Kazimir Malevich

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Kazimir Malevich
Kazimir Malevich, c.1900.jpg
Kazimir Malevich, c. 1900
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich Russian: Казими́р Севери́нович Мале́вич

(1879-02-23)23 February 1879
Died15 May 1935(1935-05-15) (aged 56)
NationalityRussian Empire → Soviet Union
Education Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture
Known forPainting
Notable work
Black Square, 1915; White On White , 1918
Movement Suprematism
Ethnicity Polish

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich [nb 1] (February 23 [ O.S. 11] 1879 [1] – May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century. [2] [3] [4] [5] Born in Kiev to an ethnic Polish family, his concept of Suprematism sought to develop a form of expression that moved as far as possible from the world of natural forms (objectivity) and subject matter in order to access "the supremacy of pure feeling" [6] and spirituality. [7] [8] Malevich is considered to be part of Ukrainian avant-garde together with Alexander Archipenko, Vladimir Tatlin, Sonia Delaunay, Aleksandra Ekster, David Burliuk that was shaped by Ukrainian born artists who worked first in Ukraine and later over geographical span between Europe and America. [9] [10]

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

Avant-garde works that are experimental or innovative

The avant-garde are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society. It may be characterized by nontraditional, aesthetic innovation and initial unacceptability, and it may offer a critique of the relationship between producer and consumer.


Early on, Malevich worked in a variety of styles, quickly assimilating the movements of Impressionism, Symbolism and Fauvism, and after visiting Paris in 1912, Cubism. Gradually simplifying his style, he developed an approach with key works consisting of pure geometric forms and their relationships to one another, set against minimal grounds. His Black Square (1915), a black square on white, represented the most radically abstract painting known to have been created so far [11] and drew "an uncrossable line (…) between old art and new art"; [12] Suprematist Composition: White on White (1918), a barely differentiated off-white square superimposed on an off-white ground, would take his ideal of pure abstraction to its logical conclusion. [13] In addition to his paintings, Malevich laid down his theories in writing, such as "From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism" (1915) [14] and The Non-Objective World: The Manifesto of Suprematism (1926). [15] [16]

Impressionism 19th-century art movement

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s.

Symbolism (arts) art movement

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

Fauvism artistic style that emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves, a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1904 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1905–1908, and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain and Henri Matisse.

Malevich's trajectory in many ways mirrored the tumult of the decades surrounding the October Revolution (O.S.) in 1917. [17] In its immediate aftermath, vanguard movements such as Suprematism and Vladimir Tatlin's Constructivism were encouraged by Trotskyite factions in the government. Malevich held several prominent teaching positions and received a solo show at the Sixteenth State Exhibition in Moscow in 1919. His recognition spread to the West with solo exhibitions in Warsaw and Berlin in 1927. Upon his return, modern art was falling out of favor with the new government of Joseph Stalin. Malevich soon lost his teaching position, artworks and manuscripts were confiscated, and he was banned from making art. [18] [19] In 1930, he was imprisoned for two months due to suspicions raised by his trip to Poland and Germany. Forced to abandon abstraction, he painted in a representational style in the years before his death from cancer in 1935, at the age of 56.

October Revolution Bolshevik uprising during the Russian Revolution of 1917

The October Revolution, officially known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and commonly referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917. The Bolshevik Party and the left fraction of Socialist Revolutionary Party - a fraction calling to stop the war and land to the peasants with overwhelming support from the countryside - actually had a majority in the Russian population.

Vladimir Tatlin Russian artist

Vladimir Tatlin was a Ukrainian and Soviet painter and architect. With Kazimir Malevich he was one of the two most important figures in the Soviet avant-garde art movement of the 1920s, and he later became an important artist in the Constructivist movement. He is most famous for his design for The Monument to the Third International, more commonly known as Tatlin's Tower, which he began in 1919.

Constructivism (art) artistic and architectural philosophy

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin. This was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. He wanted 'to construct' art. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had a great effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements. Its influence was widespread, with major effects upon architecture, sculpture, graphic design, industrial design, theatre, film, dance, fashion and, to some extent, music.

Nonetheless, his art and his writing influenced contemporaries such as El Lissitzky, Lyubov Popova and Alexander Rodchenko, as well as generations of later abstract artists, such as Ad Reinhardt and the Minimalists. He was celebrated posthumously in major exhibits at the Museum of Modern Art (1936), the Guggenheim Museum (1973) and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam (1989), which has a large collection of his work. In the 1990s, the ownership claims of museums to many Malevich works began to be disputed by his heirs. [19]

El Lissitzky Soviet artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer and architect (1890 – 1941)

Lazar Markovich Lissitzky, known as El Lissitzky, was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect. He was an important figure of the Russian avant-garde, helping develop suprematism with his mentor, Kazimir Malevich, and designing numerous exhibition displays and propaganda works for the Soviet Union. His work greatly influenced the Bauhaus and constructivist movements, and he experimented with production techniques and stylistic devices that would go on to dominate 20th-century graphic design.

Lyubov Popova Russian artist

Lyubov Sergeyevna Popova was a Russian avant-garde artist, painter and designer.

Alexander Rodchenko Russian artist and photographer

Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko was a Russian artist, sculptor, photographer and graphic designer. He was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian design; he was married to the artist Varvara Stepanova.

Early life

Kazimir Malevich [20] was born Kazimierz Malewicz to a Polish family, [21] [22] [23] who settled near Kiev in Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire during the partitions of Poland. [18] His parents, Ludwika and Seweryn Malewicz, were Roman Catholic like most ethnic Poles, [2] though his father attended Orthodox services as well. [24] They both had fled from the former eastern territories of the Commonwealth (present-day Kopyl Region of Belarus) to Kiev in the aftermath of the failed Polish January Uprising of 1863 against the tsarist army. [25] His native language was Polish, [26] but he also spoke Ukrainian. [27] Malevich would later write a series of articles in Ukrainian about art. [24]

Kiev City with special status in Kiev City Municipality, Ukraine

Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974, making Kiev the 7th most populous city in Europe.

Kiev Governorate governorate of the Russian Empire

Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire from 1796 to 1919 and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1919 to 1925. It was formed as a governorate in the Right-bank Ukraine region following a division of the Kiev Viceroyalty into the Kiev and the Little Russia Governorates, with the administrative centre in Kiev. By the start of the 20th century it consisted of 12 uyezds, 12 cities, 111 miasteczkos and 7344 other settlements. After the October Revolution it became part of the administrative division of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1923 it was divided into several okrugs and on 6 June 1925 it was abolished by the Soviet administrative reforms.

Partitions of Poland Forced partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years. The partitions were conducted by Habsburg Austria, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures and annexations.

Kazimir's father managed a sugar factory. Kazimir was the first of fourteen children, [18] only nine of whom survived into adulthood. His family moved often and he spent most of his childhood in the villages of modern-day Ukraine, amidst sugar-beet plantations, far from centers of culture. Until age twelve he knew nothing of professional artists, although art had surrounded him in childhood. He delighted in peasant embroidery, and in decorated walls and stoves. He was able to paint in the peasant style. He studied drawing in Kiev from 1895 to 1896.

Artistic career

Party, 1908 Otdykh (Obshchestvo v tsilindrakh). 1908. GRM.png
Party, 1908
The Knifegrinder, 1912 The Knife Grinder Principle of Glittering by Kazimir Malevich.jpeg
The Knifegrinder , 1912
Black Square, 1915, oil on linen, 79.5 x 79.5 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow Kazimir Malevich, 1915, Black Suprematic Square, oil on linen canvas, 79.5 x 79.5 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.jpg
Black Square , 1915, oil on linen, 79.5 × 79.5 cm, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

From 1896 to 1904 Kazimir Malevich lived in Kursk. In 1904, after the death of his father, he moved to Moscow. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture from 1904 to 1910 and in the studio of Fedor Rerberg in Moscow. In 1911 he participated in the second exhibition of the group, Soyuz Molodyozhi (Union of Youth) in St. Petersburg, together with Vladimir Tatlin and, in 1912, the group held its third exhibition, which included works by Aleksandra Ekster, Tatlin, and others. In the same year he participated in an exhibition by the collective, Donkey's Tail in Moscow. By that time his works were influenced by Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, Russian avant-garde painters, who were particularly interested in Russian folk art called lubok . Malevich described himself as painting in a "Cubo-Futuristic" style in 1912. [29] In March 1913 a major exhibition of Aristarkh Lentulov's paintings opened in Moscow. The effect of this exhibition was comparable with that of Paul Cézanne in Paris in 1907, as all the main Russian avant-garde artists of the time (including Malevich) immediately absorbed the cubist principles and began using them in their works. Already in the same year the Cubo-Futurist opera, Victory Over the Sun , with Malevich's stage-set, became a great success. In 1914 Malevich exhibited his works in the Salon des Indépendants in Paris together with Alexander Archipenko, Sonia Delaunay, Aleksandra Ekster, and Vadim Meller, among others.[ citation needed ] Malevich also co-illustrated, with Pavel Filonov, Selected Poems with Postscript, 1907–1914 by Velimir Khlebnikov and another work by Khlebnikov in 1914 titled Roar! Gauntlets, 1908–1914, with Vladimir Burliuk. [30] [31] Later in that same year he created a series of lithographs in support of Russia’s entry into WWI. These prints, accompanied by captions by Vladimir Mayakovsky and published by the Moscow-based publication house Segodniashnii Lubok (Contemporary Lubok), on the one hand show the influence of traditional folk art, but on the other are characterised by solid blocks of pure colours juxtaposed in compositionally evocative ways that anticipate his Suprematist work. [32]

