Kasaragod

Last updated

Kasaragod
Municipal Town
Casrod
Bakel Fort Beach Kasaragod4.jpg
Kottappuram-nileshwaram-house-boat.jpg
The oldest photo of Masjid.JPG
Chandragiri River.jpg
Bekal Fort Kasargod.jpg
Arikady fort.jpg
Chandrigiri Fort -Kasaragod -Kerala -file 1001.jpg
Ranipuram hill.jpg
Nickname(s): 
The Land of Seven Languages,The Land of God [1]
India Kerala location map.svg
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Kasaragod
Location of Kasaragod in Kerala
India location map.svg
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Kasaragod
Kasaragod (India)
Coordinates: 12°30′N75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0 Coordinates: 12°30′N75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
District Kasaragod
Municipality Established1966
Government
  TypeDistrict
  BodyKasaragod Municipality
  Municipal ChairmanV.M.Muneer (UDF)
  District CollectorSmt. Bhandari Swagat Ranveerchand IAS
  Superintendent of PoliceP B Rajeev IPS
   MP Rajmohan Unnithan
   MLA N. A. Nellikkunnu
Area
  Municipal Town16.7 km2 (6.4 sq mi)
  Metro
93.3 km2 (36.0 sq mi)
Elevation
19 m (62 ft)
Population
  Municipal Town54,172
  Density3,200/km2 (8,400/sq mi)
   Metro
192,856
Languages
  Official Malayalam, English [2]
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
671121
Telephone91–04994
Vehicle registration KL-14
Website kasargod.nic.in

Kasaragod ( [kɑːsɑrɡoːɖɨ̆] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a municipal town and administrative headquarters of Kasaragod district in the state of Kerala, India. Established in 1966, Kasaragod was the first municipal town in the district. It is the northernmost district of Kerala and is also known as Saptha Bhasha Sangama Bhoomi ('The Land of seven Languages'). [1]

Contents

Situated in the rich biodiversity of Western Ghats, it is known for the Chandragiri and Bekal Fort, [3] Chandragiri River, historic Kolathiri Rajas, natural environment of Ranipuram and Kottancheri Hills, historical and religious sites like the Madiyan Kulom temple, Madhur Temple, Ananthapuram Lake Temple and Malik Deenar Mosque. The historic hill of Ezhimala is located on the southern portion of Kavvayi Backwaters of Nileshwaram.

Kasaragod is located 50 km south of the major port city and a commercial hub Mangalore and 364 km north of the major port city Kochi. Kasaragod district has the maximum number of rivers in Kerala - 12. [4] The town is located on the estuary where the Chandragiri River, which is also the longest river in the district, empties into the Arabian Sea. Kasaragod is home to several forts, including Arikady fort, Bekal Fort, Chandragiri Fort, and Hosdurg Fort. Bekal Fort is the largest fort in Kerala. Talakaveri, which is home to Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary where the 805 km long Kaveri river originates, is located closer to Ranipuram on the Kerala-Karnataka border.

Robert Caldwell describes the extent of Malayalam in the 19th century as extending from Chandragiri (fort and river) in the north to Neyyar river beyond Thiruvanantapuram in the south and from Malabar Coast in the west to Western Ghats in the east besides the inhabited islands of Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea. [5] [note 1]

Etymology

There are different views on the derivation of the name Kasaragod. One is that it is the combination of two Sanskrit words kaasara (which means lake or pond) and kroda (which means a place where treasure is kept).

Kasaragod was known as Kanhirakode (The land of kāñiram trees) in Malayalam. Kaanjiram is Malayalam for Kasaraka trees (Kannada name) found in abundance here. [7] [8]

Kasaragod was under the Kumbla dynasty until the 16th century, which was vassal to the kingdom of Kolathunadu based at Kannur. [9] Kannada kingdoms focused on the port and surroundings in the 16th century CE. [10] [11] [12] [13]

History

Ancient era

Ananthapadmanabhaswamy temple at Ananthapura, Kumbla Anantapura Lake Temple.jpg
Ananthapadmanabhaswamy temple at Ananthapura, Kumbla

