Karakoram

Last updated
Karakoram
Baltoro glacier from air.jpg
Baltoro Glacier in the Central Karakoram
Gilgit−Baltistan, Pakistan
Highest point
Peak K2
Elevation 8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Coordinates 35°52′57″N76°30′48″E / 35.88250°N 76.51333°E / 35.88250; 76.51333
Dimensions
Length500 km (310 mi)
Geography
Karakoram
Interactive map outlining Karakoram range
Countries Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan and Tajikistan
Regions/Provinces Gilgit−Baltistan, Ladakh, Xinjiang and Badakhshan
Range coordinates 36°N76°E / 36°N 76°E / 36; 76
Borders on Pamir Mountains, Hindu Kush, Kunlun Mountains, Himalayas and Ladakh Range
ཁར་ཁོ་རུམ་རིقاراقورام  
Location of the major peaks in Karakoram

Legend:
DeepPink pog.svg 1K2 DeepPink pog.svg 2Gasherbrum I K5 DeepPink pog.svg 3Broad Peak

DeepPink pog.svg 4Gasherbrum II K4 DeepPink pog.svg 5Gasherbrum III K3a DeepPink pog.svg 6Gasherbrum IV K3

DeepPink pog.svg 7Distaghil Sar DeepPink pog.svg 8Khunyang Chhish DeepPink pog.svg 9Masherbrum K1

DeepPink pog.svg 10 Batura I DeepPink pog.svg 11Rakaposhi DeepPink pog.svg 12Batura II

DeepPink pog.svg 13Kanjut Sar DeepPink pog.svg 14Saltoro Kangri K10 DeepPink pog.svg 15Batura III

DeepPink pog.svg 16 Saser Kangri I K22 DeepPink pog.svg 17Chogolisa DeepPink pog.svg 18Shispare Sar

DeepPink pog.svg 19Trivor Sar DeepPink pog.svg 20Skyang Kangri DeepPink pog.svg 21Mamostong Kangri K35

DeepPink pog.svg 22Saser Kangri II DeepPink pog.svg 23Saser Kangri III DeepPink pog.svg 24Pumari Chhish

DeepPink pog.svg 25Passu Sar DeepPink pog.svg 26Yukshin Gardan Sar DeepPink pog.svg 27Teram Kangri I

DeepPink pog.svg 28Malubiting DeepPink pog.svg 29K12 DeepPink pog.svg 30Sia Kangri

DeepPink pog.svg 31Momhil Sar DeepPink pog.svg 32Skil Brum DeepPink pog.svg 33Haramosh Peak

DeepPink pog.svg 34Ghent Kangri DeepPink pog.svg 35Ultar Sar DeepPink pog.svg 36Rimo I

DeepPink pog.svg 37Sherpi Kangri DeepPink pog.svg 38Yazghil Dome South DeepPink pog.svg 39Baltoro Kangri

DeepPink pog.svg 40Crown Peak DeepPink pog.svg 41Baintha Brakk DeepPink pog.svg 42Yutmaru Sar

DeepPink pog.svg 43K6 DeepPink pog.svg 44Muztagh Tower DeepPink pog.svg 45Diran

DeepPink pog.svg 46Apsarasas Kangri I DeepPink pog.svg 47Rimo III DeepPink pog.svg 48Gasherbrum V



The highest peaks of the Karakoram are:

Karakoram
Chinese name
Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Kālǎ Kūnlún shānmài
Literal meaning"Kara-Kunlun mountain range"
MountainHeight [28] Ranked Remark
K2 8,611 metres (28,251 ft)2K2Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Gasherbrum I 8,080 metres (26,510 ft)11K5Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Broad Peak 8,051 metres (26,414 ft)12Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft)13K4Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Gasherbrum III 7,952 metres (26,089 ft)K3aFlag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list
Gasherbrum IV 7,925 metres (26,001 ft)17K3Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Distaghil Sar 7,885 metres (25,869 ft)19Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Kunyang Chhish 7,852 metres (25,761 ft)21Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Masherbrum I 7,821 metres (25,659 ft)22K1Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Batura I 7,795 metres (25,574 ft)25Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Rakaposhi 7,788 metres (25,551 ft)26Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Batura II 7,762 metres (25,466 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list
Kanjut Sar 7,760 metres (25,460 ft)28Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Saltoro Kangri I7,742 metres (25,400 ft)31K10Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of India.svg  India
Batura III 7,729 metres (25,358 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list
Saser Kangri I7,672 metres (25,171 ft)35K22Flag of India.svg  India
Chogolisa 7,665 metres (25,148 ft)36Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Shispare Sar 7,611 metres (24,970 ft)38Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Trivor Sar7,577 metres (24,859 ft)39Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Skyang Kangri 7,545 metres (24,754 ft)43Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Mamostong Kangri 7,516 metres (24,659 ft)47K35Flag of India.svg  India
Saser Kangri II7,513 metres (24,649 ft)48Flag of India.svg  India
Saser Kangri III7,495 metres (24,590 ft)51Flag of India.svg  India
Pumari Chhish 7,492 metres (24,580 ft)53Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Passu Sar 7,478 metres (24,534 ft)54Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Yukshin Gardan Sar 7,469 metres (24,505 ft)55Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Teram Kangri I7,462 metres (24,482 ft)56Flag of India.svg  India Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Malubiting 7,458 metres (24,469 ft)58Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
K12 7,428 metres (24,370 ft)61K12Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of India.svg  India
Sia Kangri 7,422 metres (24,350 ft)63Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Momhil Sar 7,414 metres (24,324 ft)64Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Skil Brum 7,410 metres (24,310 ft)66Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Haramosh Peak 7,409 metres (24,308 ft)67Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Ghent Kangri 7,401 metres (24,281 ft)69Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of India.svg  India
Ultar Peak 7,388 metres (24,239 ft)70Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Rimo I 7,385 metres (24,229 ft)71Flag of India.svg  India
Sherpi Kangri 7,380 metres (24,210 ft)74Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Bojohagur Duanasir 7,329 metres (24,045 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list
Yazghil Dome South 7,324 metres (24,029 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list
Baltoro Kangri 7,312 metres (23,990 ft)81Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Crown Peak 7,295 metres (23,934 ft)83Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Baintha Brakk 7,285 metres (23,901 ft)86Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Yutmaru Sar 7,283 metres (23,894 ft)87Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Baltistan Peak 7,282 metres (23,891 ft)88K6Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Muztagh Tower 7,273 metres (23,862 ft)90Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Diran 7,266 metres (23,839 ft)92Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Apsarasas Kangri I7,243 metres (23,763 ft)95Flag of India.svg  India Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Rimo III7,233 metres (23,730 ft)97Flag of India.svg  India
Gasherbrum V 7,147 metres (23,448 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan not on world highest list

The majority of the highest peaks are in the Gilgit–Baltistan region administered by Pakistan. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 6,100 metres (20,000 ft) height from sea level.

K-numbers

K2 K2-big.jpg
K2
K-numbersInternational nameHeightRemark
K1 Masherbrum 7,821 metres (25,659 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K2 K28,611 metres (28,251 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg at the head of the Godwin-Austen Glacier
K3 Gasherbrum IV 7,925 metres (26,001 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K3a Gasherbrum III 7,952 metres (26,089 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K4 Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
K5 Gasherbrum I 8,080 metres (26,510 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
K6 Baltistan Peak 7,282 metres (23,891 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K7 Gomgma Gangri 6,934 metres (22,749 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg at the head of the Charakusa Valley
K8 Skilma Gangri 7,422 metres (24,350 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg on the western flank of the Siachen Glacier
K9Gamba Gangri7,000 metres (23,000 ft) (approx)Flag of Pakistan.svg near Trango Towers
K10 Saltoro Kangri I7,742 metres (25,400 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
K11 Saltoro Kangri II7,705 metres (25,279 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
K12 Saitang peak 7,428 metres (24,370 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg subsidiary of Saltoro Kangri
K13 Dansam Peak 6,666 metres (21,870 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg south west of Saltoro Kangri
K22 Saser Kangri I7,672 metres (25,171 ft)Flag of India.svg
K25 Pastan Kangri 6,523 metres (21,401 ft)Flag of India.svg south of Saltoro Kangri
K35 Mamostong Kangri 7,516 metres (24,659 ft)Flag of India.svg

Subranges

View of the Moon over Karakoram Range in Pakistan Karakoram Range.jpg
View of the Moon over Karakoram Range in Pakistan

The naming and division of the various subranges of the Karakoram is not universally agreed upon. However, the following is a list of the most important subranges, following Jerzy Wala. [29] The ranges are listed roughly west to east.

