Karlovy Vary

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Karlovy Vary

Carlsbad
Karlovy Vary Czech.jpg
October 1997 bird's-eye view of Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary (CZE) - flag.gif
Flag
Karlovy Vary COA.svg
Coat of arms
Relief Map of Czech Republic.png
Red pog.svg
Karlovy Vary
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°14′N12°52′E / 50.233°N 12.867°E / 50.233; 12.867 Coordinates: 50°14′N12°52′E / 50.233°N 12.867°E / 50.233; 12.867
Country Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Region Karlovy Vary
District Karlovy Vary
Founded around1350
Government
  MayorAndrea Pfeffer Ferklová
Area
  Total59.10 km2 (22.82 sq mi)
Elevation
447 m (1,467 ft)
Population
 (2019-01-01 [1] )
  Total48,501
  Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
360 01
Website www.karlovyvary.cz
A geyser in Karlovy Vary Vridlo - Karlovy Vary.jpg
A geyser in Karlovy Vary

Karlovy Vary or Carlsbad (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkarlovɪ ˈvarɪ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Karlsbad) is a spa town situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately 130 km (81 mi) west of Prague (Praha). It is named after Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, who founded the city in 1370. It is the site of numerous hot springs (13 main springs, about 300 smaller springs, and the warm-water Teplá River), and is the most visited spa town in the Czech Republic. [2]

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

Spa town specialized resort town situated around a mineral spa

A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa. Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word spa is derived from the name of Spa, a town in Belgium.

Bohemia Historical region in the Czech Republic

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, especially in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings.

Contents

History

An ancient late Bronze Age fortified settlement was found in Drahovice. A Slavic settlement on the site of Karlovy Vary is documented by findings in Tašovice and Sedlec. People lived in close proximity to the site as far back as the 13th century and they must have been aware of the curative effects of thermal springs. [3]

Bronze Age Prehistoric period and age studied in archaeology, part of the Holocene Epoch

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies.

Slavs Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia

Slavs are modern Indo-European peoples who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), and Central Asia, as well as historically in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America, particularly in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration.

Around 1350, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor organized an expedition into the forests surrounding modern-day Karlovy Vary during a stay in Loket. On the site of a spring, he established a spa called the Horké Lázně u Lokte (Hot Spas at Loket). The location was subsequently named "Karlovy Vary" after the emperor, who extolled the healing powers of the hot springs, at least according to legend. Charles IV granted the town privileges on 14 August 1370. Earlier settlements can also be found on the outskirts of today's town.

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV, born Wenceslaus, was the first King of Bohemia to become Holy Roman Emperor. He was a member of the House of Luxembourg from his father's side and the Czech House of Přemyslid from his mother's side; he emphasized the latter due to his lifelong affinity for the Czech side of his inheritance, and also because his direct ancestors in the Přemyslid line included two saints.

Loket (Sokolov District) Town in Czech Republic

Loket is a town of 3,000 inhabitants in the Sokolov District in the Karlovy Vary region of the Czech Republic. From 1938 to 1945 it was one of the municipalities in Sudetenland.

An important political event took place in the town in 1819, with the issuing of the Carlsbad Decrees following a conference there. Initiated by the Austrian Minister of State Klemens von Metternich, the decrees were intended to implement anti-liberal censorship within the German Confederation.

Carlsbad Decrees

The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia. They banned nationalist fraternities ("Burschenschaften"), removed liberal university professors, and expanded the censorship of the press. They were aimed at quelling a growing sentiment for German unification and were passed during ongoing Hep-Hep riots which ended within a month after the resolution was passed.

Klemens von Metternich Austrian diplomat

Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of European affairs for four decades as the Austrian Empire's foreign minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal Revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.

German Confederation association of 39 German states in Central Europe from 1815 to 1866

The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, and the French region of Alsace, which was predominantly German speaking.

Due to publications produced by physicians such as David Becher and Josef von Löschner, the town developed into a famous spa resort in the 19th century and was visited by many members of European aristocracy as well as celebrities from many fields of endeavour. It became even more popular after railway lines were completed from Prague to Cheb in 1870.

Josef von Löschner Czech doctor and university educator

Josef Wilhelm Freiherr von Löschner or in Czech Josef Vilém z Löschneru was an Austrian physician born in Kaaden, Bohemia. He studied at Gymnasium Kadaň.

Rail transport Conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks

Rail transport is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) set in ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track. This is where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Prague Capital city of the Czech Republic

Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the northwest of the Czech Republic on the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters.