The ancient Tamil works of the Sangam Age record that the area covering the district was part of Puzhinadu which consists of the coastal belt from Kozhikode to Mangalore. Politically the area was part of the Ezhimala Kingdom with its capital at Ezhimala in present-day Kannur district. The most famous king of Ezhimala was Nannan whose kingdom extended up to Gudalur and northern parts of Coimbatore. Poozhinad, along with Karkanad which included the eastern regions of Ezhimala dynasty (Wayanad-Gudalur region with some portions of Kodagu), had its capital at Ezhimala. The Mooshaka kings were considered descendants of Nannan. By the 14th century, Mooshaka Kingdom was known as Kolathirinad and the rulers as Kolathiris. The Kolathunad Kingdom at the peak of its power reportedly extended from Netravati River (Mangalore) in the north [14] to Korapuzha (Kozhikode) in the south with Arabian Sea on the west and Kodagu hills on the eastern boundary, also including the isolated islands of Lakshadweep in Arabian Sea. [15]

Medieval era

Malik Dinar Mosque, Thalangara, Kasaragod, is one of the oldest mosques in India. Malikdeenar Mosque in the Morning.jpg
Malik Dinar Mosque, Thalangara, Kasaragod, is one of the oldest mosques in India.
Maipady palace Maipady palace.jpg
Maipady palace

Kasaragod, about 50 km south of Mangalore city, was an important centre of trade in earlier times. Ramacharitam , probably the oldest literary work written in Old Malayalam, which dates back to the 12th century CE, is thought to have written in Kasargod district as its manuscripts were discovered from Nileshwaram and the poem mentions about Ananthapura Lake Temple in Kumbla in detail. [16] Kasaragod was known to the Arabs by the name Harkwillia. [10] The Malik Dinar Mosque in Kasaragod town is one of the oldest Masjids in the Indian subcontinent. [17] According to Qissat Shakarwati Farmad , the Masjids at Kodungallur, Kollam, Madayi, Barkur, Mangalore, Kasaragod, Kannur, Dharmadam, Panthalayini, and Chaliyam, were built during the era of Malik Dinar, and they are among the oldest Masjids in the Indian subcontinent. [18] It is believed that Malik Dinar died at Thalangara in Kasaragod town. [17] Many Arab travelers visiting Kerala between the 9th and the 14th centuries visited Kasaragod, being an important trade centre then. Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod Town in 1514 recorded that rice being exported for coir to Maldives. [10] According to Barbosa, the people in the southwestern Malabar coast of India from Chandragiri in the north to Kanyakumari in the south spoke a unique language, which they called as "Maliama" (Malayalam). [19] [20]

Until the 16th century CE, Kasargod town was known by the name Kanhirakode (may be by the meaning, 'the land of Kanhira trees') in Malayalam. [7] The Kumbla dynasty, who swayed over the land of southern Tulu Nadu wedged between Chandragiri River and Netravati River (including present-day taluks of Manjeshwar and Kasaragod) from Maipady Palace at Kumbla, had also been vassals to the Kolathunadu kingdom of North Malabar, before the Carnatic conquests of Vijayanagara Empire. [21] The Kumbla dynasty had a mixed lineage of Malayali Nairs and Tuluva Brahmins. [9] They also claimed their origin from Cheraman Perumals of Kerala. [9] Francis Buchanan-Hamilton states that the customs of Kumbla dynasty were similar to those of the contemporary Malayali kings. [9]

The Kolathiri Dominion emerged into ten independent principalities, i.e. Kadathanadu (Vadakara), Randathara or Poyanad (Dharmadom), Kottayam (Thalassery), Nileshwaram, Iruvazhinadu (Panoor), Kurumbranad etc., under separate royal chieftains due to the outcome of internal dissensions. [22] Many portions of the present-day Hosdurg taluk (Kanhangad) and Vellarikundu were parts of the Nileshwaram dynasty, who were relatives to both Kolathunadu as well as Zamorin of Calicut, in the early medieval period. [23] The areas north to the Chandragiri river (present-day Taluks of Manjeshwaram and Kasaragod) were ruled by the Kumbala dynasty. [9]

The Chandragiri Fort is built on the southern bank of the estuary of Chandragiri River, just opposite to Kasaragod town. The Bekal Fort at Bekal, Pallikkara, which is situated midway between Kasaragod and Kanhangad, and which is largest fort in Kerala, was built in 1650 by Shivappa Nayaka of Keladi. [24]

