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|Location||Bayram Acar Sk, Kars, Turkey|
|Line(s)|| Eastern Express |
Kars station (Turkish : Kars garı) is a railway station, serving the eastern Turkish city of Kars. It is one of the easternmost stations on the Trans-Anatolian railway. The Eastern Express services Kars once a day to İstanbul. Between 1993 and 2011, there was no train service east of Kars due to the Turkish-Armenian border closure. But as of February 2011, a regional train operates twice daily from Kars to Akyaka, the last Turkish town before the border, stopping at the Akyaka railway station.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. With a population of 73,836 as of 2011, it is the largest city along Turkey's closed border with Armenia..
The station was opened in 1899, by the Transcaucasus Railway, when Kars was under the rule of the Russian Empire in order to have better control over the Ottoman front. The tracks were originally standard Russian 5-foot gauge. After the Turkish War of Independence, Kars was given back to Turkey. The Turkish State Railways took over the station, but Kars remained isolated from the rest of the network until 1939, when a standard gauge line was built to Erzurum. Passengers would change to a narrow gauge train from Erzurum to Kars. The Narrow gauge line was replaced with standard gauge in 1957 and the broad gauge line was replaced in 1962.
The Transcaucus Railway was the first railway in South Caucasus.
The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Turkish War of Independence was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western Front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern, the royalists and the separatists in various cities, and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
It is the terminus of the Kars–Gyumri–Tbilisi railway, and the Baku–Tbilisi–Akhalkalaki–Kars railway.
The Kars–Gyumri–Tbilisi railway line is a railway line that runs from the city of Kars in Turkey to the Armenian city of Gyumri, then from there on to Tbilisi, Georgia.
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For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union.
The Eastern Express is an overnight passenger train operated by the Turkish State Railways. The train runs 1,310 km (814 mi) from Ankara Railway Station to Kars Railway Station in Kars. The train was the first overnight service east of Ankara. The Eastern Express stops in 7 provincial capitals: Ankara, Kırıkkale, Kayseri, Sivas, Erzincan, Erzurum and Kars. The train also stops in the Turkish capital: Ankara. The first train ran in 1936 from İstanbul's Haydarpaşa Terminal to Çetinkaya.
Akhalkalaki is a town in Georgia's southern region of Samtskhe–Javakheti. Akhalkalaki lies on the edge of the Javakheti Plateau. The city is located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the border with Turkey. In 2002 over 90 percent of the city's population were ethnic Armenians. The city was passed from Ottomans to Russians after Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829). On January 4, 1900, an earthquake destroyed much of the town and killed 1,000 people in the area. As of the 2014 census the town had a population of 8,295.
With railways, a break of gauge occurs where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. Trains and rolling stock cannot run through without some form of conversion between gauges, and freight and passengers must otherwise be transshipped. A break of gauge adds delays, cost, and inconvenience.
Iraqi Republic Railways Company (IRR) is the national railway operator in Iraq.
Railways with a railway track gauge of 5 ft were first constructed in the United Kingdom and the United States. This gauge is also commonly called Russian gauge because this gauge was later chosen as the common track gauge for the Russian Empire and its neighbouring countries. The gauge was redefined by Soviet Railways to be 1,520 mm.
The Turkish State Railways started building high-speed railways in 2003. The first section of the line, between Ankara and Eskişehir, was inaugurated on 13 March 2009. It is a part of the 533 km (331 mi) Istanbul to Ankara high-speed rail line. Yüksek Hızlı Tren is the sole commercial service of high-speed trains in Turkey.
Turkey has a well-developed, state-owned railway system built to standard gauge which falls under the remit of the Ministry of Transport and Communication. The primary rail carrier is the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları (TCDD) which is responsible for all long-distance and cross-border freight and passenger trains. A number of other companies operate suburban passenger trains in urban conurbations.
The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku–Tbilisi–Akhalkalaki–Kars railway (BTAK), became operational on 30 October 2017. This is a regional rail link project to directly connect Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. The project was originally to be completed by 2010, but was delayed to 2013, 2015, 2016, and following a fifth trilateral meeting in February 2016, the three countries' foreign ministers announced that the railway would finally be completed in 2017.
Latvian Railways is the main state-owned railway company in Latvia with more than 12,400 employees. It owns 1,933.8 kilometres (1,201.6 mi) of 1,520 mmRussian gauge railway lines and 33.4 kilometres (20.8 mi) of 750 mm narrow gauge railway lines in Latvia.
Georgian Railway LLC is the national railway company of Georgia.
Rail transport in Azerbaijan is operated by the national state-owned railway company Azerbaijan Railways. The railway network consists of 2,918 km (1,813 mi), its gauge is 1,520 mm, 815 km (506 mi) are double track and 1,272 km (790 mi) are electrified at 3 kV (3,000 V) DC.
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey, abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in Turkey, as well as the planning and construction of new lines. TCDD was formed on 4 June 1929 as part of the nationalisation of railways in Turkey.
Azerbaijan Railways is the national state-owned rail transport operator in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The 2,918 km (1,813 mi), 1,520 mm gauge network is electrified at 3 kV (3,000 V) DC. The headquarters of the Azerbaijan Railways is in the capital Baku.
Akyaka station is a station in the town of Akyaka, Kars in northeastern Turkey. TCDD Taşımacılık operates a twice-daily regional train from Kars.
Mezraa station is located near the village of Mezra in the Kars Province of Turkey. The railway to Baku will split from the line here. It is serviced by the daily Kars-Akyaka Regional train.
The Trans-Anatolian Railway is the unofficial name for a series of railway lines crossing Anatolia in Turkey. The line starts at Haydarpaşa Terminal in İstanbul and ends at Doğukapı before the Turkish/Armenian border. The Trans-Anatolian Railway consists of these three lines: