan market.

Kamakura period period of Japanese history

The Kamakura period is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by the first shōgun, Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan.

Edo period period of Japanese history

The Edo period or Tokugawa period (徳川時代) is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", and popular enjoyment of arts and culture. The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, after the fall of Edo.

Yokohama Designated city in Kantō, Japan

Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.

A watershed moment of Japan's modern history took place in the late Taisho period: the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923. The quake, which claimed more than 100,000 lives and ravaged the Tokyo and Yokohama areas, occurred at a time when Japan was still reeling from the economic recession in reaction to the high-flying years during World War I.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Operation Coronet, part of Operation Downfall, the proposed Allied invasion of Japan during World War II, was scheduled to land at the Kantō plain. Most of the United States military bases on the island of Honshū are situated on the Kantō plain. These include Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Yokota Air Base, Yokosuka Naval Base, and Camp Zama.

Operation Downfall codename for the Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II

Operation Downfall was the proposed Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The planned operation was canceled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet declaration of war, and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. The operation had two parts: Operation Olympic and Operation Coronet. Set to begin in November 1945, Operation Olympic was intended to capture the southern third of the southernmost main Japanese island, Kyūshū, with the recently captured island of Okinawa to be used as a staging area. Later, in the spring of 1946, Operation Coronet was the planned invasion of the Kantō Plain, near Tokyo, on the Japanese island of Honshu. Airbases on Kyūshū captured in Operation Olympic would allow land-based air support for Operation Coronet. If Downfall had taken place, it would have been the largest amphibious operation in history.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Naval Air Facility Atsugi joint Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and United States Navy air base in Greater Tokyo, Japan

Naval Air Facility Atsugi is a naval air base located in the cities of Yamato and Ayase in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is the largest United States Navy (USN) air base in the Pacific Ocean and houses the squadrons of Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5), which deploys with the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan.

The name Kantō literally means "East of the Barrier". The name Kantō is nowadays generally considered to mean the region east (東) of the Hakone checkpoint (関所). An antonym of Kantō, "West of the Barrier" means Kansai region, which lies western Honshu and was the center of feudal Japan.

Hakone Town in Kantō, Japan

Hakone is a town in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. As of June 2012, the town had an estimated population of 13,492, and a population density of 145 persons per km². The total area is 92.82 km². Hakone has been designated as a Japanese National Geopark by the Japanese Geoparks Network.

Kansai region Region

The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Nara, Wakayama, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui, Tokushima and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable. The urban region of Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area.

After the Great Kantō earthquake many people in Kantō started creating art with different varieties of colors. They made art of earthquake and small towns to symbolize the small towns destroyed in the quake. In the first Pokémon games ,Pokémon Red and Pokémon Blue or Pocket Monsters Red and Pocket Monsters Green as it is known in Japan, the region the player explores is called the Kanto region.

Mount Nikko-Shirane, in the Kanto region Mt Nikko.jpeg
Mount Nikkō-Shirane, in the Kantō region

Subdivisions

North and South

The most often used subdivision of the region is dividing it to "North Kantō"(北関東,Kita-Kantō), consisting of Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma Prefectures, and "South Kantō"(南関東,Minami-Kantō), consisting of Saitama (sometimes classified North),[ citation needed ][ by whom? ] Chiba, the Tokyo Metropolis (sometimes singulated),[ citation needed ] and Kanagawa Prefectures.[ citation needed ] South Kantō is often regarded as synonymous with the Greater Tokyo Area. As part of Japan's attempts to predict earthquakes, an area roughly corresponding to South Kantō has been designated an 'Area of Intensified Observation' by the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction. [5]

The Japanese House of Representatives' divides it into the North Kantō(北関東,Kita-Kantō) electorate which consists of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma and Saitama Prefectures, Tokyo electorate, and the South Kantō(南関東,Minami-Kantō) electorate which consists of Chiba, Kanagawa and Yamanashi Prefectures. (Note that Yamanashi is out of Kantō region in the orthodox definition.)

Keirin's South Kantō(南関東,Minami-Kantō) consists of Chiba, Kanagawa and Shizuoka Prefectures.

East and West

This division is not often but sometimes used.