In 1911 Brocard & Co. produced an eau de cologne called Severny. Malevich conceived the advertisement and design of the packaging, with craquelure of an iceberg and a polar bear on the top, which lasted through the mid-1920s. [33]


Suprematist Composition: White on White, 1918, Museum of Modern Art, New York Kazimir Malevich - 'Suprematist Composition- White on White', oil on canvas, 1918, Museum of Modern Art.jpg
Suprematist Composition: White on White, 1918, Museum of Modern Art, New York

In 1915, Malevich laid down the foundations of Suprematism when he published his manifesto, From Cubism to Suprematism. In 1915–1916 he worked with other Suprematist artists in a peasant/artisan co-operative in Skoptsi and Verbovka village. In 1916–1917 he participated in exhibitions of the Jack of Diamonds group in Moscow together with Nathan Altman, David Burliuk, Aleksandra Ekster and others. Famous examples of his Suprematist works include Black Square (1915) [34] and White On White (1918).

A section of Suprematist works by Kazimir Malevich exhibited at the 0.10 Exhibition, Petrograd, 1915 0.10 Exhibition.jpg
A section of Suprematist works by Kazimir Malevich exhibited at the 0.10 Exhibition, Petrograd, 1915

Malevich exhibited his first Black Square, now at the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, at the Last Futurist Exhibition 0,10 in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) in 1915. [29] A black square placed against the sun appeared for the first time in the 1913 scenic designs for the Futurist opera Victory over the Sun. [29] The second Black Square was painted around 1923. Some believe that the third Black Square (also at the Tretyakov Gallery) was painted in 1929 for Malevich's solo exhibition, because of the poor condition of the 1915 square. One more Black Square, the smallest and probably the last, may have been intended as a diptych together with the Red Square (though of smaller size) for the exhibition Artists of the RSFSR: 15 Years, held in Leningrad (1932). The two squares, Black and Red, were the centerpiece of the show. This last square, despite the author's note 1913 on the reverse, is believed to have been created in the late twenties or early thirties, for there are no earlier mentions of it. [35]

In 1918, Malevich decorated a play, Mystery Bouffe , by Vladimir Mayakovskiy produced by Vsevolod Meyerhold. He was interested in aerial photography and aviation, which led him to abstractions inspired by or derived from aerial landscapes. [36]

Some Ukrainian authors argue that Malevich's Suprematism is rooted in the traditional Ukrainian culture. [37] [38]


After the October Revolution (1917), Malevich became a member of the Collegium on the Arts of Narkompros, the Commission for the Protection of Monuments and the Museums Commission (all from 1918–1919). He taught at the Vitebsk Practical Art School in Belarus (1919–1922), the Leningrad Academy of Arts (1922–1927), the Kiev State Art Institute (1927–1929), and the House of the Arts in Leningrad (1930). He wrote the book The World as Non-Objectivity, which was published in Munich in 1926 and translated into English in 1959. In it, he outlines his Suprematist theories.

In 1923, Malevich was appointed director of Petrograd State Institute of Artistic Culture, which was forced to close in 1926 after a Communist party newspaper called it "a government-supported monastery" rife with "counterrevolutionary sermonizing and artistic debauchery." The Soviet state was by then heavily promoting an idealized, propagandistic [39] style of art called Socialist Realism—a style Malevich had spent his entire career repudiating. Nevertheless, he swam with the current, and was quietly tolerated by the Communists. [40]

International recognition and banning

In 1927, Malevich traveled to Warsaw where he was given a hero's welcome. [22] There he met with artists and former students Władysław Strzemiński and Katarzyna Kobro, whose own movement, Unism, was highly influenced by Malevich. [41] He held his first foreign exhibit in the Hotel Polonia Palace. [42] From there the painter ventured on to Berlin and Munich for a retrospective which finally brought him international recognition. He arranged to leave most of the paintings behind when he returned to the Soviet Union. Malevich's assumption that a shifting in the attitudes of the Soviet authorities toward the modernist art movement would take place after the death of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky's fall from power was proven correct in a couple of years, when the government of Joseph Stalin turned against forms of abstraction, considering them a type of "bourgeois" art, that could not express social realities. As a consequence, many of his works were confiscated and he was banned from creating and exhibiting similar art.

