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Kasper Drużbicki or Gaspar Druzbicius (born probably in Drużbice in Ziemia Sieradzka in Poland, 1589; entered the Society of Jesus, 20 August 1609; died at Poznań, 2 April 1662) was a Polish Jesuit and ascetic writer.
Drużbice is a village in Bełchatów County, Łódź Voivodeship, in central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Drużbice. It lies approximately 12 kilometres (7 mi) north of Bełchatów and 36 km (22 mi) south of the regional capital Łódź.
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Town and Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect.
A nobleman (Nałęcz coat-of-arms). After few years of teaching in Lublin, he became master of novices in Kraków, and subsequently rector of colleges of Kalisz, Ostroh, and, for the longest time, Poznań. He also established a new college in Jarosław. He was twice provincial, once deputy provincial and twice procurator. He was in the seventh and tenth general congregations of the order. He was one of the greatest moral authorities in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, regarded commonly as a saint, prophet and worker of miracles. Drużbicki is said to have received from the Holy Spirit a rare spiritual gift of the confirmation in grace . He was a master of the contemplativus in actione Jesuit ideal.
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship (province) with a population of 349,103. Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and is approximately 170 kilometres to the southeast of Warsaw by road.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the master of novices or novice master is someone who is committed the training of the novices and the government of the novitiate of a religious institute.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
He was one of the main theologians and mystics of his times, the founder of the Polish school of spirituality (along with Mikołaj Łęczycki), and the worldwide precursor of the devotion to the Sacred Heart (before the apparitions of saint Margaret Mary Alacoque). He has written very many ascetic books, published in all over the Europe (and even in the Americas). Most of his works are posthumous and have been drawn from his Opera ascetica (Kalisz-Poznań, 1686-1691), in two volumes in folio , expanded in Opera omnia ascetica (Ingolstadt, 1732). Among them are a brief defense of the Society against a writer in the Cracow Academy (1632); two hagiographic books: Vita et mors gloriose suscepta reverendi patris Alberti Mencinski (Kraków, 1661), in Polish: Szkarłatna róża Boskiego raju (Kraków, 1672), and Verus Jesu socius, edited within Jan Bieżanowski's Vita reverendi patris Petri Skarga (Kraków, 1661).
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies, together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them. It may also refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences.
Mikołaj Łęczycki, in Latin Nicolaus Lancicius was a Polish Jesuit, Catholic theologian, writer and mystic.
The devotion to the Sacred Heart is one of the most widely practiced and well-known Roman Catholic devotions, taking the heart of the resurrected Body as the representation of the love by Jesus Christ God, which is "his heart, pierced on the Cross", and "in the texts of the New Testament is revealed to us as God's boundless and passionate love for mankind".
His most important works are:
Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants making it the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce.
Angers is a city in western France, about 300 km (190 mi) southwest of Paris. It is chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire department and was the capital of the province of Anjou until the French Revolution. The inhabitants of both the city and the province are called Angevins. Not including the metropolitan area, Angers is the third most populous commune in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes and the 17th in France.
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
He was also a proponent of a new devotion - the slavery of Mary . From his inspiration two books on that topic were released: Franciscus S. Phoenicius (Franciszek Stanisław Fenicki), Mariae mancipium (Lublin, 1632), and Jan Chomentowski (Chomętowski), Pętko Panny Maryi (Lublin, 1632).
A complete list of Druzbicki's works occupies twelve columns in Sommervogel.
Drużbicki is buried in the famous Baroque Fara (old Parish) church in Poznań, where is also his portrait with a sentence: "Amo Jesum amore Mariae; amo Mariam amore Jesu" ("I love Jesus with the love of Mary; I love Mary with the love of Jesus"). Several years after the death his body was exhumated and although it had decomposed, the tongue was still incorrupted. Life of Drużbicki has been described in the book of his outstanding disciple Daniel Pawłowski Vita patris Gasparis Druzbicki Poloni Societatis Jesu (Kraków, 1670).
Nathaniel Bacon (1598–1676), better known under the assumed name of Southwell,, taken in honor of the Jesuit poet-martyr, Robert Southwell (Jesuit), was an English Jesuit who served in Rome from 1647 until his death as "Secretarius" of the Society of Jesus under four Jesuit generals. He produced an encyclopedic bibliography in folio, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis Jesu, much admired for its thoroughness and latinity, although the listings follow the traditional categorization according to authors' Christian names. This was a continuation of the bibliographies of Pedro de Ribadeneira and Philippe Alegambe.
Philippe Alegambe was a Belgian Jesuit priest and bibliographer.
The Renaissance in Poland lasted from the late 15th to the late 16th century and is widely considered to have been the Golden Age of Polish culture. Ruled by the Jagiellonian dynasty, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland actively participated in the broad European Renaissance. The multi-national Polish state experienced a period of cultural growth thanks in part to a century without major wars – aside from conflicts in the sparsely populated eastern and southern borderlands. The Reformation spread peacefully throughout the country, while living conditions improved, cities grew, and exports of agricultural products enriched the population, especially the nobility (szlachta) who gained dominance in the new political system of Golden Liberty.
Augustin de Backer was a Belgian Jesuit and renowned bibliographer.
Matthieu Petit-Didier was a French Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian.
Nicolas Talon was a French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer.
Honoré Fabri was a French Jesuit theologian. He was a mathematician, physicist and controversialist.
Kasper Niesiecki, also known as Kacper Niesiecki, was a Polish heraldist, Jesuit, lexicographer, writer, theologian and preacher.
Belchior Carneiro Leitão, often known as Melchior Carneiro was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary bishop. He was one of the first Jesuit bishops.
Laurenz Forer was a Swiss Jesuit theologian and controversialist.
Théophile Raynaud was a French Jesuit theologian and writer.
George Gobat was a French Jesuit theologian.
Richard Gibbons was an English Jesuit scholar.
Peter Wadding was an Irish Jesuit theologian.
Jean-Baptiste Geoffroy was a French composer. He entered the Jesuit order as a novice in 1621 and from 1660 until his death directed the music at the church attached to the Jesuit Professed house of Paris, where Marc-Antoine Charpentier later served.
Daniel Pawłowski – Polish Jesuit, theological writer.
Tomasz Młodzianowski was a Polish Jesuit, preacher and writer.
Jan Morawski – Jesuit, theological writer.
Mancipium Mariae – a Christian devotion.