|Karrāṇī / Karlāṇī|
|Parent family||Bangash tribe|
|Current region||Bengal Sultanate|
|Place of origin||Kurram Valley|
|Founder||Taj Khan Karrani|
|Final ruler||Daud Khan Karrani|
|Members||Sulaiman Khan Karrani, Bayazid Khan Karrani, Bayazid of Sylhet|
The Karrani dynasty (Pashto : کرلاڼي, romanized: Karlāṇī, Bengali : কররাণী, romanized: Korrāṇī) was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani, an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe, hailing from Bangash district. It was the last dynasty to rule the Sultanate of Bengal.
Taj Khan was formerly an employee of the Sur Emperor Sher Shah Suri. From 1562 to 1564, Taj Khan captured south-eastern Bihar and west Bengal, and with his assassination of the last Muhammed Shahi ruler, he seized all of Bengal. The capital was at Gaur. Taj Khan was followed by Sulaiman Khan Karrani, who shifted the seat of government from Gaur to Tanda (also in Malda) in 1565. In 1568, Sulaiman Khan annexed Orissa to the Karrani sultanate permanently. Nominally he accepted sovereignty of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and his prime minister Lodi Khan placated the Mughals with gifts and banqueting.Sulaiman Khan's authority extended from Koch Bihar to Puri, and from Son River to Brahmaputra River.
On 25 September 1574, the Mughal general Munim Khan captured the Karrani capital Tanda. The Battle of Tukaroi fought on 3 March 1575 forced Daud Khan Karrani, the last Karrani ruler, to withdraw to Orissa. The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Orissa. The treaty eventually failed after the death of Munim Khan who died at the age of 50 in October 1575.[ citation needed ] Daud Khan took the opportunity and invaded Bengal, declaring independence from Akbar. The Mughal onslaught against the Karrani sultanate ended with the Battle of Rajmahal on 12 July 1576, led by the Mughal general Khan Jahan I. Daud Khan was executed. However, the Pashtuns and the local landlords known as Baro Bhuyans led by Isa Khan continued to resist the Mughal invasion. Later in 1612 during the reign of Jahangir, Bengal was finally integrated as a Mughal province.
| Sultan Taj Khan Karrani |
سلطان تاج خان کرلاڼی
Bengali : সুলতান তাজ খাঁন কররাণী
| Sultan Sulayman Khan Karrani |
سلطان سلیمان خان کرلاڼی
Bengali : সুলতান সুলেমান খাঁন কররাণী
| Sultan Bayazid Khan Karrani |
سلطان بایزید خان کرلاڼی
Bengali : সুলতান বায়েজ়ীদ খাঁন কররাণী
| Sultan Dawud Khan Karrani |
سلطان داود خان کرلاڼی
Bengali : সুলতান দাঊদ খাঁন কররাণী
Muhammad Shahi dynasty
| Sultans of Bengal |
Mughal dynasty (end of Bengal Sultanate)
Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent began in the course of a gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, beginning mainly after the conquest of Sindh and Multan led by Muhammad bin Qasim. Following the perfunctory rule by the Ghaznavids in Punjab, Sultan Muhammad of Ghor is generally credited with laying the foundation of Muslim rule in Northern India.
The Bangash or Bungish are a tribe of ethnic Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland, historically known as "Bangash district," stretches from Kohat to Tall and Spīn Ghar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as smaller parts of Paktia, Afghanistan. The Bangash are also settled in large numbers in Uttar Pradesh, India, especially in the city of Farrukhabad, which was founded in 1714 by Nawab Muhammad Khan Bangash.
Isa Khan was a Muslim Rajput chieftain who led the Baro Bhuiyans and a Zamindar of the Bhati region in 16th-century Bengal. Throughout his reign he resisted the Mughal empire invasion. It was only after his death that the region fell totally under Mughal control.
The Battle of Tukaroi, also known as the Battle of Bajhaura or the Battle of Mughulmari, was fought between the Mughal Empire and the Bengal Sultanate on 3 March 1575 near the village of Tukaroi in present-day Balasore District of Odisha. It resulted in a Mughal victory and greatly weakened the Bengal Sultanate.
The Pashtun tribes, historically also known as Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).
Sulaiman Khan Karrani was a Sultan of Bengal. He ascended to the throne after the death of his brother Taj Khan Karrani. According to the Riyaz-us-Salatin, he shifted the seat of government from Gaur to Tanda.
Bayazid Khan Karrani was the third Sultan of the Bengal Sultanate's Karrani dynasty.