SeaFromBakel.jpg
Panoramic view from inside Bekal Fort, the largest fort in Kerala

Colonial era

Sunset at Valiyaparamba beach Valiyaparamba Beach sun set.jpg
Sunset at Valiyaparamba beach
A map of Malabar District (Malayalam district) drawn by Francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1807. A portion of Kasaragod taluk of erstwhile British South Canara district to the south of Payaswini/Chandragiri river was also included in Malayalam region (just above the blue shaded region). Buchanan Journey map.jpg
A map of Malabar District (Malayalam district) drawn by Francis Buchanan-Hamilton in 1807. A portion of Kasaragod taluk of erstwhile British South Canara district to the south of Payaswini/Chandragiri river was also included in Malayalam region (just above the blue shaded region).

Francis Buchanan, the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasaragod in 1800. [10] In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Kavvayi, Nileshwaram, Bekal, Chandragiri and Manjeshwar. [10]

Hosdurg and Vellarikundu was part of Kolathunadu (south of Chandragiri river) and Kasaragod and Manjeshwaram was in the Tulu Nadu region (north of Chandragiri river). [25] [26]

In 1763, Hyder Ali raided Bedanoor (Bidnur), the capital of the Ikkery Naiks. His son Tippu Sultan raided much of Malabar region in Kerala. As per the Treaty of Seringapatam of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Kanara to the British. The British occupied Kanara only after the death of Tippu Sultan. [10] it is said that Kinavoor Molom (Sree Dharma Shashtha Temple) is belonging to Karinthalam (one of 64 Brahmin villages in old Kerala). Initially South Canara was placed under the Bombay presidency. [27] Later on 16 April 1862, South Canara was transferred to Madras Presidency and Kasaragod taluk was formed by replacing the erstwhile Bekal taluk. [27] Kasaragod was the second-most populated Taluk in South Canara only after to Mangalore taluk, and also the second-largest Taluk. [28]

Post-Independence

Road sign in Kasaragod town Malkassignboard.JPG
Road sign in Kasaragod town

Before the formation of Kerala, Kasargod was a part of South Canara district of erstwhile Madras Presidency. However, in the 19th century CE, Kasargod Taluk witnessed many struggles to separate the region from South Canara and to merge it with the Malabar District as it was the only Malayalam-majority region in South Canara. Kasargod became a part of Kannur district of Kerala following the reorganization of states and the formation of Kerala on 1 November 1956. [29] Later Kasargod was divided into two taluks for the ease of administration - Kasargod and Hosdurg. Kasargod was declared a district in 1984. The inclusion of Kasaragod with Kerala has been a contentious issue as there is a sizeable population that speaks Tulu and Kannada. At the time of 1951 Census of India, only 72.0% of the district's population chose their mother tongue as Malayalam. [30] 14.2% chose Tulu and 6.3% chose Kannada. [30] But it is noted that as per the 2011 census report only 8.8% and 4.2% of the total population in the district speak Tulu and Kannada respectively as their mother tongue. In 2012, the Second Oommen Chandy ministry appointed a commission under the leadership the former Chief Secretary P. Prabhakaran to study about the backwardness and issues faced by this northernmost district of Kerala and to draw up special package for the district. [31] In 2013, two more Taluks, namely Manjeshwaram and Vellarikundu were formed in the district. [32]

Geography

Climate

Kasaragod experiences a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification. It receives a generous 3,825 mm (150.6 in) of rain annually.

Climate data for Kasaragod, Kerala
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)31.4
(88.5)
31.5
(88.7)
32.2
(90.0)
32.7
(90.9)
32.2
(90.0)
29.3
(84.7)
28.2
(82.8)
28.4
(83.1)
28.8
(83.8)
30.0
(86.0)
31.0
(87.8)
31.5
(88.7)
30.6
(87.1)
Average low °C (°F)21.7
(71.1)
22.8
(73.0)
24.3
(75.7)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.1
(73.6)
22.0
(71.6)
23.6
(74.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
5
(0.2)
55
(2.2)
262
(10.3)
1,002
(39.4)
1,190
(46.9)
647
(25.5)
338
(13.3)
229
(9.0)
77
(3.0)
18
(0.7)
3,825
(150.5)
Source: Climate-Data.org [33]

Rivers

Kasaragod has the maximum number of rivers in Kerala - 12. [4] All of them are west-flowing rivers. [34] The longest of them is Chandragiri River (105 km long). The Kasaragod town is located on the estuary of Chandragiri river. It empties into the Arabian Sea at Thalangara. [34] The Chandragiri Fort is built on its bank. The river originates at Pattimala in Kodagu (Coorg). [34] The smallest river of Kerala is also in the district.

Rivers of Kasaragod [34]
River Origin Length (km)
Total Navigable
1 Manjeshwar RiverKadandur hills163
2 Uppala River Kudipadi hills, Veerakamba 50N/A
3 Shiriya River Kanakad hills, Anegundi Reserve Forest615
4 Kumbla RiverYedanad113
5 Mogral River Kanlur, Karadka Reserve Forest34N/A
6 Chandragiri River Patti forest, Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary 10513
7 Kalnad RiverChettianchal8N/A
8 Bekal RiverKaniyadka11N/A
9Chittari RiverKundiya25N/A
10 Neeleshwaram River
(Thejaswini River)
Kinanoor, Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary 4711
11 Kariangode River Padinalkad, Coorg hills 6424
12 Kavvayi River Cheemeni 2310

Science and research

The Central University of Kerala is situated in the district. Central University of Kerala Campus 07.jpg
The Central University of Kerala is situated in the district.
The Central Plantation Crops Research Institute at Kasaragod was established in 1916. CPCRI Main Building.jpg
The Central Plantation Crops Research Institute at Kasaragod was established in 1916.
The Government College Kasaragod was established in 1957. Government college kasaragod 03.jpg
The Government College Kasaragod was established in 1957.

Kasargod district comes under the jurisdiction of Kannur University. Kasaragod is home to the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, originally established in 1916 as the Coconut Research Station. It is part of India's National Agricultural Research System under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. [35] According to the institute, Kerala "lies in the heart of the major coconut growing areas of the country." It is also home to the Indian Society for Plantation Crops, which publishes the Journal of Plantation Crops and holds symposiums on the subject. [36] The Central University of Kerala is also located in Kasargod(Periya hills).

Transport

Kasaragod railway station lies on Mangalore-Shoranur railway line in Palakkad railway division. Kasaragod Railway Station (4601247110).jpg
Kasaragod railway station lies on Mangalore-Shoranur railway line in Palakkad railway division.

The National Highway 66 which connects the western coast of India from Mumbai to Kanyakumari passes through coastal area of the district connecting the major coastal towns of Manjeshwar, Uppala, Kumbla, Kasaragod, Udma, Bekal, Kanhangad, Nileshwaram, and Thrikaripur. [42] [43] [44] It enters the district at Thalappady and goes out through Payyanur. There are State highways starting/ending at Kasaragod and Kanhangad. [45] Total length of Major District Road (MDR) of Kasaragod is around 1460 km and it accounts for around 11.2 km of MDR for every 10,000 people in the district. [46] The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) has stations to operate its service in the district. [47] The railway goes through coastal area. Kasaragod railway station lies in Palakkad railway division of southern zone on Mangalore-Shoranur line. [48] Kasaragod district is home to three of the 13 minor ports in Kerala - Manjeshwar, Kasaragod, and Nileshwaram. [49] The nearest international airports are situated at Mangalore (65 km away) and Kannur (110 km away).

Demographics

Religions in Kasaragod Town (2011) [50]

   Islam (54.65%)
   Hinduism (43.56%)
   Christianity (1.58%)
  Other (0.22%)

As of 2011 Census, Kasaragod municipality had a population of 54,172 which constitutes 26,319 males and 27,853 females. Kasaragod municipality spreads over an area of 16.69 km2 (6.44 sq mi) with 10,202 families residing in it. The municipality is divided into 35 wards for which elections are held every 5 years. The female sex ratio was 1058 against state average of 1084. Population in the age group 0-6 was 7,234 (13.4%) where 3,716 are males and 3,518 are females. The literacy rate of Kasaragod town was 94.76% higher than state average of 94%. Male literacy stands at 96.5% and female literacy was 93.1%. [51]

Languages in Kasaragod taluk [52]
LanguageSpeakers
Malayalam
70.5%
Tulu
16.2%
Kannada
6.4%
Marathi
2.7%
Konkani
2.3%
Others
1.9%
Distribution of languages
Source: 2011 Census

Politics

Kasaragod acts as the administrative headquarters of Kasaragod district. Local Self Governance in Kasaragod District.svg
Kasaragod acts as the administrative headquarters of Kasaragod district.

