Kastamonu

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Kastamonu
Kastamonu Panaroma Saat Kulesi.jpg
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Kastamonu
Coordinates: 41°22′35″N33°46′35″E / 41.37639°N 33.77639°E / 41.37639; 33.77639 Coordinates: 41°22′35″N33°46′35″E / 41.37639°N 33.77639°E / 41.37639; 33.77639
Country Turkey
Province Kastamonu Province
Government
  MayorTahsin BABAŞ (AKP)
Area
[1]
  District1,834.04 km2 (708.13 sq mi)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
96,217
  District
128,537
  District density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
Climate Cfb
Website www.kastamonu.bel.tr

Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 102,059 of which 64,606 live in the urban center of Kastamonu. [3] [4] (Population of the urban center in 2010 is 91,012. [5] ) The district covers an area of 1,834 km2 (708 sq mi), [6] and the town lies at an elevation of 904 m (2,966 ft). It is located to the south of the province.

Kastamonu Province Province of Turkey in West Black Sea

Kastamonu Province is one of the provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea region to the north of the country. It is surrounded by Sinop to the east, Bartın, Karabük to the west, Çankırı to the south, Çorum to the southeast and the Black Sea to the north.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Contents

History

Governor's historical office Kastamonu Governor's Office.jpg
Governor's historical office
Kastamonu city center and Nasrullah Bridge. Kastamonu Cumhuriyet caddesi Karacomak cayi Nasrullah koprusu Agustos 2011 - panoramio.jpg
Kastamonu city center and Nasrullah Bridge.

The city is believed to have been founded in the 18th century BC. The town was known as Timonion (Τιμόνιον in Greek) during the Roman period.

The change of name of the town dates to the 10th century AD. Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, a Thracian soldier who became a prominent general and the father of the Byzantine emperor Isaac I Komnenos, was given lands around Kastamonu by Emperor Basil II and built a fortress there named Kastra Komnenon (Κάστρα Κομνηνών). Manuel came to the notice of Basil II because of his defence, in 978, of Nicaea against the rebel Bardas Skleros. [7] The name Kastra Komnenon was shortened to Kastamone, and later turkified to Kastamoni and Kastamonu.

Manuel Erotikos Komnenos was a Byzantine military leader under Basil II, and the first fully documented ancestor of the Komnenos dynasty. His origin and parentage is obscure. He is only mentioned in the sources as leading the defence of Nicaea in 978 against the rebel Bardas Skleros, and as an imperial envoy to him 11 years later. He had three children, late in life. The eldest, Isaac, became emperor in 1057–1059, and the youngest, John, was the progenitor of the Komnenian dynasty as the father of Alexios I Komnenos.

Thrace kingdom of Thracians

Thrace is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece and the European part of Turkey.

Isaac I Komnenos Byzantine Emperor

Isaac I Komnenos or Comnenus was Byzantine Emperor from 1057 to 1059, the first reigning member of the Komnenian dynasty.

Ibn Battuta visited the city, noting it as "one of the largest and finest cities, where commodities are abundant and prices low." He stayed there forty days. [8]

Ibn Battuta Moroccan explorer

Ibn Battuta was a Muslim Moroccan scholar, and explorer who widely travelled the medieval world. Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the Islamic world and many non-Muslim lands, including Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and China. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Traveling.

The Dress Code Revolution started at Kastamonu by Atatürk on August 23, 1925. Atatürk made his historical speech concerning about the "Hat and Dress Revolution" in 1925 at his visit to Kastamonu at Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi building. [9] The building is now used as Archeological Museum. The materials used by Atatürk in his Kastamonu visit are also exhibited in the museum.

Cuisine

Typical country fare in Kastamonu includes a quick rose jam made with sugared water, citric acid and gül mayası - the latter is a preparation of culinary-grade rose petals with sugar and citric acid that preserves them and brings out their flavor and fragrance. Homemade hot sauce is made by simmering grated tomato, garlic, Turkish red pepper, hot peppers, sunflower oil, salt and pepper on the stove. Sweet katmer is made by preparing a simple unleavened dough of flour, salt and water that is smeared with a tahini and sunflower oil mixture as it is folded. [10]

Qatlama A flatbread from the Turkish and Central Asian cuisines

Kattama, katlama, katmer, or gambir is a fried layered bread common in the cuisines of Central Asia.

Tahini sesame seeds paste

Tahini or tahina is a condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame. It is served by itself or as a major ingredient in hummus, baba ghanoush, and halva.