Daud Khan Karrani was the last ruler of Bengal's Karrani dynasty as well as the final Sultan of Bengal, reigning from 1572 to 1576. During the reign of his father Sulaiman Khan Karrani, Daud commanded a massive army of 40,000 cavalry, 3,600 elephants, 140,000 infantry and 200 cannons. He invaded the southwestern regions of present-day India.
The Sultanate of Bengal, also known as the Bengal Sultanate or simply Bengal, was an empire based in Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It was the dominant power of the Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta, with a network of mint towns spread across the region. The Bengal Sultanate had a circle of vassal states, including Odisha in the southwest, Arakan in the southeast, and Tripura in the east. In the early 16th-century, the Bengal Sultanate reached the peak of its territorial growth with control over Kamrup and Kamata in the northeast and Jaunpur and Bihar in the west. It was reputed as a thriving trading nation and one of Asia's strongest states. Its decline began with an interregnum by the Suri Empire, followed by Mughal conquest and disintegration into petty kingdoms.
Hussain Quli Beg was a Mughal military general (mansabdar) with the rank of 5000 soldiers. He was later entitled as Khān-i-Jahān by Emperor Akbar.
Rudranarayan was the ruler of Bhurishrestha, who consolidated and expanded the kingdom and converted it into one of the most powerful Hindu kingdoms of the time. He broke the traditional alliance with the Pathan sultans of Odisha and struck new alliance with the Mughals and accounted for the downfall of the Pathan regime in Bengal.
Taj Khan Karrani was the founder of the Karrani dynasty, a Pashtun dynasty of Karlan-Pashtun origin that ruled Bengal, Orissa and parts of Bihar.
Munʿim Khān was a Mughal general under both emperors Humayun and Akbar. He was titled Khān-i-Khānān when Emperor Akbar appointed him as Prime Minister of the Mughal Empire in 1560. In 1564, he became the Subahdar of Jaunpur. Munim Khan was the first Mughal governor of Bengal Subah from 1574 to 1575.
The Bengal Subah was the largest subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, between the 16th and 18th centuries. The state was established following the dissolution of the Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, when the region was absorbed into one of the gunpowder empires. Bengal was the wealthiest region in the Indian subcontinent, and its proto-industrial economy showed signs of driving an Industrial revolution.
Kalapahad or Kala Pahar was a Muslim General of Bengal Sultanate under the reigning Karrani Dynasty, who is mentioned in the Mughal Empire records as the one who attacked Puri Jagannath Temple with his army to tear down the Konark temple. His original name was Rajiblochon Roy. Later he converted to Islam. He is said to be the Muslim general under whose orders the Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati, Assam was razed and destroyed. But some Historians debate that it was not Kalapahar & his army but Hussein Shah during 1498-1506 A.D. They are also notoriously related to the partly destruction of Sun Temple Konark. However, the general Kalapahad and his army may not have been only ones entirely responsible. Other texts state that the temple was sacked several times by Muslim armies between the 15th and 17th centuries. Islamic texts describing the raids of Kalapahar mention his army's first attempt to destroy the temple in 1565, but they failed. They inflicted only minor damage and carried away the copper kalasa.
The Battle of Rajmahal was a battle that took place between the Mughal Empire and the Karrani Dynasty that ruled the Sultanate of Bengal in the 16th century. The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Mughals. During the battle, the last Sultan of Bengal, Daud Khan Karrani, was captured and later executed by the Mughals.
Khawāja Uthmān Khān Lōhānī, popularly known as Khwaja Usman, was a Pashtun chieftain and warrior based in northeastern Bengal. As one of the Baro-Bhuyans, he was a zamindar ruling over the northern parts of Bengal including Greater Mymensingh and later in South Sylhet. He was a formidable opponent to Man Singh I and the Mughal Empire, and was the last of the Afghan chieftains and rulers in Bengal. His defeat led to the surrender of all the remaining Pashtuns as well as the incorporation of the Sylhet region into the Bengal Subah. He is described as the most romantic figure in the history of Bengal. His biography can be found in the Baharistan-i-Ghaibi, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri as well as the Akbarnama.
Tanda, also known as Tandah and Khwaspur Tandah, was a historic 16th-century city of Bengal in the eastern part of South Asia, and one of the most prominent medieval capitals; serving the Karrani Sultans of Bengal and the early Mughal governors of Bengal.
Daud, Sulayman's son took over he started striking his own coins and had his own name read in the khutba, acts tantamount to official declaration of independence ... Daud Khan Karrani was defeated and killed in Rajmahal in 1576 ... However, the zamindars of East Bengal, known as the Baro Bhuiyans, were able to operate as local chieftains ... continuing to defy the Mughals. It was only in 1612, during the reign of Jahangir, that all of Bengal was firmly integrated as a Mughal province.