Karakoram

Last updated
Karakoram
Baltoro glacier from air.jpg
Baltoro Glacier in the Central Karakoram
Gilgit−Baltistan, Pakistan
Highest point
Peak K2
Elevation 8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Coordinates 35°52′57″N76°30′48″E / 35.88250°N 76.51333°E / 35.88250; 76.51333
Geography
Karakoram
Interactive map outlining Karakoram range
Countries Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan and Tajikistan
Regions/Provinces Gilgit−Baltistan, Ladakh, Xinjiang and Badakhshan
Range coordinates 36°N76°E / 36°N 76°E / 36; 76 Coordinates: 36°N76°E / 36°N 76°E / 36; 76
Borders on Pamir Mountains, Hindu Kush, Kunlun Mountains, Himalayas and Ladakh Range

The highest peaks of the Karakoram are:

Karakoram
Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Kā lǎ kūnlún shānmài
Literal meaning"Kara-Kunlun mountain range"
MountainHeight [25] Ranked Remark
K2 8,611 metres (28,251 ft)2K2Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gasherbrum I 8,080 metres (26,510 ft)11K5Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Broad Peak 8,051 metres (26,414 ft)12Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft)13K4Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Gasherbrum III 7,952 metres (26,089 ft)K3aFlag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list
Gasherbrum IV 7,925 metres (26,001 ft)17K3Flag of Pakistan.svg
Distaghil Sar 7,885 metres (25,869 ft)19Flag of Pakistan.svg
Kunyang Chhish 7,852 metres (25,761 ft)21Flag of Pakistan.svg
Masherbrum I 7,821 metres (25,659 ft)22K1Flag of Pakistan.svg
Batura I 7,795 metres (25,574 ft)25Flag of Pakistan.svg
Rakaposhi 7,788 metres (25,551 ft)26Flag of Pakistan.svg
Batura II 7,762 metres (25,466 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list
Kanjut Sar 7,760 metres (25,460 ft)28Flag of Pakistan.svg
Saltoro Kangri I7,742 metres (25,400 ft)31K10Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
Batura III 7,729 metres (25,358 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list
Saser Kangri I7,672 metres (25,171 ft)35K22Flag of India.svg
Chogolisa 7,665 metres (25,148 ft)36Flag of Pakistan.svg
Shispare Sar 7,611 metres (24,970 ft)38Flag of Pakistan.svg
Trivor Sar7,577 metres (24,859 ft)39Flag of Pakistan.svg
Skyang Kangri 7,545 metres (24,754 ft)43Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Mamostong Kangri 7,516 metres (24,659 ft)47K35Flag of India.svg
Saser Kangri II7,513 metres (24,649 ft)48Flag of India.svg
Saser Kangri III7,495 metres (24,590 ft)51Flag of India.svg
Pumari Chhish 7,492 metres (24,580 ft)53Flag of Pakistan.svg
Passu Sar 7,478 metres (24,534 ft)54Flag of Pakistan.svg
Yukshin Gardan Sar 7,469 metres (24,505 ft)55Flag of Pakistan.svg
Teram Kangri I7,462 metres (24,482 ft)56Flag of India.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Malubiting 7,458 metres (24,469 ft)58Flag of Pakistan.svg
K12 7,428 metres (24,370 ft)61K12Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
Sia Kangri 7,422 metres (24,350 ft)63Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Momhil Sar 7,414 metres (24,324 ft)64Flag of Pakistan.svg
Skil Brum 7,410 metres (24,310 ft)66Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Haramosh Peak 7,409 metres (24,308 ft)67Flag of Pakistan.svg
Ghent Kangri 7,401 metres (24,281 ft)69Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
Ultar Peak 7,388 metres (24,239 ft)70Flag of Pakistan.svg
Rimo I 7,385 metres (24,229 ft)71Flag of India.svg
Sherpi Kangri 7,380 metres (24,210 ft)74Flag of Pakistan.svg
Bojohagur Duanasir 7,329 metres (24,045 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list
Yazghil Dome South 7,324 metres (24,029 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list
Baltoro Kangri 7,312 metres (23,990 ft)81Flag of Pakistan.svg
Crown Peak 7,295 metres (23,934 ft)83Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Baintha Brakk 7,285 metres (23,901 ft)86Flag of Pakistan.svg
Yutmaru Sar 7,283 metres (23,894 ft)87Flag of Pakistan.svg
Baltistan Peak 7,282 metres (23,891 ft)88K6Flag of Pakistan.svg
Muztagh Tower 7,273 metres (23,862 ft)90Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Diran 7,266 metres (23,839 ft)92Flag of Pakistan.svg
Apsarasas Kangri I7,243 metres (23,763 ft)95Flag of India.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
Rimo III7,233 metres (23,730 ft)97Flag of India.svg
Gasherbrum V 7,147 metres (23,448 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg not on world highest list