Breakfast might include farm made cheese, olives, pekmez, fried potatoes, rose jam homemade hot sauce, eggs served hot in the pan (called sahanda yumurta), folded unleavened bread called katmer, fresh farm milk and black tea. [10]

Pekmez Turkish molasses-like syrup obtained after condensing juices of fruit must, especially grape by boiling it with a coagulant agent

Pekmez is a molasses-like syrup obtained after condensing juices of fruit must, especially grape by boiling it with a coagulant agent. It is used as a syrup or mixed with tahini for breakfast.

Black tea

Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas. Black tea is generally stronger in flavour than the less oxidized teas. All four types are made from leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis. Two principal varieties of the species are used – the small-leaved Chinese variety plant, used for most other types of teas, and the large-leaved Assamese plant, which was traditionally mainly used for black tea, although in recent years some green and white teas have been produced.

A speciality of Taşköprü, Kastamonu is freshly slaughtered whole lamb slow-cooked over the glowing embers of wood in a sealed, airtight "well" — this regional specialty is called kuyu kebab in Turkish. A little water added to a tray ensures that steam keeps the meat moist throughout the cooking process. [10]

Economic history

In the early 20th century, nickel was mined in the area around Kastamonu. [11]

Education

Kastamonu is home to Kastamonu University, which was established in 2006 by incorporating existing colleges, schools, and institutes that were previously under Ankara University and Gazi University. Notable high schools in Kastamonu are: Abdurrahman Paşa Lisesi, also known as Kastamonu Lisesi, the first modern high school that was established in Anatolia in late Ottoman Empire. Kastamonu Mustafa Kaya Lisesi, an Anatolian high school, one of the most successful high schools in Turkey outside Istanbul, Ankara and İzmir.

Climate

Kastamonu has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) using the 32 degree isotherm, with cold winters and warm summers. The average annual precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with spring being the wettest season.

Climate data for Kastamonu (1930–2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70.0)
27.8
(82.0)
31.4
(88.5)
35.1
(95.2)
37.5
(99.5)
42.2
(108.0)
40.2
(104.4)
36.5
(97.7)
32.5
(90.5)
24.7
(76.5)
21.1
(70.0)
42.2
(108.0)
Average high °C (°F)3.1
(37.6)
6.0
(42.8)
10.8
(51.4)
16.5
(61.7)
21.1
(70.0)
24.6
(76.3)
27.8
(82.0)
28.0
(82.4)
23.8
(74.8)
18.0
(64.4)
10.9
(51.6)
4.7
(40.5)
16.3
(61.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−1.1
(30.0)
0.7
(33.3)
4.3
(39.7)
9.5
(49.1)
14.2
(57.6)
17.6
(63.7)
20.3
(68.5)
20.0
(68.0)
15.7
(60.3)
10.7
(51.3)
5.1
(41.2)
0.8
(33.4)
9.8
(49.6)
Average low °C (°F)−4.6
(23.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.3
(37.9)
7.5
(45.5)
10.4
(50.7)
12.3
(54.1)
12.2
(54.0)
8.8
(47.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.8
(33.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
4.1
(39.4)
Record low °C (°F)−26.9
(−16.4)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.2
(32.4)
3.8
(38.8)
0.9
(33.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−26.9
(−16.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)29.9
(1.18)
27.0
(1.06)
34.5
(1.36)
51.8
(2.04)
74.1
(2.92)
71.4
(2.81)
31.8
(1.25)
31.2
(1.23)
30.1
(1.19)
35.3
(1.39)
29.1
(1.15)
33.8
(1.33)
480.0
(18.90)
Average precipitation days12.411.312.012.914.511.86.25.76.59.19.611.9123.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.3101.7142.6174.0226.3258.0306.9294.5222.0173.6114.062.02,146.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.33.64.65.87.38.69.99.57.45.63.82.05.9
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [12]

Transport

Kastamonu Airport Kastamonu Uzunyazi Airport Terminal Building.jpg
Kastamonu Airport

The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Kastamonu Airport is active. Kastamonu is also the main railroad endpoint for the West Black Sea region.

Notable natives

Notes

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Turkish Statistical Institute. "Census 2000, Key statistics for urban areas of Turkey" (in Turkish). Archived from the original (XLS) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
  4. GeoHive. "Statistical information on Turkey's administrative units" . Retrieved 2008-11-22.
  5. Statistical Institute [ permanent dead link ]
  6. Statoids. "Statistical information on districts of Turkey" . Retrieved 2008-11-22.
  7. Runciman, pp. 54-55
  8. Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. p. 117. ISBN   9780330418799.
  9. İğdemir, Uluğ (1963). Atatürk. Mango, Andrew (trans.). Ankara: Turkish National Commission for UNESCO. pp. 165–170. OCLC   75604149.
  10. 1 2 3 Lezzet Haritası - Kastamonu /29 Kasım. Show TV. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  11. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 106.
  12. "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.

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References

Further reading