The number of visitors rose from 134 families in the 1756 season to 26,000 guests annually at the end of the 19th century. By 1911, that figure had reached 71,000, but the outbreak of World War I in 1914 greatly disrupted the tourism on which the town depended.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

At the end of World War I in 1918, the large German-speaking population of Bohemia was incorporated into the new state of Czechoslovakia in accordance with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). As a result, the German-speaking majority of Karlovy Vary protested. A demonstration on 4 March 1919 passed peacefully, but later that month, six demonstrators were killed by Czech troops after a demonstration became unruly. [4]

In 1938, the majority German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia, known as the Sudetenland, became part of Nazi Germany according to the terms of the Munich Agreement. The areas included Karlovy Vary, which was renamed to Karlsbad. After World War II, in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, the vast majority of the people of the town were forcibly expelled because of their German ethnicity. In accordance with the Beneš decrees, their property was confiscated without compensation, and the town was renamed again Karlovy Vary.

Since the end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the presence of Russian businesses in Karlovy Vary has steadily increased.

2007-KarlovyVary-053-wide.jpg
A panorama showing most of the spa/historic section of Karlovy Vary. Key sites, from left to right, are: the dark grey, socialist-era Thermal Spring Colonnade (also Hot Spring Colonnade or Sprudel) featuring a glass chimney. Directly above is the twin-steeple Church of St. Mary Magdalene. The large, stately building on the central hill is the Hotel Imperial. Below, to the right of the square, is the Opera House. The Hotel Imperial is the large white building, far right.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
186914,185    
190042,653+200.7%
193054,652+28.1%
193953,339−2.4%
194731,322−41.3%
196150,034+59.7%
YearPop.±%
199156,291+12.5%
200153,857−4.3%
200853,708−0.3%
201353,737+0.1%
201449,864−7.2%
201948,501−2.7%
Source: [5] [6]

In 2012, non-Czech residents were around 7% of the population of the Karlovy Vary region. After Prague, this is the highest proportion in the Czech Republic. The largest group of foreigners were Vietnamese, followed by Germans, Russians, and Ukrainians. [7]

Transport

Local buses (Dopravní Podnik Karlovy Vary) and cable cars take passengers to most areas of the city. The Imperial funicular is the oldest in Europe and the Diana funicular was the longest during the reign of Franz Joseph I. in Austria-Hungary. [8]

The city is accessible via the expressway R6 and inter-city public transport options include inter-city buses, Czech Railways, and Deutsche Bahn via the Karlovy Vary–Johanngeorgenstadt railway. Karlovy Vary Airport is an international airport located 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) south-east from the city, at the nearby village of Olšová Vrata. As of August, 2018 the airport is only serviced by scheduled flights to Moscow.

Churches

Church of St. Mary Magdalene Karlsbad-Kirche.jpg
Church of St. Mary Magdalene
Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul Russisch-orthodoxe Kirche.JPG
Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul
Entry to 47th Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in Hotel Thermal 47. KVIFF, vstup do Termalu.JPG
Entry to 47th Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in Hotel Thermal
Mill Colonnade Karlovy Vary colonnade 1..jpg
Mill Colonnade

Culture

In the 19th century, Karlovy Vary became a popular tourist destination, especially known for international celebrities who visited for spa treatment. The city is also known for the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, which is one of the oldest in the world and one of Europe's major film events.

It is also known for the popular Czech liqueur Becherovka and the production of the famous glass manufacturer Moser Glass, which is located in Karlovy Vary. The famous Karlovarské oplatky (Carlsbad wafers) originated in the city in 1867. It has also lent its name to "Carlsbad plums", candied stuffed zwetschgen.

The city has been used as the location for a number of film-shoots, including the 2006 films Last Holiday and box-office hit Casino Royale , both of which used the city's Grandhotel Pupp in different guises. Moreover, the Palace Bristol Hotel in Karlovy Vary had been used as a model for The Grand Budapest Hotel movie.

Karlovy Vary is also home to ice hockey club HC Karlovy Vary and its junior branch HC Energie Karlovy Vary (juniors).

People

Notable residents

Notable people associated with Karlovy Vary

Commemorative plaque for Peter I of Russia in Karlovy Vary Anton, E. - carte de visite, Gedenksteen voor Peter de Grote.tif
Commemorative plaque for Peter I of Russia in Karlovy Vary

International relations

Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States [13] (after which Carlsbad Caverns National Park is named), Carlsbad, California, USA [14] Carlsbad Springs, Ontario, Canada, and Carlsbad, Texas, USA, take their names from Karlovy Vary's English name, Carlsbad. All of these places were so named because they were the sites of mineral springs or natural sources of mineral water.

Twin towns – sister cities

Karlovy Vary is twinned with: [15]

Related Research Articles

Karlovy Vary Region Region in Czech Republic

The Karlovy Vary Region or Carlsbad Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. It is named after its capital Karlovy Vary. The region is world-famous for its spas, including Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně.

