Karabük

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Karabük
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Karabük
Coordinates: 41°11′55″N32°37′35″E / 41.19861°N 32.62639°E / 41.19861; 32.62639 Coordinates: 41°11′55″N32°37′35″E / 41.19861°N 32.62639°E / 41.19861; 32.62639
Country Turkey
Province Karabük
Government
  MayorRafet Vergili (MHP)
Area
[1]
  District759.63 km2 (293.29 sq mi)
Population
(2012) [2]
   Urban
110,537
  District
123,616
  District density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Climate Cfa
Website www.karabuk.bel.tr

Karabük is a town and the capital district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2009 census, population of the city is 108 167. [3] [4] The district covers an area of 760 km2 (293 sq mi), [5] and the town lies at an elevation of 354 m (1,161 ft).

Karabük Province Province of Turkey in West Black Sea

Karabük Province is a landlocked province in the northern part of Anatolia, located about 200 km (124 mi) north of Ankara, 115 km (71 mi) away from Zonguldak and 113 km (70 mi) away from Kastamonu. In 2010 it had a population of 227,610. The main city is Karabük which is located about 100 km (62 mi) south of the Black Sea coast.

Black Sea Region Region of Turkey

The Black Sea Region is a geographical region of Turkey.

Contents

Karabük was built in the 1930s as the seat of the iron and steel industry of Turkey. Karabük lies in a location near Filyos River formed by the merge of Araç and Soğanlı rivers.

The Filyos River is a river in northern Turkey.

Name

There are no known records of the origin of its name; in Turkish kara means "black" or "land" and bük means "bush" or "blackberry bush" ("bramble"). So Karabük means "blackbush".

Turkish language Turkic language (possibly Altaic)

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

History

Karabük is situated on an important trade route between Amasra on the coast and central Anatolia. The history of the city goes back to the early years of the Turkish Republic, when it was a small sub-village formed by 13 houses in the Öğlebeli village of Safranbolu. There was also a small train station on the AnkaraZonguldak route. The town started to develop with the industrialization of the country. One of the first steel factories of the Republic was built here in 1939, after which it grew rapidly and incorporated Öğlebeli village as a quarter. Karabük became a municipality and then a township in the Safranbolu district in 1941. It became a district center in 1953 and a provincial center in 1995.

Amasra Place in Black Sea, Turkey

Amasra is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey, formerly known as Amastris.

Safranbolu District in Black Sea, Turkey

Safranbolu is a town and district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is about 9 km north of the city of Karabük, 200 kilometres (120 mi) north of Ankara and about 100 km south of the Black Sea coast. The town's historic names in Greek were Theodoroupolis and later Saframpolis (Σαφράμπολις). Its former names in Turkish were Zalifre and Taraklıborlu. It was part of Kastamonu Province until 1923 and Zonguldak Province between 1923 and 1995.

Ankara Metropolitan municipality in Central Anatolia, Turkey

Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.

Hadrianapolis (now Eskipazar), is an ancient city from the Roman Empire of the 4th century, located about 3 km from Karabük. There are many fountains, churches, and Roman baths. Although most of it is recently excavated, illegal excavations which have been going on for many years have damaged Eskipazar's chances of becoming a major tourist attraction. [6]

Hadrianopolis in Paphlagonia was a city in southwestern Paphlagonia, Asia Minor, about 3km west of modern Eskipazar. It was inhabited at least from the 1st century BC to the 8th century AD. It was named after the Roman emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD.

Eskipazar District in Black Sea, Turkey

Eskipazar is a town and district of Karabük Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, the population of the district was 16,365, of whom 8,457 lived in the town of Eskipazar. The district covers an area of 740 km2 (286 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 902 m (2,959 ft). It separated from Çerkeş district to become a district in its own right in 1945. It was a district in Çankırı Province until 1995. The Ankara-Zonguldak railway passes through the district.

Climate

Karabük has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot and humid summers and cool and wet winters.

Humid subtropical climate category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions.

Köppen climate classification climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Climate data for Karabük
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.1
(71.8)
24.8
(76.6)
32.5
(90.5)
34.9
(94.8)
38.8
(101.8)
40.6
(105.1)
44.0
(111.2)
44.1
(111.4)
40.8
(105.4)
37.2
(99.0)
27.0
(80.6)
23.7
(74.7)
44.1
(111.4)
Average high °C (°F)7.4
(45.3)
10.4
(50.7)
14.8
(58.6)
20.3
(68.5)
25.5
(77.9)
29.0
(84.2)
32.3
(90.1)
32.5
(90.5)
28.3
(82.9)
21.9
(71.4)
14.4
(57.9)
8.8
(47.8)
20.5
(68.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
4.7
(40.5)
8.0
(46.4)
12.8
(55.0)
17.5
(63.5)
21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
19.5
(67.1)
14.2
(57.6)
8.3
(46.9)
4.3
(39.7)
13.4
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F)−0.5
(31.1)
0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
6.8
(44.2)
10.7
(51.3)
13.8
(56.8)
16.5
(61.7)
16.4
(61.5)
12.7
(54.9)
8.7
(47.7)
3.7
(38.7)
0.9
(33.6)
7.7
(45.9)
Record low °C (°F)−15.1
(4.8)
−14.2
(6.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.1
(32.2)
4.6
(40.3)
8.9
(48.0)
8.9
(48.0)
3.4
(38.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
−6.4
(20.5)
−12.0
(10.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51.9
(2.04)
33.9
(1.33)
43.9
(1.73)
50.6
(1.99)
56.0
(2.20)
49.1
(1.93)
25.2
(0.99)
24.1
(0.95)
29.7
(1.17)
40.2
(1.58)
34.1
(1.34)
51.0
(2.01)
489.7
(19.26)
Average rainy days12.110.711.611.811.78.95.34.75.88.29.411.7111.9
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [7]

Economy

Karabük has its own resources of dolomite and limestone, while coal and manganese is brought from Zonguldak and iron ore from Divriği. This allows a varied, yet basic industry in Karabük, including a coking plant, blast furnaces, a foundry and tube works. There are also chemical plants that produce sulfuric acid and phosphates. Nearby are the Zonguldak coal fields.

One of the major steel producers in Turkey, namely Kardemir (Karabük Iron and Steel Works), is located in Karabük.

Notes

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Archived 2013-08-01 at the Wayback Machine
  4. GeoHive. "Statistical information on Turkey's administrative units" . Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  5. Statoids. "Statistical information on districts of Turkey" . Retrieved 2008-11-20.
  6. Ramazan Uyumaz. "The Antique City of Hadrianapolis (Turkish)" . Retrieved 2011-03-11.
  7. http://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=KARABUK

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References