In 1930 he was interrogated by the KGB in Leningrad, accused of Polish espionage, and threatened with execution. [27] [43] Russian art historian Irina Vakar [44] [27] [43] gained access to the artist’s criminal case and found that Malevich called himself a Ukrainian. [43] [27] He was imprisoned for three months.

Critics derided Malevich's art as a negation of everything good and pure: love of life and love of nature. The Westernizer artist and art historian Alexandre Benois was one such critic. Malevich responded that art can advance and develop for art's sake alone, saying that "art does not need us, and it never did".


When Malevich died of cancer at the age of fifty-seven, in Leningrad on 15 May 1935, his friends and disciples buried his ashes in a grave marked with a black square. They didn’t fulfill his stated wish to have the grave topped with an "architekton"—one of his skyscraper-like maquettes of abstract forms, equipped with a telescope through which visitors were to gaze at Jupiter. [45]

On his deathbed Malevich had been exhibited with the Black Square above him, and mourners at his funeral rally were permitted to wave a banner bearing a black square. [40] Malevich had asked to be buried under an oak tree on the outskirts of Nemchinovka, a place to which he felt a special bond. [46] His ashes were sent to Nemchinovka, and buried in a field near his dacha. Nikolai Suetin, a friend of Malevich’s and a fellow artist, designed a white cube with a black square to mark the burial site. The memorial was destroyed during World War II. The city of Leningrad bestowed a pension on Malevich's mother and daughter.

In 2013, an apartment block was built on the place of the tomb and burial site of Kazimir Malevich. Another nearby monument to Malevich, put up in 1988, is now also situated on the grounds of a gated community. [46]

Polish ethnicity

Malevich's family was one of the millions of Poles who lived within the Russian Empire following the Partitions of Poland. Kazimir Malevich was born near Kiev [18] on lands that had previously been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth [47] of parents who were ethnic Poles. [2]

Both Polish and Russian were native languages of Malevich, [48] who would sign his artwork in the Polish form of his name as Kazimierz Malewicz. [49] In a visa application to travel to France, Malewicz claimed Polish as his nationality. [47] French art historian Andrei Nakov, who re-established Malevich's birth year as 1879 (and not 1878), has argued for restoration of the Polish spelling of Malevich's name.

In 2013, Malevich's family in New York City and fans founded the not-for-profit The Rectangular Circle of Friends of Kazimierz Malewicz, whose dedicated goal is to promote awareness of Kazimir's Polish ethnicity. [47]

In 1985 Polish performance artist Zbigniew Warpechowski performed "Citizenship for a Pure Feeling of Kazimierz Malewicz" as an homage to the great artist and critique of Polish authorities that refused to grant Polish citizenship to Kazimir Malevich. [50]

Posthumous exhibitions

Malevich, Portrait of Mikhail Matjuschin, 1913 1913 Malevich Portrait von Mikhail Matjuschin anagoria.JPG
Malevich, Portrait of Mikhail Matjuschin, 1913

Alfred H. Barr Jr. included several paintings in the groundbreaking exhibition "Cubism and Abstract Art" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1936. In 1939, the Museum of Non-Objective Painting opened in New York, whose founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim—an early and passionate collector of the Russian avant-garde—was inspired by the same aesthetic ideals and spiritual quest that exemplified Malevich’s art. [51]

The first U.S. retrospective of Malevich's work in 1973 at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum provoked a flood of interest and further intensified his impact on postwar American and European artists. [51] However, most of Malevich’s work and the story of the Russian avant-garde remained under lock and key until Glasnost. [18] In 1989, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam held the West’s first large-scale Malevich retrospective, including its own paintings and works from the collection of Russian art critic Nikolai Khardzhiev. [18]


Malevich's works are held in several major art museums, including the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, and in New York, the Museum of Modern Art [18] and the Guggenheim Museum. The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam owns 24 Malevich paintings, more than any other museum outside of Russia. [18] Another major collection of Malevich works is held by the State Museum of Contemporary Art in Thessaloniki. [18]