Inland and Coastal

This division is sometimes used in economics and geography. The border can be modified if the topography is taken for prefectural boundaries.

Greater Kantō

The Japanese national government defines the National Capital Region (首都圏,Shuto-ken) as Kantō region plus Yamanashi Prefecture. Japan's national public broadcaster NHK uses Kantō-kō-shin-etsu(関東甲信越) involving Yamanashi, Nagano and Niigata Prefectures for regional programming and administration.

Cities

The Kantō region is the most highly developed, urbanized, and industrialized part of Japan. Tokyo and Yokohama form a single industrial complex with a concentration of light and heavy industry along Tokyo Bay. Other major cities in the area include Kawasaki (in Kanagawa Prefecture); Saitama (in Saitama Prefecture); and Chiba (in Chiba Prefecture). Smaller cities, farther away from the coast, house substantial light and automotive industries. The average population density reached 1,192 persons per square kilometre in 1991.

See also

Notes

Citations

  1. "International comparison of GDP of Japan's Prefectures: Tokyo's GDP is bigger than Indonesia's?!". realestate.co.jp. 13 August 2015. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  2. "Yearly Average Rates". UKForex. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  3. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kantō" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 478-479 , p. 478, at Google Books
  4. "政府統計の総合窓口". E-stat.go.jp. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2012-12-31.
  5. Avances en prevención de desastres sísmicos en Japón. Outline of countermeasures for the Tōkai earthquake (Section B) Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine N Honda, published March 1994, accessed 2011-03-25

Sources

Related Research Articles

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Itakura, Gunma Town in Kantō, Japan

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Kantō Plain plain

The Kantō Plain is the largest plain in Japan, and is located in the Kantō region of central Honshū. The total area 17,000 km2 covers more than half of the region extending over Tokyo, Saitama Prefecture, Kanagawa Prefecture, Chiba Prefecture, Gunma Prefecture, Tochigi Prefecture and Ibaraki Prefecture.

The Bandō Sanjūsankasho (坂東三十三箇所) is a series of 33 Buddhist temples in Eastern Japan sacred to Goddess Kannon. Bandō is the old name for what is now the Kantō region, used in this case because the temples are all in the Prefectures of Kanagawa, Saitama, Tokyo, Gunma, Ibaraki, Tochigi and Chiba. As is the case with all such circuits, each location has a rank, and pilgrims believe that visiting them all in order is an act of great religious merit.

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Eastern Army (Japan) Japan Ground Self-Defense Force regional army

The Eastern Army is one of five active Armies of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force headquartered at Camp Asaka in Nerima, Tokyo. Its responsibility is the defense of the Kantō and the Northern half of the Chūbu region.

The Southern Kantō proportional representation block is one of eleven proportional representation (PR) "blocks", multi-member constituencies for the House of Representatives in the Diet of Japan. It consists of Southern parts of the Kantō region covering Chiba, Kanagawa and Yamanashi prefectures. Following the introduction of proportional voting it initially elected 23 representatives in the 1996 general election, then 21 after the total number of PR seats had been reduced from 200 to 180, and 22 representatives since the reapportionment of 2002.

Kantō dialect

The Kantō dialects are a group of Japanese dialects spoken in the Kantō region. The Kantō dialects include the Tokyo dialect which is the basis of modern standard Japanese. Along with the Tōhoku dialect, Kantō dialects have been characterized by the use of a suffix -be or -ppe; Kantō speakers were called Kantō bei by Kansai speakers in the Edo period. Eastern Kantō dialects share more features with the Tōhoku dialect. After the Pacific War, the southern Kantō regions such as Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures developed as satellite cities of Tokyo, and today traditional dialects in these areas have been almost entirely replaced by standard Japanese.

Kantō Soccer League (関東サッカーリーグ) is a Japanese football league covering the Kantō region, the prefectures of Chiba, Gunma, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Saitama, Tochigi, Tokyo and Yamanashi. Its area is thus coextensive with the National Capital Region.

Kantō Jūhachi Danrin is generic term for eighteen Jōdo-shū temples located in Kantō region that were recognized as danrin by Tokugawa shogunate.