The current Municipal Chairman of Kasaragod municipality is Adv. V. M. Muneer of IUML and the deputy chairperson is Shamseeda Feroz. [53]

The major political parties are Indian Union Muslim League, CPI(M), INC , CPI, and BJP. North Kasaragod is dominated by IUML which is followed by BJP, and the south is dominated by CPI(M). N. A. Nellikkunnu is the present Member of Legislative Assembly, from Kasaragod Assembly Constituency. It is a part of Kasaragod (Lok Sabha constituency). Indian National Congress (INC) member Rajmohan Unnithan is the present MP from Kasaragod (2019 elections). [54]

Backwardness

Thrikaripur town Kalikkadavu (4472443272).jpg
Thrikaripur town

Kasaragod district is the northernmost district of Kerala, which is much away from Thiruvananthapuram, the state headquarters, which is located in the southernmost tip of state. Manjeshwaram town is located about 600 km north of the state headquarters Thiruvananthapuram, about 30 km south of Mangalore, about 350 km west of Bangalore, the headquarters of the neighbouring state Karnataka, and about 950 km south of Mumbai city. In 2012, the Second Oommen Chandy ministry appointed a commission under the leadership of the former Chief Secretary P. Prabhakaran to study about the backwardness and issues faced by this northernmost district of Kerala and to draw up a special package for the district. [31] In 2013, two more Taluks, namely Manjeshwaram and Vellarikundu were formed in the district. [32] Before this, the district had only two taluks. The decision to implement a gas-based power plant at Cheemeni was taken by the second Chandy government. [55] A government medical college was allowed for Kasaragod district, as a part of the government's new policy to establish at ensure availability of at least one government medical college in all 14 districts of the state in 2013. [56] [57]

Tourism

Kottappuram-nileshwaram-walking bridge.jpg
Kottappuram walking bridge, Nileshwar
Edayilakkad island in Valiyaparamba Edayilakkad.jpg
Edayilakkad island in Valiyaparamba
SeaFromBakel.jpg
Panoramic view from inside Bekal Fort

Notable people

Panathur is an important hilly town in the district (closer to Western Ghats). Panathur town.jpg
Panathur is an important hilly town in the district (closer to Western Ghats).
Badiyadka town at night Badiyadka Town.jpg
Badiyadka town at night

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kumbla</span> Town in Kerala, India

Kumbla is a small town in Kasaragod district of Kerala state in India. It is located 12 km north of Kasaragod town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kasaragod district</span> District in Kerala, India

Kasaragod is one of the 14 districts in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Its northern border Thalappady is located just 10 km south to Ullal, which is the southernmost portion of the major port city Mangalore, on the southwestern Malabar coast of India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Malabar</span> Geographical / Historical Area in India

North Malabar refers to the geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, and Wayanad districts, and the taluks of Vatakara, Koyilandy, and Thamarassery in the Kozhikode District of Kerala and the entire Mahé Sub-Division of the Union Territory of Puducherry. Traditionally North Malabar is defined as the northern portion of erstwhile Malabar District which lies between Chandragiri River and Korapuzha River. The region between Netravathi River and Chandragiri River, which included the portions between Mangalore and Kasaragod, are also often included in the term North Malabar, as the Kumbla dynasty in the southernmost region of Tulu Nadu, had a mixed lineage of Malayali Nairs and Tuluva Brahmins.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tulu Nadu state movement</span> Formation of separate Tulu Nadu state from Karnataka and Kerala

