|Cardinal, Bishop of Mainz|
Cardinal Lehmann, 2014
|Province||Freiburg im Breisgau|
|Appointed||21 June 1983|
|Installed||2 October 1983|
|Term ended||16 May 2016|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Priest of S. Leone I|
|Ordination||10 October 1963|
by Julius August Döpfner
|Consecration||2 October 1983|
by Hermann Volk
|Created cardinal||21 February 2001|
|Born||16 May 1936|
|Died||11 March 2018 (aged 81)|
|Motto||State in fide (English: "Stand firmly in the faith") – 1 Corinthians 16:13|
|Coat of arms|
Karl Lehmann (16 May 1936 – 11 March 2018) was a German Cardinal prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Mainz from 1983 to 2016, being elevated to Cardinal in 2001. He also served as Chairman of the Conference of the German Bishops from 1987 to 2008, being considered one of the most influential prelates in Germany in these years and a leading proponent of liberal stances within the Church. Before he became bishop, he worked as professor of theology at the University of Mainz and the University of Freiburg.
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries. The word derives from the Latin prælatus, the past participle of præferre, which means "carry before", "be set above or over" or "prefer"; hence, a prelate is one set over others.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is typically elected or appointed by the members of the group, and the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion.
Lehmann was born in Sigmaringen and grew up in Veringenstadt. His father was a local teacher and his mother educated as a bookseller.During his high school years, he lived in the Catholic student home Erzbischöfliches Studienheim St. Fidelis in Sigmaringen.
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district.
Veringenstadt is a town in the district of Sigmaringen, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 10 km north of Sigmaringen.
He studied at the Seminary of Freiburg 1957–1964and then at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome where he earned a doctorate in philosophy, in 1962, with a thesis titled Vom Ursprung und Sinn der Seinsfrage im Denken Martin Heideggers. He also received a doctorate in theology in 1967, with a thesis titled "Auferweckt am dritten Tag nach der Schrift"—Exegetische und fundamentaltheologische Studien zu 1 Kor 15, 3b-5.
The Pontifical Gregorian University is a higher education ecclesiastical school located in Rome, Italy. It was originally a part of the Roman College founded in 1551 by Ignatius of Loyola, and included all grades of schooling. The university division of philosophy and theology of the Roman College was given Papal approval in 1556, making it the first university founded by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). In 1584 the Roman College was given a grandiose new home by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was renamed. It was already making its mark not only in sacred but also in natural science.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
He was ordained to the priesthood on 10 October 1963 in Rome by Cardinal Julius Döpfner.During the Second Vatican Council from 1962 to 1965, he served as an assistant to Karl Rahner, and he was also assistant to Rahner at the Seminar for Christian worldview and philosophy of religion at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich from 1964 to 1967.
Julius August Döpfner was a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Archbishop of Munich and Freising from 1961 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958.
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965.
Karl Rahner was a German Jesuit priest and theologian who, alongside Henri de Lubac, Hans Urs von Balthasar, and Yves Congar, is considered one of the most influential Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He was the brother of Hugo Rahner, also a Jesuit scholar.
In 1968 he became professor of dogmatic theology at the University of Mainz, a position he held until 1971 when he became professor of dogmatic and ecumenical theology at the University of Freiburg.
Dogmatic theology is that part of theology dealing with the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and God's works, especially the official theology recognized by an organized Church body, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Dutch Reformed Church, etc. At times, apologetics or fundamental theology is called "general dogmatic theology", dogmatic theology proper being distinguished from it as "special dogmatic theology". In present-day use, however, apologetics is no longer treated as part of dogmatic theology but has attained the rank of an independent science, being generally regarded as the introduction to and foundation of dogmatic theology.
The University of Freiburg, officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 18.2% of total student numbers.
He was for ten years, from 1974 to 1984, a member of the International Theological Commission.
The International Theological Commission (ITC) of the Roman Catholic Church advises the Magisterium of the Church, particularly the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Its memberships consists of no more than 30 Catholic theologians appointed by the pope at the suggestion of the Prefect of the CDF for renewable five year terms. They tend to meet annually for a week in Rome, where the Commission is based.
When he was appointed Bishop of Mainz in 1983 at the age of 47he was the youngest Catholic bishop ever appointed in Germany.
After being elected deputy chairman of the Episcopal Conference of Germany in 1985, he was elected chairman of the conference in 1987 and held that position for 21 years until 2008,making him one of the most influential people in German Catholicism in this period.
He served as member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith from 1986 to 1998and served as vice-president of the Council of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe from 1993 to 2001.
In 1993, Lehmann along with Bishop of Rottenburg-Stuttgart Walter Kasper and Archbishop of Freiburg Oskar Saier issued a pastoral letter that argued that there should be an opening for pastoral flexibility on allowing divorced and civilly remarried persons to receive the Eucharist. The letter was read in the churches of their dioceses in September of that year.
Abortion was a major issue during Lehmann's term as chairman of the Conference of the German Bishops. After the German reunification abortion laws needed to be reconciled. Working closely with CDU and Helmut Kohl, Lehmann favoured a compromise where abortion remained illegal, but under certain circumstances not punishable. This became the fundament for the German legislation in the area. To obtain inpunity, a woman was in most cases required to go through counseling before abortion and the Church would for a time offer such counseling. In 1998 Pope John Paul II, against the wish of Lehmann and a majority of German bishops, banned the Church from participating in the system.
Lehmann mentioned the 1998 Katholikentag in Mainz as one of the highlights his years as bishop of the diocese.
Lehmann was raised to the rank of cardinal by Pope John Paul II at the consistory of 21 February 2001.The appointment came unexpected to many observers due to Lehmann's relatively liberal view on abortion counselling and giving eucharist to remarried parishioners. Former Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl, who was a friend of Lehmann, had lobbied the Vatican for the appointment. He was one of the electors who participated in the papal conclaves of 2005 and 2013 that selected Pope Benedict XVI and Pope Francis.
Lehmann was among the cardinals and bishops who met annually from 1995 to 2006 in St. Gallen, Switzerland, to discuss reforms with respect to the appointment of bishops, collegiality, bishops' conferences, the primacy of the papacy and sexual morality. About a dozen in number, they differed among themselves, but shared the view that Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was not the candidate they hoped to see elected at the next conclave.
Pope Francis accepted his resignation as Bishop of Mainz on 16 May 2016, his 80th birthday.
Being considered a leading force for a more liberal Catholicism, he was called a bridge-builder, a man of dialogue and a "stroke of luck for German Catholics" by supporters, while Conservative critics derided the "Lehmann Church" as too accommodating to modern values.
Cardinal Lehmann's episcopal coat of arms incorporated elements such as the wheel from the arms of the Diocese of Mainz, the key from the Diocese of Worms, and an open book with the letters Alpha and Omega, a symbol of the message of Jesus Christ, as well as for the Cardinal's personal enthusiasm for literature.
His Latin motto, State in fide (English: "Stand firmly in the faith") was derived from 1 Corinthians 16:13 .
His last public appearance was in August 2017 at the consecration of Peter Kohlgraf as new bishop of Mainz.
In September 2017, Lehmann suffered a stroke and cerebral hemorrhage which left him in need of care, first at hospital and later at home. He died on 11 March 2018.
Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel expressed sorrow at his death and referred to him as one of the most prominent figures of the Catholic Church in Germany. The chairman of the German Bishops' Conference Reinhard Marx paid respect to Lehmann as a man who had influenced the Catholic Church globally.
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|Catholic Church titles|
| Chairman of the German Bishops' Conference |
|Preceded by|| Vice president of the Council of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe |
| Bishop of Mainz |