Karlsbad (Baden) Place in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Karlsbad is an administrative area in the district of Karlsruhe, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Mariánské Lázně Town in Czech Republic

Mariánské Lázně is a spa town in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. The town, surrounded by green mountains, is a mosaic of parks and noble houses. Most of its buildings come from the town's Golden Era in the second half of the 19th century, when many celebrities and top European rulers came to enjoy the curative carbon dioxide springs.

Becherovka herbal bitters

Becherovka, formerly Karlsbader Becherbitter, is a herbal bitters, often drunk as a digestive aid. It is produced in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic by the Jan Becher company. The brand is owned by Pernod Ricard. It is made from a secret recipe based on more than twenty types of herbs and spices.

Ohře river in Germany and the Czech Republic

The Ohře or, slightly less commonly in English sources, the Eger, is a 316 km long river in Germany (50 km) and the Czech Republic (266 km), left tributary of the Elbe. The catchment area of the river is 5,588 km2, of which 4,601 km2 is in the Czech Republic, 920 km2 in Bavaria and 67 km2 in Saxony. It is the fourth longest river in the Czech Republic.

Karlovy Vary District District in Karlovy Vary Region, Czech Republic

Karlovy Vary District or Carlsbad District is a district (okres) within the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic. Its administrative center is Karlovy Vary.

Františkovy Lázně Town in Czech Republic

Františkovy Lázně is a spa town in Cheb District of Karlovy Vary Region, in the Czech Republic. Together with neighbouring Karlovy Vary and Mariánské Lázně, it is part of the renowned West Bohemian Spa Triangle. The historic town centre, under monumental protection since 1992, was nominated for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage roster.

Spa towns in the Czech Republic

There are number of spa towns in the Czech Republic. Between the oldest and most visited are the spas of Karlovy Vary, Mariánské Lázně, Františkovy Lázně, Luhačovice and Poděbrady. In 2011 the Czech spas were visited by around 700,000 guests, of whom around half were foreigners, mainly from Germany, Russia and Austria.

Grandhotel Pupp hotel in Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic)

The Grandhotel Pupp is a 228-room luxury hotel located in Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad), Czech Republic. The hotel hosts the annual Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.

This is a list of German language place names in Bohemia, now exonyms for towns and villages in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic.

Karlsbad may refer to:

Mattoni

Mattoni is mineral water from Karlovy Vary, the Czech Republic.

Fellner & Helmer Architecture office (est.1873 in Vienna)

Fellner & Helmer was an architecture studio founded in 1873 by Austrian architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer.

Viktor Tietz Czech chess player

Viktor Tietz (13 April, 1859, Rumburg was an ethnic-German Austrian and Czechoslovak chess player, chess life organizer and local politician.

Mill Colonnade

The Mill Colonnade is a large colonnade containing several hot springs in the spa town of Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. The structure is one of the traditional symbols of the town.

Jan Becher is a Czech liqueur company headquartered in Karlovy Vary. The most famous product of Becher is Becherovka.

Kyselka Spa

The Kyselka Spa, older name Kysibl, is a complex of former public baths in the village of Kyselka in the vicinity of Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic.

Jaroslav Otruba Czech architect, urban planner, designer and artist (1916–2007)

Ing. arch. Dr. Jaroslav Otruba was a Czech architect, urban planner, designer and artist.

References

  1. "Population of municipalities of the Czech republic". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  2. Vývoj návštěvnosti lázní v letech 2000 - 2011
  3. "Karlovy Vary - Urban Monument Zone".
  4. "Zdeněk Vališ: 4. březen 1919 v Kadani". Virtually.cz. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  5. Počet obyvatel Karlovarského kraje
  6. Historický lexikon obcí ČR 1869–2005
  7. Rozhlas.cz, Počet obyvatel Karlovarského kraje
  8. "Karlovy Vary – Unikátní lázně, do kterých se sjíždí celý svět". Stream.cz (in Czech).
  9. hu:Pulváry Károly
  10. http://www.hiddeneurope.co.uk/escape-from-carlsbad
  11. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/40411/Kemal-Ataturk/24780/Military-career
  12. Johannes Baier: Goethe und die Thermalquellen von Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad, Tschechische Republik). In: Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen Geologischen Vereins. N. F. Bd. 94, 2012, ISSN   0078-2947, S. 87–103.
  13. About Carlsbad, NM retrieved 2012-03-23
  14. City of Carlsbad - History of Carlsbad, retrieved 2012-03-23.
  15. "Zahraniční vztahy" (in Czech). Magistrát města Karlovy Vary. Retrieved 9 January 2017.

Further reading

Published in the 19th century

Published in the 20th century