Art market

Self-portrait, 1933 (detail) Kazimir Malevich, 1933, Self-portrait.png
Self-portrait, 1933 (detail)

Black Square, the fourth version of his magnum opus painted in the 1920s, was discovered in 1993 in Samara and purchased by Inkombank for US$250,000. [52] In April 2002 the painting was auctioned for an equivalent of US$1 million. The purchase was financed by the Russian philanthropist Vladimir Potanin, who donated funds to the Russian Ministry of Culture, [53] and ultimately, to the State Hermitage Museum collection. [52] According to the Hermitage website, this was the largest private contribution to state art museums since the October Revolution. [53]

On 3 November 2008 a work by Malevich entitled Suprematist Composition from 1916 set the world record for any Russian work of art and any work sold at auction for that year, selling at Sotheby's in New York City for just over US$60 million (surpassing his previous record of US$17 million set in 2000).

In May 2018, his painting Suprematist Composition sold at Christie's New York for over US$85 million (including fees), a record auction price for a Russian work of art. [54]

Original Malevich-designed frost glass bottle with craquelure for "Severny eau de cologne" (1911-1922) Malevich perfume bottle.jpg
Original Malevich-designed frost glass bottle with craquelure for "Severny eau de cologne" (1911–1922)

Malevich's life inspires many references featuring events and the paintings as players. The smuggling of Malevich paintings out of Russia is a key to the plot line of writer Martin Cruz Smith's thriller Red Square . Noah Charney's novel, The Art Thief tells the story of two stolen Malevich White on White paintings, and discusses the implications of Malevich's radical Suprematist compositions on the art world. British artist Keith Coventry has used Malevich's paintings to make comments on modernism, in particular his Estate Paintings. Malevich's work also is featured prominently in the Lars Von Trier film, Melancholia .

Selected works

† Also known as Red Square: Painterly Realism of a Peasant Woman in Two Dimensions.
†† Also known as Black Square and Red Square: Painterly Realism of a Boy with a Knapsack - Color Masses in the Fourth Dimension.

See also


  1. Russian: Казими́р Севери́нович Мале́вич [kəzʲɪˈmʲir sʲɪvʲɪˈrʲinəvʲɪtɕ mɐˈlʲevʲɪtɕ] , Polish: Kazimierz Malewicz, Ukrainian: Казимир Северинович Малевич [kazɪˈmɪr sɛwɛˈrɪnɔwɪtʃ mɑˈlɛwɪtʃ] , Belarusian: Казімер Сэвэрынавіч Малевіч [kaziˈmʲer sɛwɛrˈɪnawʲitʃ mɑˈlɛwitʃ] , German: Kasimir Malewitsch


  1. Запись о рождении в метрической книге римско-католического костёла св. Александра в Киеве, 1879 год // ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.(in Russian)
  2. 1 2 3 Milner and Malevich 1996, p. X; Néret 2003, p. 7; Shatskikh and Schwartz, p. 84.
  3. Kazimir Malevich at the Encyclopædia Britannica
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  7. Chave, Anna. Mark Rothko: Subjects in Abstraction. Yale University Press. p. 191.
  8. Hamilton, George. Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1880-1940, Volume 29. Yale University Press.
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  13. de la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, Gardner's Art Through the Ages, 7th Ed., New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980, p. 826-7.
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  16. Matthew Drutt, Kazimir Malevich, Suprematism, 2003. Catalog of an exhibition held at Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin, Jan. 14-April 27, 2003; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, May 13-Sept. 7, 2003; the Menil Collection, Houston, Oct. 3, 2003-Jan. 11, 2004
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  25. Liukkonen, Petri. "Kazimir Malevich". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 24 August 2014.
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  27. 1 2 3 4 Радіо Свобода (2019-02-23), Малевич. Український квадрат | Документальний фільм , retrieved 2019-02-23
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  29. 1 2 3 Honour, H. and Fleming, J. (2009) A World History of Art. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, pp. 794-795. ISBN   9781856695848
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  32. Marie Gasper-Hulvat, "What a Boom, What a Blast: Kazimir Malevich's War Propaganda", Print Quarterly, XXXV, no.4, December 2018, pp. 407-419 http://www.printquarterly.com/8-contents/66-contents-2018.html
  33. Alexandra Shatskikh, Translated in English by Marian Schwartz. Black Square, Malevich and the Origin of Suprematism, Malevich’s perfume bottle for the eau de cologne Severny, Page 94. Yale University Press. November 2012. ISBN   9780300140897
  34. Drutt and Malevich 2003, p. 243.
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