The majority of the highest peaks are in the Gilgit–Baltistan region administered by Pakistan. Baltistan has more than 100 mountain peaks exceeding 6,100 metres (20,000 ft) height from sea level.

K-numbers

K2 K2-big.jpg
K2
K-numbersInternational nameHeightRemark
K1 Masherbrum 7,821 metres (25,659 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K2 K28,611 metres (28,251 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg at the head of the Godwin-Austen Glacier
K3 Gasherbrum IV 7,925 metres (26,001 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K3a Gasherbrum III 7,952 metres (26,089 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K4 Gasherbrum II 8,034 metres (26,358 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
K5 Gasherbrum I 8,080 metres (26,510 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg
K6 Baltistan Peak 7,282 metres (23,891 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg
K7 Gomgma Gangri 6,934 metres (22,749 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg at the head of the Charakusa Valley
K8 Skilma Gangri 7,422 metres (24,350 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg on the western flank of the Siachen Glacier
K9Gamba Gangri7,000 metres (23,000 ft) (approx)Flag of Pakistan.svg near Trango Towers
K10 Saltoro Kangri I7,742 metres (25,400 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
K11 Saltoro Kangri II7,705 metres (25,279 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg
K12 Saitang peak 7,428 metres (24,370 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg-Flag of India.svg subsidiary of Saltoro Kangri
K13 Dansam Peak 6,666 metres (21,870 ft)Flag of Pakistan.svg south west of Saltoro Kangri
K22 Saser Kangri I7,672 metres (25,171 ft)Flag of India.svg
K25 Pastan Kangri 6,523 metres (21,401 ft)Flag of India.svg south of Saltoro Kangri
K35 Mamostong Kangri 7,516 metres (24,659 ft)Flag of India.svg

Subranges

View of the Moon over Karakoram Range in Pakistan Karakoram Range.jpg
View of the Moon over Karakoram Range in Pakistan

The naming and division of the various subranges of the Karakoram is not universally agreed upon. However, the following is a list of the most important subranges, following Jerzy Wala. [26] The ranges are listed roughly west to east.

Passes

Passes from west to east are:

The Khunjerab Pass is the only motorable pass across the range. The Shimshal Pass (which does not cross an international border) is the only other pass still in regular use.

Cultural references

The Karakoram mountain range has been referred to in a number of novels and movies. Rudyard Kipling refers to the Karakoram mountain range in his novel Kim , which was first published in 1900. Marcel Ichac made a film titled Karakoram, chronicling a French expedition to the range in 1936. The film won the Silver Lion at the Venice Film Festival of 1937. Greg Mortenson details the Karakoram, and specifically K2 and the Balti, extensively in his book Three Cups of Tea , about his quest to build schools for children in the region. K2 Kahani (The K2 Story) by Mustansar Hussain Tarar describes his experiences at K2 base camp. [28]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pamir Mountains</span> Mountain range in Central Asia

The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range between Central Asia and Pakistan. It is located at a junction with other notable mountains, namely the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush and the Himalaya mountain ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltistan</span> Region of Pakistani-administered Kashmir

Baltistan, also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet, is a mountainous region in the Pakistani-administered territory of Gilgit–Baltistan. It is located near the Karakoram and borders Gilgit to the west, China's Xinjiang to the north, Indian-administered Ladakh to the southeast, and the Indian-administered Kashmir Valley to the southwest. The average altitude of the region is over 3,350 metres (10,990 ft). Baltistan is largely administered under the Baltistan Division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Karakoram Highway</span> International highway running through Pakistan and China

