Kashtan CIWS

Last updated
Kortik / Kashtan
Kortik na korvete Steregushchii.jpg
A Kortik combat module (missiles absent)
Type Close-in weapon system
Place of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Service history
In service1989–present [1] [2]
Used bySee Operators
Production history
KBP (Arkady Shipunov) [1] [2]
Fire control system: RATEP [1]
DesignedLate 1970s–?
Manufacturer Tulamashzavod, RATEP [1] [3]
VariantsKortik-M / Kashtan-M [1] [2] [4]
Mass15,500 kg (34,200 lb) (Kashtan) [1]
12,500 kg (27,600 lb) (Kashtan-M) [1]
Height2,250 mm (89 in) (above deck) [1] [2]

Shell HEI-Frag, Frag-T, APDS-T [1] [5]
Shell weight0.39 kg (0.86 lb) (HEIF, FT) [6]
0.30 kg (0.66 lb) (APDS-T) [6]
Caliber 30×165mm AO-18 [N 1]
Barrels2 × 6 (guns); 2 × 4 launch tubes
Action Gas-operated rotary cannon
Rate of fire Kashtan: [N 2]
9,000 rounds/min (guns) [1]
Kashtan-M: [N 2]
1–2 (salvo) missiles per 3–4 sec [1]
10,000 rounds/min (guns) [1] [2]
Muzzle velocity 860 m/s (2,800 ft/s) (HEIF, FT) [1]
960 m/s (3,100 ft/s) (HEIF, FT) [1] [2]
1,100 m/s (3,600 ft/s) (APDS-T) [1] [2]
Effective firing rangeBy missiles:
Kashtan: [1] [2] [4]
1,500–8,000 m (4,900–26,200 ft)
Kashtan-M: [1] [2] [4]
1,500–10,000 m (4,900–32,800 ft)
By guns:
Kashtan: (range, altitude)
500–4,000 m (1,600–13,100 ft), [1] [4]
3,000 m (9,800 ft) [1] [4]
300–5,000 m (980–16,400 ft) [2] [4]
Feed systemLink-less, helical; 1000 rounds [1] [7]
SightsRadar / TV-optical: [4] [N 3]
2–3/1 m (6.6–9.8/3.3 ft) accuracy, [1]
tracks 6 targets simultaneously [1]
Warhead Continuous-rod w/ frag layer [1] [2] [4]

8 × 9M311K + 32 missiles [1] [N 4] [N 5]
8 × 9M311-1E + 24 missiles [7] [N 4]
2 × AO-18K autocannon [1]
2 × AO-18KD autocannon [2] [4]
Flight altitude3,500 m (11,500 ft) (Kashtan) [1] [2]
6,000 m (20,000 ft) (Kashtan-M) [1] [4]
Maximum speed 910 m/s (3,000 ft/s) [1]

The Kortik (Russian : Кортик, English: Dirk) close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy. Its export version is known as Kashtan (Russian : Каштан, English: Chestnut), with the NATO designation CADS-N-1 Kashtan. [8]


The Kortik is found on the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov , Kirov-class battlecruiser, Neustrashimy-class frigate; and the People's Liberation Army Navy Sovremenny-class destroyers, and other modern designs. Typically deployed as a combined gun and missile system, it provides defence against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles and guided bombs. The system can also be employed against fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft or even surface vessels such as fast attack boats or targets on shore.

The Kortik will be replaced in Russian Navy service by the Pantsir-M CIWS, which uses similar rotary cannons but different missile and radar systems. [9]


The weapon is a modular system consisting of a command module and typically two combat modules, as in the case of the two Sovremennyy-class destroyers Taizhou (ex-Vnushitelnyy) and Ningbo (ex-Vechnyy) in Chinese service, although the number can be as many as 8 in the case of Admiral Kuznetsov . The command module detects and tracks threats, distributes targeting data to the combat modules, and interrogates IFF of approaching threats. The command module has a 3-D target detection radar, and an all weather multi-band integrated control system. Depending on the number of installed combat modules, the system can engage multiple targets simultaneously. The combat modules automatically track using either radar, electro-optronic control system (such as FLIRs) or both, and then engages targets with missiles and guns. The combat modules are typically equipped with two GSh-30K (AO-18K) six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannons, fed by a link-less feeding mechanism, and two 9M311-1 missile launchers equipped with 4 ready-to-fire missiles each and fed by a reloading system storing 32 missiles in ready-to-launch containers.

The guns used in the Kortik are the GSh-30K six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannon. Individually, each GSh-30K has a higher rate of fire compared to other guns used by other CIWS such as the GAU-8 on the Goalkeeper and the M61 Vulcan on the Phalanx. Along with a high rate of fire, the fairly heavy round (390 g or 14 oz) used by the Kortik is comparable to the DPU rounds of the GAU-8 Avenger (425 g or 15.0 oz), although the muzzle velocity (and therefore both the kinetic energy and effective range) is slightly lower, partially offsetting the high caliber and rate of fire.

The missiles used in the Kortik are the 9M311 missiles, which is also used on the 9K22 Tunguska. The 9M311 is a SACLOS guided missile, however, it is steered automatically by the command module. The warhead weighs 9 kilograms (20 lb) and is either laser or radio fused. The warhead is a continuous-rod warhead with a steel cube fragmentation layer. The detonation of the warhead will form a complete circle of fragmentation that is 5 meters in radius, and damage or destroy anything in that circle.

The combination of the missiles and guns, provides more comprehensive protection when compared to other CIWS utilising either missiles or guns only. The system's combined kill probability is 0.96 to 0.99. [1] [4]



Weight15,500 kg (34,200 lb)12,500 kg (27,560 lb)
Armament2 x GSh-6-302 x GSh-6-30KD
Firing Rate2 x 4,500 rds/min2 x 5,000 rds/min
Target Range500-4,000m (1,640-13,120 ft)
Effective Range500-1,500m (1,640-4,920 ft)
Ammunition Store2 x 500 rounds2 x 1500 rounds
Muzzle Velocity860 m/s (2,820 ft/s)960-1100 m/s (3,150-3,610 ft/s)
Elevation3,000m (9,840 ft)


Map of Kashtan operators in blue with former operators in red Kashtan operators.png
Map of Kashtan operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

See also


  1. Not compatible with the army 30×165mm ammunition.
  2. 1 2 6–8 sec reaction time. Kashtan-M: 5–7 sec (3–6 sec according to other sources).
  3. Kashtan-M can be equipped with radar and optics, only radar or only optics.
  4. 1 2 1.5 minutes reload time.
  5. Kashtan is compatible with the Kashtan-M's 9M311-1E missiles.

Related Research Articles

Phalanx CIWS Close-in weapon system

The Phalanx CIWS is a close-in weapon system for defense against incoming threats such as small boats, surface torpedoes, anti-ship missiles and helicopters. It was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division, later a part of Raytheon. Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm (0.8 in) Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, the Phalanx has been used by the United States Navy and the naval forces of 15 other countries. The US Navy deploys it on every class of surface combat ship, except the Zumwalt-class destroyer and San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock. Other users include the British Royal Navy, the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and the US Coast Guard .

Goalkeeper CIWS Close-in weapon system

Goalkeeper is a Dutch close-in weapon system (CIWS) introduced in 1979. It is an autonomous and completely automatic weapon system for short-range defence of ships against highly manoeuvrable missiles, aircraft and fast-manoeuvering surface vessels. Once activated the system automatically undertakes the entire air defence process from surveillance and detection to destruction, including the selection of the next priority target.

Close-in weapon system Type of point-defense weapon system

A close-in weapon system is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses, typically mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of larger modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device.

Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30 Type of Rotary cannon

The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30 is a Russian 30 mm rotary cannon aircraft-mounted and naval autocannon used by Soviet and later CIS military aircraft. The GSh-6-30 fires a 30×165mm, 390 g projectile.