Passes

Karakoram
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75km
50miles
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18
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17
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16
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15
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14
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13
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12
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11
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10
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9
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8
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7
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6
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5
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4
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3
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2
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Passes from west to east are:

The Khunjerab Pass is the only motorable pass across the range. The Shimshal Pass (which does not cross an international border) is the only other pass still in regular use.

Cultural references

The Karakoram mountain range has been referred to in a number of novels and movies. Rudyard Kipling refers to the Karakoram mountain range in his novel Kim , which was first published in 1900. Marcel Ichac made a film titled Karakoram, chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival of 1937. Greg Mortenson details the Karakoram, and specifically K2 and the Balti, extensively in his book Three Cups of Tea , about his quest to build schools for children in the region. K2 Kahani (The K2 Story) by Mustansar Hussain Tarar describes his experiences at K2 base camp. [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pamir Mountains</span> Mountain range in Central Asia

The Pamir Mountains are a range of mountains between Central Asia and South Asia. They are located at a junction with other notable mountains, namely the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush and the Himalaya mountain ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltistan</span> Region of Pakistani-administered Kashmir

Baltistan also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet, is a mountainous region in the Pakistani-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan and constitutes an northern portion of the larger Kashmir region that has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947. It is located near the Karakoram and borders Gilgit to the west, China's Xinjiang to the north, Indian-administered Ladakh to the southeast, and the Indian-administered Kashmir Valley to the southwest. The average altitude of the region is over 3,350 metres (10,990 ft). Baltistan is largely administered under the Baltistan Division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karakoram Highway</span> International highway running through Pakistan and China

The Karakoram Highway is a 1,300 km (810 mi) national highway which extends from Hasan Abdal in the Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314. The highway connects the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa plus Gilgit-Baltistan with China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The highway is a popular tourist attraction and is one of the highest paved roads in the world, passing through the Karakoram mountain range, at 36°51′00″N75°25′40″E at maximum elevation of 4,714 m (15,466 ft) near Khunjerab Pass. Due to its high elevation and the difficult conditions under which it was constructed, it is often referred to as the Eighth Wonder of the World. The highway is also a part of the Asian Highway AH4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hispar Muztagh</span> Sub-range of Karakorum mountain range

Hispar Muztagh is a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. It is located in the Nagar District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, north of Hispar Glacier, south of Shimshal Valley, and east of the Hunza Valley. It is the second highest sub-range of the Karakoram, the highest being the Baltoro Muztagh. The highest mountain in the range is Distaghil Sar (7,885m/25,869 ft).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltoro Glacier</span> Glacier in Pakistan

The Baltoro Glacier is a glacier located in the Shigar District of the Gilgit-Baltistan region in Pakistan. It stretches for 63 km (39 mi) in length. It is one of the longest glaciers outside the polar regions. It is home to some of the world’s highest mountains. It runs through the Karakoram mountain range, close to K2, which is the second highest peak in the world, reaching an elevation of 8,611 meters. Within a 20-kilometer radius, there are three more mountains with elevations exceeding 8,000 meters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kunyang Chhish</span> Mountain in India

Kunyang Chhish or Kunyang Chhish is the second-highest mountain in the Hispar Muztagh, a subrange in the Karakoram mountains in Pakistan. An alternate variation of the name is Kunyang Kish. Its height, also sometimes given as 7,823 metres (25,666 ft), is ranked 21st in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shispare</span> Mountain in Pakistan

Shispare is one of the high mountain peaks of the Batura Muztagh, the westernmost subrange of the Karakoram range in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batura Sar</span> Mountain in Pakistan

Batura Sar, also referred to as Batura I, is the 25th-highest mountain on Earth and the 10th-highest in Pakistan. It is the highest peak of the Batura Muztagh, which is the westernmost subrange of the Karakoram range. It forms the apex of the Batura Wall, a continuously high part of the backbone of the Batura Muztagh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batura Muztagh</span>

The Batura Muztagh mountains are a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. They are located in Passu in the Hunza District of Gilgit-Baltistan province in northern Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hunza Valley</span> Valley in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

The Hunza Valley is a mountainous valley in the northern part of the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ultar</span>

Ultar Sar is the southeasternmost major peak of the Batura Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram range. It lies about 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of the Karimabad, a town on the Karakoram Highway in the Hunza Valley, part of the Hunza District of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltoro Muztagh</span> Mountain range in Pakistan/China

The Baltoro Muztagh is a subrange within the Karakoram mountain range. It spans across the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, which is the northernmost political entity of Pakistan, and extends into Xinjiang, China. The crest of this range also serves as part of the border between Pakistan and China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panmah Muztagh</span>

The Panmah Muztagh is a subrange of the Karakoram range, in Shigar, a district of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hispar Glacier</span> Glacier in Pakistan

Hispar Glacier is a 49-km (30-mile) long glacier situated in the Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. It converges with the Biafo Glacier, which extends for 67 kilometers, at the Hispar La (Pass), reaching an altitude of 5,128 meters. This confluence creates the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saltoro Mountains</span> Subrange of the Karakoram located on the southwestern side of the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir

The Saltoro Mountains form a subrange within the Karakoram Range and are situated in the southeastern part of the Karakoram. They lie on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier, which is one of the two longest glaciers in the world outside the polar regions. The name "Saltoro" is also associated with the Saltoro Valley, located west of this range and descending on the Pakistani side of the Saltoro Range, which generally follows the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bojohagur Duanasir</span>

Bojohagur or Bojohaghur Duanasir is a summit in the Batura Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram range in Pakistan. It is the west summit of a short ridge whose high point is Ultar Sar, also known as Bojohaghur Duanasir II. It was first climbed in 1984 by E. Kisa, M. Nagoshi, and R. Okamoto, members of a Japanese expedition led by Tsumeo Omae, which ascended from the Hasanabad Glacier via the Southwest Ridge

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Gilgit-Baltistan</span>

Gilgit-Baltistan is an administrative territory of Pakistan in the northern part of the country. It was given self-governing status on August 29, 2009. Gilgit-Baltistan comprises 14 districts within three divisions. The four districts of Skardu Kharmang Shigar and Ghanche are in the Baltistan Division, four districts of Gilgit Ghizer Hunza and Nagar districts which were carved out of Gilgit District are in the Gilgit Division and the third division is Diamir, comprising Chilas and Astore. The main political centres are the towns of Gilgit and Skardu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batura Glacier</span> Glacier in Pakistan

Batura Glacier, 57 km (35 mi) long, is one of the largest and longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. It lies in the upper Hunza (Gojal) region of Hunza District, Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. It is just north of the massifs of Batura, at 7,795 metres (25,574 ft), and Passu, at 7,500 metres (24,600 ft). The glacier flows west to east. The lower portions can be described as a grey sea of rocks and gravelly moraine, bordered by a few summer villages and pastures with herds of sheep, goats, cows and yaks and where roses and juniper trees are common.

The Mustagh Pass or Muztagh Pass is a mountain pass across the Baltoro Muztagh subrange within the Karakoram, which includes K2, the world's second highest mountain. The crest of the Baltoro Muztagh marks the present border between Pakistani and Chinese territory. Sarpo Laggo Pass is a 6,013-meter (19,728 ft)-high mountain pass at 35.8234°N 76.16249°E near Mustagh Pass.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Gilgit-Baltistan</span> Overview of the tourism industry in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Tourism in Gilgit-Baltistan, an administered territory of Pakistan, focuses on its access to various mountain ranges and alpine terrain.