The Karakoram Highway is a 1,300 km (810 mi) national highway which extends from Hasan Abdal in the Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314. The highway connects the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa plus Gilgit-Baltistan with China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The highway is a popular tourist attraction and is one of the highest paved roads in the world, passing through the Karakoram mountain range, at 36°51′00″N75°25′40″E at maximum elevation of 4,714 m (15,466 ft) near Khunjerab Pass. Due to its high elevation and the difficult conditions under which it was constructed, it is often referred to as the Eighth Wonder of the World. The highway is also a part of the Asian Highway AH4.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hispar Muztagh</span> Sub-range of Karakorum mountain range

Hispar Muztagh is a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. It is located in the Nagar District of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, north of Hispar Glacier, south of Shimshal Valley, and east of the Hunza Valley. It is the second highest sub-range of the Karakoram, the highest being the Baltoro Muztagh. The highest mountain in the range is Distaghil Sar (7,885m/25,869 ft).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltoro Glacier</span> Glacier in Pakistan

The Baltoro Glacier, at 63 km (39 mi) in length, is one of the longest glaciers outside the polar regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shispare</span> Mountain in Pakistan

Shispare is one of the high mountain peaks of the Batura Muztagh, the westernmost subrange of the Karakoram range in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batura Sar</span> Mountain in Pakistan

Batura Sar, also referred to as Batura I, is the 25th-highest mountain on Earth and the 10th-highest in Pakistan. It is the highest peak of the Batura Muztagh, which is the westernmost subrange of the Karakoram range. It forms the apex of the Batura Wall, a continuously high part of the backbone of the Batura Muztagh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Batura Muztagh</span>

The Batura Muztagh mountains are a sub-range of the Karakoram mountain range. They are located in between central hunza and upper hunza(Gojal valley) in the Hunza district of the Gilgit-Baltistan province in northern Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ultar</span>

Ultar Sar is the southeasternmost major peak of the Batura Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram range. It lies about 10 km (6.2 mi) northeast of the Karimabad, a town on the Karakoram Highway in the Hunza Valley, part of the Hunza District of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltoro Muztagh</span> Mountain range in Pakistan/China

The Baltoro Muztagh is a subrange of the Karakoram mountain range, in Baltistan region of the Gilgit-Baltistan, northernmost political entity of Pakistan; and in Xinjiang, China. The crest of the range forms part of the Pakistan-China border.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Panmah Muztagh</span>

The Panmah Muztagh is a subrange of the Karakoram range, in Shigar, a district of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hispar Glacier</span> Glacier in Pakistan

Hispar Glacier is a 49 km (30 mi) long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan which meets the 67 km (42 mi) long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La (Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m (16,824 ft) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Skardu District</span> District of Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan

The Skardu District is one of the 10 districts of Gilgit-Baltistan territory of Pakistan. The Skardu District is bounded on the east by the Ghanche District, on the south by the Kharmang District, on the west by the Astore District, on the north-west by the Rondu District and on the north by the Shigar district. The district headquarters is the town of Skardu, which is also the division headquarters.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saltoro Mountains</span> Subrange of the Karakoram located on the southwestern side of the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir

The Saltoro Mountains are a subrange of the Karakoram Range. They are located in the southeast Karakoram on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier, one of the two longest glaciers outside the polar regions. The name given to this range is shared with the Saltoro Valley which is located to the west of this range, downslope on the Pakistan side of the Saltoro Range which generally follows the Actual Ground Position Line. Saltoro Kangri peak, Saltoro River, and Saltoro Valley are features on this range. The Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) between Indian and Pakistan held area runs through this range, where the high peaks and passes of the Siachen area are held by Pakistan,the peaks and valleys to the west after successfully taking back control from India in 1999 Kargil war.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bojohagur Duanasir</span>