Tarantul-class corvette Class of Soviet missile corvettes

The Project 1241 are a class of Soviet missile corvettes. They have the NATO reporting name Tarantul. These ships were designed to replace the Project 205 Tsunami missile boats.

Gun pod

A gun pod is a detachable pod or pack containing machine guns, autocannons or rotary cannons and ancillaries, mounted externally on a vehicle such as a military aircraft which may or may not also have its own guns.

INS <i>Trishul</i> (F43)

INS Trishul (F43) is the second frigate of the Talwar class of the Indian Navy. Trishul, the guided missile frigate, joined the arsenal of Indian Navy in 2003. The ship was commissioned by the then Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Western Naval Command Vice Admiral Arun Prakash at St. Petersburg, Russia on 25 June 2003. It has a complement of 32 officers and 228 sailors. In contrast to the lead ship INS Talwar, the sea trials of Trishul were considerably shortened as the ship performed well. Trishul arrived in Mumbai on 23 September 2003.

AK-630 Soviet and Russian fully automatic naval close-in weapon system

The AK-630 is a Soviet and Russian fully automatic naval close-in weapon system based on a six-barreled 30 mm rotary cannon. In "630", "6" means 6 barrels and "30" means 30 mm. It is mounted in an enclosed automatic turret and directed by MR-123 radar and television detection and tracking. The system's primary purpose is defense against anti-ship missiles and other precision guided weapons. However it can also be employed against fixed or rotary wing aircraft, ships and other small craft, coastal targets, and floating mines. Once operational, this weapon system was rapidly adopted, with up to 8 units installed in every new Soviet warship, and hundreds produced in total.

2K22 Tunguska Tracked SPAAW system

The 2K22 Tunguska is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. The NATO reporting name for the missile used by the weapon system is SA-19 "Grison".

9K121 Vikhr Type of Air-launched anti-tank missile

The 9K121 Vikhr is a Russian laser guided anti-tank missile. "9K121" is the GRAU designation for the missile system. The missile can be launched from warships, Ka-50 and Ka-52 helicopters, and Su-25T aircraft. It was first shown publicly at the 1992 Farnborough Airshow.

Type 730 CIWS Close-in weapon system

The Type 730 is a Chinese seven-barrelled 30 mm Gatling gun CIWS. It has a PLA Navy designation H/PJ12. It is mounted in an enclosed automatic turret and directed by radar, and electro-optical tracking systems. The maximum rate of fire is 5800 rd/m, and the effective range is up to 3 km.

INS <i>Tabar</i>

INS Tabar (F44) is the third of the Talwar-class frigate of the Indian Navy. The frigate was commissioned on 19 April 2004 in Kaliningrad, Russia with Captain Biswajit Dasgupta. INS Tabar, a vessel in the Talwar class to be armed with supersonic BrahMos anti-ship cruise missiles. She is also equipped with Barak 1 missiles. The current Commanding Officer (CO) of Tabar is Capt Manav Sehgal.

The Department of Defence Production of the Ministry of Defence is responsible for the indigenous production of equipment used by the Indian Navy and the other armed forces. It comprises the 41 Indian Ordnance Factories under control of the Ordnance Factories Board and eight Defence PSUs: HAL, BEL, BEML, BDL, MDL, GSL, GRSE and Midhani. The present weapon systems of the Indian Navy are:

KBP Instrument Design Bureau

JSC Konstruktorskoe Buro Priborostroeniya (KBP) is one of the main enterprises in the field of Russian defense industry, based in Tula. It is engaged in designing high-precision weapon systems for the Army, the VMF and the VKS, as well as anti-air defense systems, high-rate-of-fire cannons and small arms, in addition to civilian products. Its full name goes as "Joint-Stock Company Instrument Design Bureau named after Academic A. G. Shipunov". Its shareholders include High Precision Systems, part of the State Corporation Rostec.

Pantsir missile system Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon

The Pantsir missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems. Starting with the Pantsir-S1 as the first version, it is produced by KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of 2K22 Tunguska and uses phased array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.

Meroka CIWS

The Meroka CIWS is a Spanish Navy 12 barrelled 20 mm CIWS, using twelve Oerlikon 20 mm/120 guns mounted in 2 rows of 6 guns each. The system's primary purpose is defence against anti-ship missiles, and other precision guided weapons. However it can also be employed against aircraft, ships and other small craft, coastal targets, and floating mines. The weapon is mounted primarily on Spanish naval vessels, from frigate size upwards.

Hermes (missile) Air-to-surfaceSurface-to-surface missileLand-attack missileAnti-tank guided missileSurface-to-air missile

Hermes is a family of modularly-designed guided missiles developed in Russia by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Capable of being fired from aerial (Hermes-A), land based (Hermes) and naval (Hermes-K) platforms, the Hermes system features a multistage rocket missile with a high-powered booster, and fire-and-forget capability with laser guidance and infrared homing. It is designed to engage single and multiple targets with single or volley fire at ranges of up to 100 km and can track and destroy over-the-horizon targets.

<i>Sovremenny</i>-class destroyer

The Sovremenny class, Soviet designation Project 956 Sarych (buzzard), is a class of anti-ship and anti-aircraft guided missile destroyers of the Soviet and later Russian Navy. The ships are named after qualities, with "Sovremenny" translating as "modern" or "contemporary". Most of the ships have been retired from active service and one converted into a museum ship in 2018; as of 2020 one remains in commission with the Russian Navy with several in overhaul. Four modified ships were delivered to the People's Liberation Army Navy, and remain in service.

9M337 Sosna-R Type of Surface to air missile

The 9M337 Sosna-R (Pine) (SA-24) is a Russian radar and laser-guided supersonic two-stage missile. It is used in Sosna-R short range air defense missile system designed to protect military units from air attacks in all types of combat situations, including during march.

Pantsir-M Type of Ship-based CIWS/Missile launcher

Pantsir-M is a Russian jamming-resistant naval close-in weapon system (CIWS) which entered service in 2018. Pantsir-M is equipped with friend or foe identification system and armed with naval version of the Pantsir's 57E6 missiles and Hermes-K missiles. Its secondary armament are two six-barreled 30×165mm GSh-6-30K/AO-18KD rotary cannons. Same as on Kashtan-M. Pantsir-M is fully automated and can engage up to four targets simultaneously at a range of up to 20 km and can operate as a battery of up to four modules. Pantsir-M can intercept sea skimming missiles flying as low as two meters above the surface. If a target isn't sufficiently destroyed by Pantsir's missile attack it can automatically direct its cannons against it. Pantsir-M's phased array radar, electro-optical/infrared targeting and identification system are based on that of Pantsir's 1RS2-1.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 "3M87 Kortik / Kashtan (SA-N-11 Grison) System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 17 January 2011 – 22 May 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ""Kortik" ("Kashtan", 3M87, SA-N-11, Grison), Naval Close-in Weapon System". Arms-Expo.ru (in Russian). Информационное агентство «Оружие России». Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  3. "Air Defence Missile-Gun System "KASHTAN-M"". Radio Engineering Enterprise RATEP. Almaz-Antey . Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 "Kashtan, Kashtan-M, CADS-N-1, Palma, Palash close in weapon systems (CIWS)". Navy Recognition. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  5. "30 mm AK-630 System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 19 January 2010 – 4 July 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  6. 1 2 Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. pp. 289–296. ISBN   978-3-200-01445-9.
  7. 1 2 "Naval Air-Defense Missile/Gun System "KASHTAN–M"". KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007.
  8. http://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php/east-european-navies-vessels-ships-equipment/russian-navy-vessels-ships-equipment/weapons-a-systems/123-kashtan-kashtan-m-kashtan-lr-cads-n-1-close-in-weapon-system-ciws-.html
  9. Pantsir-M Naval Air Defense Missile/Gun System to Enter Service with Russian Navy Before Year-End - Navyrecognition.com, 28 February 2017

(in English)

(in Russian)