Tulu Nadu State movement is aimed at increasing Tulu Nadu's influence and political power through the formation of separate Tulu Nadu state from Karnataka and Kerala. Tulu Nadu is a region on the south-western coast of India. It consists of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka, and Kasargod district up to the Chandragiri river in Kerala. The Chandragiri river is traditionally considered to be a boundary between Tulu Nadu and Kerala from the fourteenth century AD onwards. The first call for separate Tulu Nadu state was made just after the Quit India Movement in 1942 by Srinivas Updhyaya Paniyadi, a banker and a press owner from Udupi. Mangalore is the largest and the chief city of Tulu Nadu. Tulu activists have been demanding a separate Tulu Nadu state since the late 2000s, considering language and culture as the basis for their demand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hosdurg taluk</span> Tehsil in Kerala, India

Hosdurg is one of four taluks that constitute the Kasaragod District, Kerala. Others are Kasaragod, Manjeshwaram and Vellarikundu taluks. In the north, it borders Kasaragod taluk; in south, the Kannur District; in the east, Vellarikundu taluk; and in the west, the Arabian sea. With an area of 900.3 km2, it was the smaller of the two taluks. Then Hosdurg bifurcated into Vellarikund and Hosdurg taluks in 2013 for ease of administration. Kanhangad and Nileshwaram are the municipalities within the taluk. Hosdurg is a kilometer south of Kanhangad town, the latter being the taluk headquarters. Other major settlements include Trikarpur, Cheruvathur and Udma. Bekal Fort tourism is situated in the taluk. The name Hosdurg comes from the Kannada word hosa ("new") and Sanskrit word durg ("fort").

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Perla, Kasaragod</span> Town in Kerala, India

Perla is an administrative capital of Enmakaje Panchayat, which is in Kasaragod district, Kerala, India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Kannur</span>

Kannur, formerly known in English as Cannanore, Arabic as Kannanur, and Portuguese as Cananor, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in North Malabar region, state of Kerala, India. It is the largest city in North Malabar, which is the northernmost region of Kerala. It is sometimes identified Kolathunadu, which was ruled by the Kolathiris. In the 12th and 13th centuries there was trade with Persia and Arabia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Kasaragod</span>

Kasaragod District is the northernmost district in the southwestern Indian coastal state of Kerala. The district has a long history starting from pre-historic times to the modern period.

References

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Notes

  1. “Malayalam is spoken along the Malabar coast, on the western side of the Ghauts, or Malaya range of mountains, from the vicinity of Chandragiri (river and fort) near Mangalore, where it supersedes Canarese and Tuļu, to Trivandrum, where it begins to be superseded by Tamil. The people by whom this language is spoken in the native states of Travancore and Cochin, and in the East India Company's districts of Malabar and Canara, may be estimated at two and a half millions.” (Page 7) "Kottara: This is the name of a place in the country of the 'Aii', or ' Paralia ' (identical with South Travancore), which is called ‘Kottiara Metropolis' by Ptolemy, ' Cottora' by Pliny. Undoubtedly the town referred to is ‘Kôțţâra' or, as it is ordinarily spelled by Europeans, ‘ Kotaur,' the principal town in South Travancore, and now , as in the time of the Greeks, distinguished for its commerce. The name of the place is derived from ‘ Kôd-u, ' Tam., a line of circumvallation, a fortification , and “ ârú, ' a river. It is a rule in the Tamil and the Malayalam , that when a word like ‘Kôd is the first member of a compound, the final ' ' must be doubled for the purpose of giving the word the force of an adjective : it is another rule that sonants when doubled become surds. Consequently the compound ‘kôd- ara' becomes by rule 'kôţt-âra' . It is interesting to perceive that in the time of the Greeks the same peculiar phonetic rules existed which are now in operation . It is also worth noticing that the Greek writers represent the last syllable of the name of the town, not as ' âru ,' but as 'âra . The Tamil has ' âru, ' the Malayalam 'ara ' At Kotaur, the dialectic peculiarities of the Malayalam language begin to supersede those of the Tamil ; and this appears to have been the case even in the time of the Greeks." (Page 62-63) [6]

Further reading

General

  • Chandran, VP (2018). Mathrubhumi Yearbook Plus - 2019 (Malayalam ed.). Kozhikode: P. V. Chandran, Managing Editor, Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing Company Limited, Kozhikode.

History

Languages

District Census Handbooks