Bojohagur or Bojohaghur Duanasir is a summit in the Batura Muztagh, a subrange of the Karakoram range in Pakistan. It is the west summit of a short ridge whose high point is Ultar Sar, also known as Bojohaghur Duanasir II. It was first climbed in 1984 by E. Kisa, M. Nagoshi, and R. Okamoto, members of a Japanese expedition led by Tsumeo Omae, which ascended from the Hasanabad Glacier via the Southwest Ridge

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geography of Gilgit-Baltistan</span>

Gilgit-Baltistan has been under Pakistan administration since 1947 and was given self-governing status on August 29, 2009. Gilgit-Baltistan comprises 10 districts within three divisions. The four districts of Skardu Kharmang Shigar and Ghanche are in the Baltistan Division, four districts of Gilgit Ghizer Hunza and Nagar districts which were carved out of Gilgit District are in the Gilgit Division and the third division is Diamir, comprising Chilas and Astore. The main political centres are the towns of Gilgit and Skardu.

Batura Glacier, 57 km (35 mi) long, is one of the largest and longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. It lies in the upper Hunza (Gojal) region of Hunza District, Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. It is just north of the massifs of Batura, at 7,795 metres (25,574 ft), and Passu, at 7,500 metres (24,600 ft). The glacier flows west to east. The lower portions can be described as a grey sea of rocks and gravelly moraine, bordered by a few summer villages and pastures with herds of sheep, goats, cows and yaks and where roses and juniper trees are common.

The Mustagh Pass or Muztagh Pass is a mountain pass across the Baltoro Muztagh range in the Karakorams which includes K2, the world's second highest mountain. The crest of the Baltoro Muztagh marks the present border between Pakistani and Chinese territory. Sarpo Laggo Pass is a 6,013-meter (19,728 ft)-high mountain pass at 35.8234°N 76.16249°E near Mustagh Pass.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tourism in Gilgit-Baltistan</span> Overview of the tourism industry in Gilgit−Baltistan, Pakistan

Tourism in Gilgit-Baltistan, a dependent territory of Pakistan, focuses on the mountains.

References

Citations

  1. Bessarabov, Georgy Dmitriyevich (7 February 2014). "Karakoram Range". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  2. "Hindu Kush Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  3. Shukurov, The Natural Environment of Central and South Asia 2005 , p. 512; Voiland, Adam (2013). "The Eight-Thousanders". Nasa Earth Observatory. Retrieved 23 December 2016.; BBC, Planet Earth, "Mountains", Part Three
  4. Tajikistan's Fedchenko Glacier is 77 kilometres (48 mi) long. Baltoro and Batura Glaciers in the Karakoram are 57 kilometres (35 mi) long, as is Bruggen or Pio XI Glacier in southern Chile. Measurements are from recent imagery, generally supplemented with Russian 1:200,000 scale topographic mapping as well as Jerzy Wala,Orographical Sketch Map: Karakoram: Sheets 1 & 2, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
  5. "Karakorum-Pamir". UNESCO. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  6. 1 2 3 Mason, Kenneth (1928). Exploration of the Shaksgam Valley and Aghil ranges, 1926. p. 72. ISBN   978-81-206-1794-0.
  7. Close C, Burrard S, Younghusband F, et al. (1930). "Nomenclature in the Karakoram: Discussion". The Geographical Journal. Blackwell Publishing. 76 (2): 148–158. doi:10.2307/1783980. JSTOR   1783980.
  8. Kohli, M.S. (2002), Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure and Pilgrimage, Indus Publishing, p. 22, ISBN   978-81-7387-135-1
  9. French, Patrick. (1994). Younghusband: The Last Great Imperial Adventurer, pp. 53, 56-60. HarperCollinsPublishers, London. Reprint (1995): Flamingo. London. ISBN   0-00-637601-0.
  10. Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Indigenous Uses, Population Density, and Conservation of Threatened Medicinal Plants in Protected Areas of the Indian Himalayas". Conservation Biology. 19 (2): 368–378. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00602.x. S2CID   85324142.
  11. Kala, Chandra Prakash (2005). "Health traditions of Buddhist community and role of amchis in trans-Himalayan region of India" (PDF). Current Science. 89 (8): 1331.
  12. "Geological evolution of the Karakoram ranges". Italian Journal of Geosciences. 130 (2): 147–159. 2011. doi:10.3301/IJG.2011.08.
  13. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Khan, Asif (2019). "Early twenty-first century glacier mass losses in the Indus Basin constrained by density assumptions". Journal of Hydrology. 574: 467–475. Bibcode:2019JHyd..574..467M. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.04.057 .
  14. Gansser (1975). Geology of the Himalayas. London: Interscience Publishers.
  15. Gallessich, Gail (2011). "Debris on certain Himalayan glaciers may prevent melting". sciencedaily.com. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  16. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide (2016). "Changes in the ablation zones of glaciers in the western Himalaya and the Karakoram between 1972 and 2015". Remote Sensing of Environment. 187: 505–512. Bibcode:2016RSEnv.187..505M. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.10.034 .
  17. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Nüsser, Marcus (2019). "No significant mass loss in the glaciers of Astore Basin (North-Western Himalaya), between 1999 and 2016". Journal of Glaciology. 65 (250): 270–278. Bibcode:2019JGlac..65..270M. doi: 10.1017/jog.2019.5 .
  18. Muhammad, Sher; Tian, Lide; Ali, Shaukat; Latif, Yasir; Wazir, Muhammad Atif; Goheer, Muhammad Arif; Saifullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Iqtidar; Shiyin, Liu (2020). "Thin debris layers do not enhance melting of the Karakoram glaciers". Science of the Total Environment. 746: 141119. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.746n1119M. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141119 . PMID   32763605.
  19. Veettil, B.K. (2012). "A Remote sensing approach for monitoring debris-covered glaciers in the high altitude Karakoram Himalayas". International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences. 2 (3): 833–841.
  20. 1 2 Kuhle, M. (1988). "The Pleistocene Glaciation of Tibet and the Onset of Ice Ages- An Autocycle Hypothesis.Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German Joint Expeditions (I)". GeoJournal. 17 (4): 581–596. doi:10.1007/BF00209444. S2CID   129234912.
  21. Kuhle, M. (2006). "The Past Hunza Glacier in Connection with a Pleistocene Karakoram Ice Stream Network during the Last Ice Age (Würm)". In Kreutzmann, H.; Saijid, A. (eds.). Karakoram in Transition. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–48.
  22. 1 2 3 Kuhle, M. (2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D. (eds.). Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. pp. 943–965. (glacier maps downloadable)
  23. 1 2 Kuhle, M. (2001). "Tibet and High Asia (VI): Glaciogeomorphology and Prehistoric Glaciation in the Karakoram and Himalaya". GeoJournal. 54 (1–4): 109–396. doi:10.1023/A:1021307330169.
  24. Kuhle, M. (1994). "Present and Pleistocene Glaciation on the North-Western Margin of Tibet between the Karakoram Main Ridge and the Tarim Basin Supporting the Evidence of a Pleistocene Inland Glaciation in Tibet. Tibet and High Asia. Results of the Sino-German and Russian-German Joint Expeditions (III)". GeoJournal. 33 (2/3): 133–272. doi:10.1007/BF00812877. S2CID   189882345.
  25. For Nepal, the heights indicated on the Nepal Topographic Maps are followed. For China and the Baltoro Karakoram, the heights are those of Mi Desheng's "The Maps of Snow Mountains in China". For the Hispar Karakoram the heights on a Russian 1:100,000 topo map "Hispar area expeditions". Archived from the original on 27 April 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008. seem to be more accurate than the customarily quoted heights probably based on US army maps from the 50s . Elsewhere, unless otherwise indicated, heights are those in Jill Neate's "High Asia".
  26. Jerzy Wala, Orographical Sketch Map of the Karakoram, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, Zurich, 1990.
  27. shuaib (18 August 2019). "Naltar Valley: Heaven on Earth". Mehmaan Resort. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  28. Tarar, Mustansar Hussain (1994). K2 kahani. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel (published in Urdu). p. 179. ISBN   969-35-0523-9. OL   18941738M.

Sources

Further reading