References

Citations

  1. "Karakoram". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d.
  2. Karakoram Range at the Encyclopædia Britannica .
  3. "Hindu Kush Himalayan Region". International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development . Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  4. Shukurov, The Natural Environment of Central and South Asia 2005 , p. 512.
  5. Voiland, Adam (2013). "The Eight-Thousanders". NASA Earth Observatory . Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  6. "Mountains". Planet Earth . Episode 3. BBC.
  7. Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier is 77 km (48 mi) long. Baltoro and Batura Glaciers in the Karakoram are 57 km (35 mi) long, as is Bruggen or Pio XI Glacier in southern Chile. Measurements are from recent imagery, generally supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as Jerzy Wala,Orographical Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheets 1 & 2, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
  8. "Karakorum-Pamir". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  9. 1 2 3 Mason, Kenneth (1928). Exploration of the Shaksgam Valley and Aghil ranges, 1926. p. 72. ISBN   978-81-206-1794-0.
  10. Close C, Burrard S, Younghusband F, et al. (1930). "Nomenclature in the Karakoram: Discussion". The Geographical Journal. 76 (2). Blackwell Publishing: 148–158. doi:10.2307/1783980. JSTOR   1783980.
  11. Kohli, M.S. (2002), Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure and Pilgrimage, Indus Publishing, p. 22, ISBN   978-81-7387-135-1
  12. French, Patrick. (1994). Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer, pp. 53, 56-60. HarperCollinsPublishers, London. Reprint (1995): Flamingo. London. ISBN   0-00-637601-0.
  13. Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Indigenous Uses, Population Density, and Conservation of Threatened Medicinal Plants in Protected Areas of the Indian Himalayas". Conservation Biology. 19 (2): 368–378. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x. S2CID   85324142.
  14. Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Health traditions of Buddhist community and role of amchis in trans-Himalayan region of India" (PDF). Current Science. 89 (8): 1331.
  15. "Geological evolution of the Karakoram ranges". Italian Journal of Geosciences. 130 (2): 147–159. 2011. doi:10.3301/IJG.2011.08.
  16. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Khan, Asif (2019). "Early twenty-first century glacier mass losses in the Indus Basin constrained by density assumptions". Journal of Hydrology. 574: 467–475. Bibcode:2019JHyd..574..467M. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.04.057 .
  17. Gansser (1975). Geology of the Himalayas. London: Interscience Publishers.
  18. Gallessich, Gail (2011). "Debris on certain Himalayan glaciers may prevent melting". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  19. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide (2016). "Changes in the ablation zones of glaciers in the western Himalaya and the Karakoram between 1972 and 2015". Remote Sensing of Environment. 187: 505–512. Bibcode:2016RSEnv.187..505M. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.10.034 .
  20. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Nüsser, Marcus (2019). "No significant mass loss in the glaciers of Astore Basin (North-Western Himalaya), between 1999 and 2016". Journal of Glaciology. 65 (250): 270–278. Bibcode:2019JGlac..65..270M. doi: 10.1017/jog.2019.5 .
  21. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Ali, Shaukat; Latif, Yasir; Wazir, Muhammad Atif; Goheer, Muhammad Arif; Saifullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Iqtidar; Shiyin, Liu (2020). "Thin debris layers do not enhance melting of the Karakoram glaciers". Science of the Total Environment. 746: 141119. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.746n1119M. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141119 . PMID   32763605.
  22. Veettil, B.K. (2012). "A Remote sensing approach for monitoring debris-covered glaciers in the high altitude Karakoram Himalayas". International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences. 2 (3): 833–841.
  23. 1 2 Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages- An Autocycle Hypothesis.Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I)". GeoJournal. 17 (4): 581–596. doi:10.1007/BF00209444. S2CID   129234912.
  24. Kuhle, M. (2006). "The Past Hunza Glacier in Connection with a Pleistocene Karakoram Ice Stream Network during the Last Ice Age (Würm)". In Kreutzmann, H.; Saijid, A. (eds.). Karakoram in Transition. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–48.
  25. 1 2 3 Kuhle, M. (2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D. (eds.). Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. pp. 943–965. (glacier maps downloadable)
  26. 1 2 Kuhle, M. (2001). "Tibet and High Asia (VI): Glaciogeomorphology and Prehistoric Glaciation in the Karakoram and Himalaya". GeoJournal. 54 (1–4): 109–396. doi:10.1023/A:1021307330169.
  27. Kuhle, M. (1994). "Present and Pleistocene Glaciation on the North-Western Margin of Tibet between the Karakoram Main Ridge and the Tarim Basin Supporting the Evidence of a Pleistocene Inland Glaciation in Tibet. Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German and Russian-German Joint Expeditions (III)". GeoJournal. 33 (2/3): 133–272. doi:10.1007/BF00812877. S2CID   189882345.
  28. For Nepal, the heights indicated on the Nepal Topographic Maps are followed. For China and the Baltoro Karakoram, the heights are those of Mi Desheng's "The Maps of Snow Mountains in China". For the Hispar Karakoram the heights on a Russian 1:100,000 topo map "Hispar area expeditions". Archived from the original on 27 April 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008. seem to be more accurate than the customarily quoted heights probably based on US army maps from the 50s . Elsewhere, unless otherwise indicated, heights are those in Jill Neate's "High Asia".
  29. Jerzy Wala, Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
  30. shuaib (18 August 2019). "Naltar Valley: Heaven on Earth". Mehmaan Resort. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  31. Tarar, Mustansar Hussain (1994). K2 kahani. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel (published in Urdu). p. 179. ISBN   969-35-0523-9. OL   18941738M.

Sources

Further reading